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Articles 1 - 13 of 13
Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences
The Effects Of Feliway On The Stress Of Cats During Veterinary Examination, Colleen Doonan
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Feliway® during veterinary examination. Feliway® contains a synthetic version of the F3 pheromone, secreted from the cheeks of Felis sylvestris catus when rubbing against objects in the environment. It is presumed to allow cats to establish a home range to feel secure. A double-blind study was conducted to address the limitations of another study that concluded Feliway® is useful for reducing stress experienced by cats during veterinary examination. The current study found that Feliway® is not useful by itself for adequate stress reduction during feline examinations. It was concluded ...
The Passive Effects Of Full-Gateway, In-Street Signs On Vehicular Speed, Dixon
Reducing motorist’s speed when approaching crosswalks is an important goal in reducing the number of collision between motorist and pedestrian in crosswalks. The current study addresses this goal. The effect of gateway installation of in-street signs (one in-street sign installed between the two travel lanes in each direction and one on both edges of the roadway in each direction) on vehicle speed was evaluated on nine roads. The results demonstrated that the Gateway in-street sign treatment produced large speed reductions as vehicles approached the crosswalk and at the crosswalk. The average speed reduction was 3.8 mph at the ...
A Systematic Comparison Of Functional Assessment Outcomes In Organizational Behavior Management, Nathan T. Bechtel
The primary purpose of this study was to compare the recommendation outcomes of two commonly utilized functional assessment tools in the field of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM): the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) and the Performance Flowchart. Recommendations made using these tools fell into one of three categories: antecedent-based, consequence-based, and uncategorized interventions. In order to assess the recommendations resulting from each of these tools, participants were trained to either (a) play the role of a manager with an organizational issue, or (b) play the role of a performance consultant. A between-groups design was utilized in which performance consultants used either ...
The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile
The Hilltop Review
Research misconduct is a widespread issue that affects the credibility of science as a discipline. While a relatively small number of researchers engage directly in research misconduct, there is a larger number of researchers that are aware of research misconduct and do not report it. This permits falsified research to be disseminated throughout the scientific community. It is important to analyze both those engaging in research misconduct as well as those that are aware. The case example of Stephen E. Breuning is used throughout the paper. Stephen E. Breuning is a scientist that engaged in research misconduct that collaborated with ...
Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...
The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson
Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...
Increasing Waiting And Turn-Taking Among Preschool Aged Children With A Verbal-Delay Diagnosis, Alexa Hill
The goal of this thesis was to create and implement an intervention that used errorless teaching and focused on increasing a sharing and waiting response for a student who had a verbal delay diagnosis. The two students involved in the project were both two-year-olds who attended an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom with other preschool-aged children who had similar diagnoses. A single-subject simple baseline design was used and involved several phases designed with multiple responses to show the effectiveness of icons to facilitate sharing among two non-verbal students. Each response was prompted (when necessary) and they were all reinforced ...
Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza
Effective supervision for individuals seeking certification from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB) has been a recent focus in the field of behavior analysis (BACB, 2012). While the organizational behavior management (OBM) literature is rich with evidence for specific performance-improvement techniques, there is a lack of research on supervision systems specifically for supervising individuals seeking to obtain the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) credential. Furthermore, studies to date have not examined what it takes for systems to meet their missional objectives while simultaneously providing training and supervision to trainees. This descriptive, process-oriented study sought to analyze the disconnects within a ...
Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle
Lovaas (1987) applied behavior analysis to the treatment of autism and demonstrated a 47% “recovery” rate. He also reported that around 10% of the population that received his services made little-to-no improvement. The present study used a response-to-intervention framework to systematically identify and treat students in an early childhood, special-education classroom who were in danger of falling within that 10%. This study set out to identify, classify, and differentiate the treatment based on the student’s response to the standard classroom intervention. Improvements in multiple students’ rates of acquisition based on this system were recorded. This indicated a possibility of ...
Web-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment And Reinforcer Assessments For Videos, Hugo Curiel
Stimulus preference assessments and reinforcer assessments are integral components of positive reinforcement-based interventions. Web-based brief multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments have recently been shown to be effective in identifying preference hierarchies for videos (Curiel, Curiel, Li, Deochand, & Poling, 2018). The purpose of the current studies was to replicate Curiel et al.’s web-based MSWO assessment and assess the reinforcing function of the highest and lowest identified stimuli using novel web-based reinforcer assessments. Study 1 employed single-operant arrangements (SOAs) and Study 2 employed concurrent-operants arrangements (COAs) to assess the absolute and relative reinforcing function of the identified stimuli, respectively. The ...
Sacrificial Dynamite: The Convergence Of Developed Empathy And Ongoing Relational Experience With God: A Grounded Theory, Toran Scott
This grounded theory study examined how participants described and reflected on their lives and what led them to choose sacrifice. The study was grounded in a Christian understanding of sacrifice, defined as the willful giving up of one’s positions or possessions for the sake of serving others. Using in-depth, open-ended interviews and follow-up interviews to co-construct meaning, participants were asked to reflect on their childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood to reflect on and describe any messages, relationships, or experiences that they thought contributed to their eventual choice to sacrifice. The interviews were free-flowing and filled with beautiful and engaging ...
Teaching Eye Contact And Responding To Name To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Amelia M. Fonger
Eye contact and responding to name may be described as behavioral cusps because acquiring these skills extends contact with the environment, can allow behavior to come under the control of new contingencies, and may facilitate the acquisition of new behavior (Bloom & Lahey, 1978; Carbone, O’Brien, Sweeney-Kerwin, & Albert, 2013; Cook et al., 2017; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007; Rosales-Ruiz & Baer, 1997; Tiegerman & Primavera, 1984; Weiss & Zane, 2010). Eye contact and responding to name are commonly cited as targets for early intensive behavioral intervention; however, the existing literature is limited in its ability to guide a practitioner’s selection of effective methods to teach these skills. This dissertation seeks to remedy this lack.
In the first study of this dissertation, we used a shaping procedure to teach three preschool-age ...
Investigating Generalization Of Motorist Yielding To The Gateway Prompt From The Treated Leg Of The Intersection To The Untreated Adjacent Leg, Brian J. Crowley-Koch
Pedestrian safety continues to be an important research topic, especially since recent data show a small increase in pedestrian fatalities (USGAO, 2015). There have been several interventions that prompt pedestrians, but especially motorists, to yield properly at uncontrolled crosswalks (Van Houten, 1988; Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992; Nasar, 2003; Crowley-Koch, Van Houten & Lim, 2008). One low-cost intervention that has been successful is the R1-6 in road yielding sign (Kannel, Souleyrette, & Tenges, 2003). When this sign is laid out purposefully across a crosswalk (called a gateway), it has resulted in substantial increases in yielding compared to baseline conditions. In addition to being an effective ...