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2012

Psychology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 139

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Detecting Structure In Glass Patterns: An Interocular Transfer Study, Dawn Vreven, Jarrod Berge Dec 2012

Detecting Structure In Glass Patterns: An Interocular Transfer Study, Dawn Vreven, Jarrod Berge

Dawn L Vreven

Glass patterns are visual stimuli used here to study how local orientation signals are spatially integrated into global pattern perception. We measured a form aftereffect from adaptation to both static and dynamic Glass patterns and calculated the amount of interocular transfer to determine the binocularity of the detectors responsible for the perception of global structure. Both static and dynamic adaptation produced significant form aftereffects and showed a very high degree of interocular transfer, suggesting that Glass-pattern perception involves cortical processing beyond primary visual cortex. Surprisingly, dynamic adaptation produced significantly greater interocular transfer than static adaptation. Our results suggest a functional ...


Deadly Paradox Of Self-Defense, Rodger E. Broome Phd Dec 2012

Deadly Paradox Of Self-Defense, Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome

Police deadly force is not intended to kill, but its purpose is to stop a violent person from hurting others. It is a desperate measure to bring someone physically under control, even at the risk of taking his or her life. In my research, the officers’ lived experience with shooting another person was paradoxical. Each shot fired by the officers was the most horrible thing they had ever done while being vital to surviving the encounters. Every bullet that hit its mark improved the likelihood that the officer would live while each bullet extinguished the life of the adversary. The ...


Increasing Positive Interactions Between Staff And Individuals With Disabilities: The Impact Of Training On Acquisition And Maintenance, Kimberly Anne Martell Dec 2012

Increasing Positive Interactions Between Staff And Individuals With Disabilities: The Impact Of Training On Acquisition And Maintenance, Kimberly Anne Martell

Dissertations

The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of direct training to increase the rate of positive interactions between direct care staff (DCS) and individuals with developmental disabilities who reside in intermediate care facilities. Specifically, this study evaluated whether real-time prompts delivered via a one-way radio would result in immediate and sustained increases in rates of DCS positive interactions. Additionally, this study evaluated the link between increased rates of DCS positive interactions and concomitant decreases in residents’ challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline design across participants was implemented to assess DCS rates of positive and negative interactions ...


Can Psychopathic Traits Contribute To Success In Adolescence? Relations Between Boldness, Meanness, Disinhibition, And Adaptive Functioning, Matthew David Guelker Dec 2012

Can Psychopathic Traits Contribute To Success In Adolescence? Relations Between Boldness, Meanness, Disinhibition, And Adaptive Functioning, Matthew David Guelker

Dissertations

Psychopathy, though frequently couched as a distinctive set of traits with violent and aggressive behavioral consequences (i.e., Hart, Kropp, & Hare, 1988; McCord & McCord, 1964; Millon & Davis, 1998), was presented in one of the original conceptualizations as a set of specific traits (i.e., emotional unresponsiveness and behavioral deviance) that could manifest as charm, confidence, and social dominance without resulting in criminality and aggression (Cleckley, 1941, 1988). More recently, Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger (2009) developed the Triarchic Conceptualization of psychopathy that differentiates underlying components of psychopathy into boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The factor structure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure was analyzed in a sample ...


Building Group Resilience: A Three-Day Curriculum, Andrew Willis Garcés Dec 2012

Building Group Resilience: A Three-Day Curriculum, Andrew Willis Garcés

Educational Specialist

Social change organizations are often exposed to stress and disruptive, potentially traumatic events. Despite this, few such groups invest time into actively cultivating resilience practices. Likewise, most existing resilience promotion initiatives are designed for use with individuals, not organizations, and lack the experience-based pedagogical approach necessary to interest many social change activists. This curriculum intervention provides a needed bridge between social change activism and resilience promotion theory. Designed as a three-day workshop, it can be used with entire organizations to support both self-awareness of their existing strengths and the development of new protective measures to boost collective resilience.


The Effects Of Replacing Dispersed Trash And Recycling Bins With Integrated Waste Receptacles On The Accuracy Of Waste Sorting In An Academic Building, Katherine J. Binder Dec 2012

The Effects Of Replacing Dispersed Trash And Recycling Bins With Integrated Waste Receptacles On The Accuracy Of Waste Sorting In An Academic Building, Katherine J. Binder

Master's Theses

Numerous researchers and theorists have attempted to explain the existence of the gap between the possession of environmental knowledge and awareness and the display of pro-environmental behavior (Glasser, 2007; Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2002). Behavior analysis is uniquely aligned to contribute to this discussion through its emphasis on the role of controlling variables in behavior change. A growing number of behavioral research studies address the challenges of group-contingencies in an effort to solve real-world gaps (Lehman & Geller, 2004). This study was designed as a continuation of the line of behavioral research designed to increase recycling rates and also as an attempt to ...


The Role Of Referentially Biased And Unbiased Contexts In The Processing Of Relative Clauses, William Battinich Dec 2012

The Role Of Referentially Biased And Unbiased Contexts In The Processing Of Relative Clauses, William Battinich

Theses and Dissertations

Two studies were conducted in order to examine the role of biased and unbiased contexts on the processing of object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs) (e.g., The child that the babysitter chased squealed with delight.) and subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) (e.g., The child that chased the babysitter squealed with delight.) In Experiment 1 ORCs and SRCs were embedded in licensing contexts that referentially supported the use of the relative clause (i.e., more than one child was present. In Experiment 2 ORCs and SRCs were embedded in context that biased towards either an ORC interpretation (e.g., One of the ...


The Relationship Of Peer Acceptance, Age, Gender, Ethnicity, And Appearance Among Preschoolers, Kora Klaire Stuffelbeam Dec 2012

The Relationship Of Peer Acceptance, Age, Gender, Ethnicity, And Appearance Among Preschoolers, Kora Klaire Stuffelbeam

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine preschool children's acceptance of peers. The term peer acceptance is defined as "the degree a child is Socially accepted or rejected by his or her peer group." Johnson et al. (2002) found children between the ages of three and five were able to develop friendships and Social skills that would impact their acceptance among peers. The study determined if children based their choice of peers according to a child's age, gender, ethnicity, appearance, and/or Social skills. The subjects of this study were 31 children whose ages were three-, four- ...


Capacity Coefficient Variations, Joseph W. Houpt, Andrew Heathcote, Ami Eidels, Nathan Medeiros-Ward, Jason Watson, David Strayer Nov 2012

Capacity Coefficient Variations, Joseph W. Houpt, Andrew Heathcote, Ami Eidels, Nathan Medeiros-Ward, Jason Watson, David Strayer

Joseph W. Houpt

The capacity coefficient has become an increasingly popular measure of efficiency under changes in workload. It has been used in applications ranging from psychophysical detection tasks to complex cognitive tasks, as well as in addressing questions in social and clinical psychology. The basic formulation compares response times to each stimulus property (or task) in isolation to response times with all stimulus properties (or tasks) at the same time. A number of variations on the basic capacity coefficient have been used, both in the experimental design and in the calculations, and many more are possible. Here we outline the theoretical reasons ...


General Recognition Theory Extended To Include Response Times: Predictions For A Class Of Parallel Systems, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend, Noah H. Silbert Nov 2012

General Recognition Theory Extended To Include Response Times: Predictions For A Class Of Parallel Systems, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend, Noah H. Silbert

Joseph W. Houpt

No abstract provided.


Psychology And The Enhancement Of Medication Adherence, Mitchell Byrne, Frank Deane Nov 2012

Psychology And The Enhancement Of Medication Adherence, Mitchell Byrne, Frank Deane

Mitchell K Byrne

This paper reports on a new approach to the enhancement of medication adherence - Medication Alliance. Medication Alliance was developed and piloted by a project team that includes Mitch Byrne as project leader, Frank Deane as research supervisor, and two consultants, Tim Coombs and Gordon Lambert. Because Medication Alliance borrows heavily from psychological principles such as functional analysis and cognitive therapy, this presentation is entitled 'Psychology and the Enhancement of Medication Adherence '. However, Medication Alliance is a non-discipline specific therapy approach that fits well within the purview of any clinician delivering psychosocial interventions. The theoretical underpinnings of the various Health Beliefs ...


Existential Cycling, Rodger E. Broome Phd Nov 2012

Existential Cycling, Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome

As I reflected on my thoughts, I reflected on my reflections while my body was hammering through the revolutions of the machine I was riding. I was feeling alive! Pulse racing, hard breathing, and beginning to sweat, I could feel myself cutting through the air as my race carved a rut through the light breeze. There is a transcendence that can be experienced when one is overcoming his or her normal human limitations. Driving power through this highly engineered piece of metal, carbon fiber, and rubber machinery to propel my body at 20 MPH down a city street is expansive ...


Sudden, Unexpected Divorce: A Family Systems Perspective On The Meanings Parents Make Of The Event, Geraldine Mary Kerr Oct 2012

Sudden, Unexpected Divorce: A Family Systems Perspective On The Meanings Parents Make Of The Event, Geraldine Mary Kerr

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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The Prevalence And Correlates Of Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, And Burnout Among Teachers Working In High-Poverty Urban Public Schools, Shannon Abraham-Cook Oct 2012

The Prevalence And Correlates Of Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, And Burnout Among Teachers Working In High-Poverty Urban Public Schools, Shannon Abraham-Cook

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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Modifying Moral Dilemma Judgments: How The Priming Of Moral Rules Modifies Responses To Moral Dilemmas, Warren Brandan Scott Oct 2012

Modifying Moral Dilemma Judgments: How The Priming Of Moral Rules Modifies Responses To Moral Dilemmas, Warren Brandan Scott

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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Forging The Link: The Role Of Photographs And Textual Self-Disclosure On Forming Facebook Friendships, Kevin Andrew Specter Oct 2012

Forging The Link: The Role Of Photographs And Textual Self-Disclosure On Forming Facebook Friendships, Kevin Andrew Specter

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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Fulfilling The Mission - Police Tactical Psychology Bulletin, Rodger E. Broome Phd Sep 2012

Fulfilling The Mission - Police Tactical Psychology Bulletin, Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome

I don’t know if it is still a stock question in hiring and promotional processes or whether it is just to cliché to use, but “why do you what to be a…” is an important question when considering one’s job choice. In the beginning, aspiring police officers and rookies who are becoming cops are driven by a motivation to become a member of something bigger than themselves.


Statistical Measures For Workload Capacity Analysis, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend Sep 2012

Statistical Measures For Workload Capacity Analysis, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend

Joseph W. Houpt

A critical component of how we understand a mental process is given by measuring the effect of varying the workload. The capacity coefficient (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995; Townsend & Wenger, 2004) is a measure on response times for quantifying changes in performance due to workload. Despite its precise mathematical foundation, until now rigorous statistical tests have been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate statistical properties of the components of the capacity measure and propose a significance test for comparing the capacity coefficient to a baseline measure or two capacity coefficients to each other.


Practitioner Responses To Dsm Categorization Of Hoarding, Megan Martins, Valerie Smith Sep 2012

Practitioner Responses To Dsm Categorization Of Hoarding, Megan Martins, Valerie Smith

Modern Psychological Studies

The Obsessive Compulsive Disorder subtype, Hoarding, is a growing topic of interest in the field of Psychology. Many researchers have debated over whether Hoarding should be categorized as a subtype of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or as its own separate disorder because of the insufficient research on Hoarding. This study sought to find out what other licensed psychologists' opinions were on the debate. Twenty one females and eight males participated in a survey that consisted of questions covering three domains: attachment, beliefs, and decision-making. This survey also included an essay question which the participants may elaborate further on what their opinions ...


Decoding Nonverbal Expressions Of Emotion Of Men And Women, Spencer Mac Adams Sep 2012

Decoding Nonverbal Expressions Of Emotion Of Men And Women, Spencer Mac Adams

Modern Psychological Studies

In this experiment participants viewed 42 images of 7 different facial expressions and asked to identify the emotion associated with the expression. Participants were separated into a control group and an experimental group. Participants in the control group were shown 21 male and 21 female expressions of the following: Anger, Sadness, Happiness, Fear, Disgust, Surprise, and a Neutral expression; each presented 3 times. The experimental group was given the same procedure with the addition of phrases that accompanied the images that were either: congruent, incongruent, or unrelated to the expression. Accurately decoding the expression was measured and factors of significance ...


None For The Money: How We Actually Make Monetary Decisions: A Literature Review, Michael C. Mullarkey, Scott Parker Sep 2012

None For The Money: How We Actually Make Monetary Decisions: A Literature Review, Michael C. Mullarkey, Scott Parker

Modern Psychological Studies

Often, critics of academic scholarship point to the failure of academic findings translating to practical applications. This paper tackles an issue that most people deal with every single day, how to make smart decisions with their money. The literature scrutinizing the psychology of monetary decisions is vast. However, in a literature so comprehensive it can be easy to miss the forest for all the trees. By returning primarily to two authors who did much of the foundational research on the subject and expanding upon their work, this paper examines the overwhelming prevalence, causes, and future implications of irrational monetary decision ...


Modified Administration Of The Wais-Iv For Visually Impaired Examiners: A Validity Study, Amy Pitchforth Sep 2012

Modified Administration Of The Wais-Iv For Visually Impaired Examiners: A Validity Study, Amy Pitchforth

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Opportunities in all areas of life including education, vocation, and access to general information have historically been slower for minorities. The visually impaired have continued to struggle with access to education, equal opportunities at work, and access to general information. Significantly fewer blind and visually impaired individuals pursue graduate education with the most commonly pursued graduate degree being psychology (American Federation for the Blind, 2010). A core area of graduate training [defined by the American Psychological Association (APA)] is declarative knowledge, which is not accessible for the visually impaired student for neurological assessments (Johnson-Greene, Braden, Dial, Fitzpatrick, Leung, Schneider, & Willis ...


Rate And Frequency Of Demands On Children With Autism, Colton Cassanelli, Timothy Piskura, Valerie Smith Sep 2012

Rate And Frequency Of Demands On Children With Autism, Colton Cassanelli, Timothy Piskura, Valerie Smith

Modern Psychological Studies

Applied Behavior Analytic (ABA) intervention seeks to improve deficits in children with autism by providing multiple planned opportunities for learners to develop and practice skills that are useful to them, and are effective alternatives to less acceptable behaviors. Throughout a given day, teachers give instruction to children. While the rate and frequency of these instructions occur in high numbers, there is little literature on just how often they occur. This project sought to find out the frequency of demands in one-hour increments for ten children in a behavior analytic school setting, and to test for differences between male and female ...


The Difficulties Of Psychologcal Adjustment For Female Rape Victims: A Literature Review, Jackie Castille, Carolyn Barry Sep 2012

The Difficulties Of Psychologcal Adjustment For Female Rape Victims: A Literature Review, Jackie Castille, Carolyn Barry

Modern Psychological Studies

In this literature review we explore the various factors that can affect how well college-aged female rape victims adjust psychologically following a rape incident. Such factors include the following: how a victim cognitively labels the incident (i.e., as rape or something else); society's reaction to the victim's story, and subsequent identification of the victim as stigmatized or not; the prevalence of rape myths that impact stigmatization; and the presence of a support system in the form of friends who are willing to listen receptively to the victim. These factors together affect how well a victim is able ...


Participation In A Priming Task Predicts Persistence, Brandi L. Dilgard, Cassandra G. Mosely, Melissa D. Welch, Jessica L. Bates Sep 2012

Participation In A Priming Task Predicts Persistence, Brandi L. Dilgard, Cassandra G. Mosely, Melissa D. Welch, Jessica L. Bates

Modern Psychological Studies

Though previously considered to be a relatively stable factor, emerging research suggests that optimism may be manipulated. Since research suggests a link between optimism and task persistence, the manipulation of optimism may result in greater task persistence. This paper describes two experiments. In both experiments, researchers examined whether participants primed for optimism persisted longer on a difficult anagram-solving task than did participants who were not primed for optimism. Experiment 1 used a future thinking task to prime optimism, whereas Experiment 2 used a scrambled sentences task to prime optimism. Results suggested a trend for participants primed for optimism to persist ...


Self And Peer-Ratings Of Self-Esteem And Cardiovascular Reactivity To Laboratory Stressors In Cadets, Samantha D. Price, Kaitlin M. Harrison, Alex D. Green, Keith A. Kline Sep 2012

Self And Peer-Ratings Of Self-Esteem And Cardiovascular Reactivity To Laboratory Stressors In Cadets, Samantha D. Price, Kaitlin M. Harrison, Alex D. Green, Keith A. Kline

Modern Psychological Studies

Past research has indicated that self-esteem has multiple dimensions. It has been suggested that defensive high self-esteem makes one vulnerable to ego-threat and might be reflected in discrepancies between peer- and self-ratings. The purpose of this study was to observe how self- and peer-rated self-esteem affect cardiovascular reactivity to ego-threatening stressors (cold pressor and toughness-challenging interview) in nineteen military college cadets. High/low groups of self-esteem were formed based on peer- and self-ratings. Cadets in the low self-rating group showed evidence of a mixed (myocardial and vascular) response; cadets in the high peer-rating group showed higher myocardial and lower vascular ...


The Journey Of Imagery In Relation To Post Traumatic Stress (Ptsd) Treatment: A Literature Review, Jamie E. Rains Sep 2012

The Journey Of Imagery In Relation To Post Traumatic Stress (Ptsd) Treatment: A Literature Review, Jamie E. Rains

Modern Psychological Studies

This purpose of this paper is to review the literature on imagery as it relates to the treatment of nightmares as a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper introduces the dire need for nightmare related PTSD treatments. Furthermore, it describes why imagery exposure works, why it should be used to treat PTSD related nightmares, and this paper will introduce proposed further research that has been influenced by the literature reviewed


Predicting Psychological Mindedness: Anxiety And Attachment Styles, Kara Owens, Tracy A. Prout Sep 2012

Predicting Psychological Mindedness: Anxiety And Attachment Styles, Kara Owens, Tracy A. Prout

Modern Psychological Studies

Psychological mindedness (PM) has been studied primarily as a psychotherapy-related variable. There is a limited and inconclusive body of research exploring the relationship between PM and developmental constructs like attachment style. Additionally, there is a limited and contradictory body of research regarding the relationship between PM and various types of anxiety. This study explored the relationships between PM, anxiety, and attachment style. Significant negative relationships were found between PM and three types of anxiety (state, trait, and social). Significant inverse relationships were found between PM and anxious and avoidant attachment to peers, mother, and father. Trait anxiety and avoidant attachment ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Narcissism And Forgiveness Of Imagined Relationship Identity In College Students, Stephanie J. Ball, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii Sep 2012

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Narcissism And Forgiveness Of Imagined Relationship Identity In College Students, Stephanie J. Ball, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii

Modern Psychological Studies

In this study, participants = 74) read a scenario about an imaginary romantic partner cheating on him/her by having sex with someone else and responded to a short survey concerned with infidelity forgiveness and a measure of narcissism. The method of how the infidelity was revealed to the victim was manipulated between participants. A high narcissism score was predicted to be indicative of a low forgiveness score regardless of the method of infidelity discovery. A significant main effect was predicted in the infidelity discovery method; specifically that unsolicited partner discovery will be more likely to be forgiven than "redhanded" discovery ...


Front Matter Sep 2012

Front Matter

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.