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2012

Gender

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Midwest Or Lesbian? Gender, Rurality, And Sexuality, Emily Kazyak Dec 2012

Midwest Or Lesbian? Gender, Rurality, And Sexuality, Emily Kazyak

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Research suggests a gendered dimension to the geography of sexual minorities, as gay couples are more likely to live in cities than are lesbian couples. Using data from 60 interviews with rural gays and lesbians, this article employs an intersectional analysis of the mutually constitutive relationships among place, gender, and sexuality in order to assess how acceptance of gays and lesbians in small towns is gendered. Findings indicate that femininity aligns with gay sexuality but not rurality. In contrast, masculinity underpins both the categories “rural” and “lesbian.” Furthermore, both lesbian women and gay men gain acceptance in rural areas by ...


Sex Differences And Within-Family Associations In The Broad Autism Phenotype, Jessica Klusek, M Losh, G Martin Nov 2012

Sex Differences And Within-Family Associations In The Broad Autism Phenotype, Jessica Klusek, M Losh, G Martin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Gender Equality And Social Cohesion : Reflection On The Experiences Of Strengthening Teacher Education In Pakistan, Dilshad Ashraf, Kausar Waqar Nov 2012

Gender Equality And Social Cohesion : Reflection On The Experiences Of Strengthening Teacher Education In Pakistan, Dilshad Ashraf, Kausar Waqar

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Widening The Social Context Of Disablement Among Married Older Adults: Considering The Role Of Nonmarital Relationships For Loneliness, David F. Warner, Scott A. Adams Nov 2012

Widening The Social Context Of Disablement Among Married Older Adults: Considering The Role Of Nonmarital Relationships For Loneliness, David F. Warner, Scott A. Adams

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Utilizing the stress process and life course perspectives, we investigated the influence of non-spousal social support on the associations between marital quality, physical disability, and loneliness among married older adults. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we found that the association between physical disability and loneliness was partially accounted for by the fact that physical disability was associated with less supportive nonmarital relationships. While physically-disabled older adults in higher-quality marriages were buffered from loneliness, supportive non-martial relationships did not offset elevated loneliness among those in low-quality marriages. These associations were largely similar for men ...


Brazen (Fall 2012), Hollins University Oct 2012

Brazen (Fall 2012), Hollins University

Brazen - Gender & Women's Studies Department Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Gender Intersections And Environmental Concern, Carmel E. Price, Stephanie A. Bohon Sep 2012

Gender Intersections And Environmental Concern, Carmel E. Price, Stephanie A. Bohon

CSSJ Working Papers

The work presented here provides an exploration into the complexities of gender when considered in conjunction with other socio-demographic variables. Our goal is to look at how gender moderates several socio-demographic characteristics (age, race, class, education, political orientation, residence, marital status, number of children, religious beliefs, and scientific knowledge) as these characteristics predict several measures of environmental concern. Previous researchers suggest that inconsistencies in findings regarding gender as a predictor of environmental concern are largely due to differences in question wording and the various types of environmental concern that can be measured. We do not disagree that the framing of ...


Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman Sep 2012

Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Extensive research dealing with gender-based perceptions of fear of crime has generally found that women express greater levels of fear compared to men. Further, studies have found that women engage in more self-protective behaviors in response to fear of crime, as well as have different levels of confidence in government efficacy relative to men. The majority of these studies have focused on violent and property crime; little research has focused on gender-based perceptions of the threat of bioterrorism. Using data from a national survey conducted by ABC News / Washington Post, this study contrasted perceptions of safety and fear in response ...


Slides: Meeting The Needs Of Women Through Clean Cooking Solutions, Corinne Hart Sep 2012

Slides: Meeting The Needs Of Women Through Clean Cooking Solutions, Corinne Hart

2012 Energy Justice Conference and Technology Exposition (September 17-18)

Presenter: Corinne Hart, Program Manager, Gender and Markets, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves

20 slides


Marriage As A Mechanism: Women’S Education And Wealth In Malawi, Sarah Spell, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler Sep 2012

Marriage As A Mechanism: Women’S Education And Wealth In Malawi, Sarah Spell, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Research has found that in the United States women have greater economic returns to a college degree than men, because of more stable marriages and other family income. Using cross-sectional data of women aged 19-40 years in Malawi from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (n = 898), we test whether higher education is associated with these same benefits in a context with lower educational attainment levels, fewer job opportunities, and different marriage patterns. We find that better educated women are more likely to have better educated spouses and higher household wealth. Though divorce is negatively associated with wealth ...


Unexpected Winners: The Significance Of An Open-List System On Women’S Representation In Poland, Sheri L. Kunovich Jun 2012

Unexpected Winners: The Significance Of An Open-List System On Women’S Representation In Poland, Sheri L. Kunovich

Sociology Research

Scholars have debated the impact of open-list systems on women's representation. While some argue that open lists provide a unique opportunity for voters to overcome parties' bias against women, others argue that they create additional barriers. I examine several mechanisms that impact women's representation within Poland's open-list system. Results suggest that 1) voters shift women's original list placements positively across all parties over three elections; 2) these shifts are more pronounced when women's overall presence on the list and list placement are lower, regardless of party; and 3) positive shifts often result in the election ...


Dimensions Of Individuals' Judgements About Sexual Attraction, Romantic Attachment, And Sexual Orientation, Luis F. Morales Knight Jun 2012

Dimensions Of Individuals' Judgements About Sexual Attraction, Romantic Attachment, And Sexual Orientation, Luis F. Morales Knight

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Despite 150 years of scientific interest in sexual orientation, contemporary investigators grapple with a number of serious difficulties. A precise, unified definition of sexual orientation appropriate for scientific use continues to elude researchers, most likely because there is still no single coherent theory of sexual orientation. This lack impedes research into the measurement of sexual orientation. Existing measurements of sexual orientation rely on partial or incompletely empirical research. The present study identified promising avenues for development of credible definitions, theories, and measurements of sexual orientation: (a) mate-selection tasks; (b) the idea that bisexually-identified individuals place a lower priority on partner ...


Gender, Social Bond, And Academic Cheating In Japan, Emiko Kobayashi, Miyuki Fukushima May 2012

Gender, Social Bond, And Academic Cheating In Japan, Emiko Kobayashi, Miyuki Fukushima

Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications

There is evidence that females are less likely to cheat than males on college campuses. A frequently offered but still untested explanation is that females, with a stronger sense of responsibility for the maintenance of social relationships, tend to develop a stronger bond to a conventional society—a key explanatory concept in Hirschi’s (1969) social control theory. With academic cheating as the dependent variable, we test the hypotheses that the four elements of social bond are the intervening variables linking gender to such dishonesty among Japanese students who, due to their stronger orientation toward masculinity on Hofstede’s (1980 ...


Deciphering A Duality: Understanding Conflicting Standards In Sex & Violence Censorship In U.S. Obscenity Law, Rushabh P. Bhakta May 2012

Deciphering A Duality: Understanding Conflicting Standards In Sex & Violence Censorship In U.S. Obscenity Law, Rushabh P. Bhakta

Political Science Honors Projects

This research examines the division in US obscenity law that enables strict sex censorship while overlooking violence. By investigating the social and legal development of obscenity in US culture, I argue that the contemporary duality in obscenity censorship standards arose from a family of forces consisting of faith, economy, and identity in early American history. While sexuality ingrained itself in American culture as a commodity in need of regulation, violence was decentralized from the state and proliferated. This phenomenon led to a prioritization of suppressing sexual speech over violent speech. This paper traces the emergence this duality and its source.


The Impact Of Reporter Gender On Print News Coverage Of The 2008 Dole-Hagan U.S. Senate Race In North Carolina, Courtney Hunt Munther May 2012

The Impact Of Reporter Gender On Print News Coverage Of The 2008 Dole-Hagan U.S. Senate Race In North Carolina, Courtney Hunt Munther

Theses from the College of Journalism and Mass Communications

Four reporters covered the 2008 U.S. Senate race between Republican incumbent Elizabeth Dole and Democrat challenger Kay Hagan – two male and two female – all of whom worked for the same news organization. This study analyzed the coverage the four reporters produced about the Dole-Hagan race, looking specifically at story structure, topic selection, descriptive language used, tone and source selection. Due to study limitations, no clear relationships were established between reporter gender and the news coverage of the Dole-Hagan race that reporters produced.

Advisor: John Bender


The Failing ‘Mental’ Health System Has It Roots In Anglo-Saxon Conceptions Of ‘Normality’ And ‘Deviance’. Is It Time For An Indigenous Irish Replacement?, Darach Murphy Apr 2012

The Failing ‘Mental’ Health System Has It Roots In Anglo-Saxon Conceptions Of ‘Normality’ And ‘Deviance’. Is It Time For An Indigenous Irish Replacement?, Darach Murphy

Conference papers

Indigenous psychologies can be defined as the scientific study of human behaviour (or the mind) that is native, that is not transported from other regions, and that is designed for its people. However within contemporary Irish mental health settings the language, concepts and methods of psychological investigation originate from Anglo-Saxon and Protestant culture which were first transported to Ireland during colonial times. Furthermore many authors have described a link between the ‘scientific’ furnishing of deviant behaviour categories and the non-scientific but wealth generating business of conquest. As a perceived negative trajectory in the ‘mental health’ of Irish men juxtaposes with ...


Resolving Communication Deficits Contributing To The ‘Crisis In Men’S Health’. Is It ‘Get Men Talking’ Or ‘Get Listening To Men’?, Darach Murphy Apr 2012

Resolving Communication Deficits Contributing To The ‘Crisis In Men’S Health’. Is It ‘Get Men Talking’ Or ‘Get Listening To Men’?, Darach Murphy

Conference papers

Men die significantly younger than women and also die more frequently from all the leading causes of death than their female counterparts. These and other figures would suggest that irrespective of the state of health in general, male health is surely in bad shape. Women’s health is positioned as superior to men because of their greater contact with health facilities and their greater cooperation and compliance with health professionals. Hence men are encouraged to ‘take a leaf out of the female book’ and adopt the health behaviours of their female counterparts.

It is due to a random mutation – evolution ...


Brazen (Spring 2012), Hollins University Apr 2012

Brazen (Spring 2012), Hollins University

Brazen - Gender & Women's Studies Department Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Superstars And Misfits: Two Pop-Trends In The Gender Culture Of Contemporary Evangelicalism, Kelsy Burke, Amy Mcdowell Apr 2012

Superstars And Misfits: Two Pop-Trends In The Gender Culture Of Contemporary Evangelicalism, Kelsy Burke, Amy Mcdowell

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

This paper examines gender in two forms of mediated contemporary Protestant evangelicalism in the United States: a male-dominated punk network, called Misfits United, and a women’s group studying Beth Moore’s Bible study, It’s Tough Being a Woman (ITBAW). While the appearance and performance styles of these two groups are drastically different, both support gender hierarchies in similar ways. Misfits United and Moore’s ITBAW present the gender of their Christian God as flexible, even transformative, and in effect open up discursive space to conceptualize gender on non-traditional grounds. Paradoxically, however, both reinforce traditional gender roles by emphasizing ...


Reading Between The Lines: Gender Perception Of Lean Media, Jennalee Conner Apr 2012

Reading Between The Lines: Gender Perception Of Lean Media, Jennalee Conner

Masters Theses

Over the years, communication methods have evolved from face-to-face conversations to computer-mediated communication including: e-mail, instant message, and text message interactions. Since the methods have changed, a large aspect of communication, nonverbal cues, have become nearly impossible. These methods of communication that lack nonverbal cues are therefore referred to as lean media because they lack the richness of facial expression, vocal expression, and immediacy. In order to modify more recent forms of communication to include nonverbal cues, individuals have created their own nonverbal cues. While each individual is unique, though, genders normally tend to think or behave in similar fashion ...


Relationships Between Educators' Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, And Administrators' Gender, Stephanie Potter Apr 2012

Relationships Between Educators' Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, And Administrators' Gender, Stephanie Potter

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to examine the differences between teachers' mean job satisfaction scores based on the administrators' gender and examine the relationship between the administrators' gender and teachers' organizational commitment plans in Tennessee middle schools. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment was measured by the Tennessee Teaching, Empowering, Leading and Learning (TELL) Survey that was administered online and completed by Tennessee teachers voluntarily and anonymously. A stratified random selection of schools based on the administrator's gender (female, n = 85; male, n = 85) was selected (N = 170) from those achieving the predetermined response criteria of 50 ...


A Values Comparison Of Liberty University Freshmen, Steve R. Vandegriff Apr 2012

A Values Comparison Of Liberty University Freshmen, Steve R. Vandegriff

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

There has been debate over generally accepted values, not only in the context of education, but also within the context of those who are considered people of faith. This study is an investigation to determine if there are any differences between the two contexts, with responses being drawn from students enrolled in a required introductory university course on the campus of a Christian university. The variables of this study will be gender and ethnicity, giving a picture of student values, prior to being influenced by university pedagogy. A survey was made available by Hogan Assessments, self-titled as Motives, Values Preferences ...


I'M Ok, You're Not: Assessing Variable Influence On Perceptions Of The Mentally Ill Among College Students, Phillip Wagner Apr 2012

I'M Ok, You're Not: Assessing Variable Influence On Perceptions Of The Mentally Ill Among College Students, Phillip Wagner

Masters Theses

Due to the alarming level of stigma associated with individuals with a mental illness, this present study seeks to understand the variables that influence perceptions of the mentally ill. The research questions for this study are as follows: RQ1: What are the latitudes of acceptance, rejection and non-commitment that college students identify in their perceptions of the mental health community?, RQ2: Does gender influence college student perceptions of the mentally ill?, and RQ3: Does the level of religious involvement that college students identify correlate to their perceptions of the mentally ill? The 257 participants completed an online survey that assessed ...


Contextualizing The Global Nursing Care Chain: International Migration And The Status Of Nursing In Kerala, India, Margaret Walton-Roberts Mar 2012

Contextualizing The Global Nursing Care Chain: International Migration And The Status Of Nursing In Kerala, India, Margaret Walton-Roberts

International Migration Research Centre

In this article I explore the issue of nursing status in Kerala, India and how over time a colonial discourse of caste‐based pollution has given way to a discourse of sexual pollution under expanding migratory opportunities. Based on survey and qualitative research findings, I caution that the improving occupational status of nursing in India is not directly mapped onto social status, and this is particularly evident in the matrimonial market. In the light of these findings I argue that global nursing care chain (GNCC) analysis must assess more than just workplace contexts in order to conceptualize how global care ...


Contextualizing The Global Nursing Care Chain: International Migration And The Status Of Nursing In Kerala, India, Margaret Walton-Roberts Mar 2012

Contextualizing The Global Nursing Care Chain: International Migration And The Status Of Nursing In Kerala, India, Margaret Walton-Roberts

Geography and Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

In this article I explore the issue of nursing status in Kerala, India and how over time a colonial discourse of caste‐based pollution has given way to a discourse of sexual pollution under expanding migratory opportunities. Based on survey and qualitative research findings, I caution that the improving occupational status of nursing in India is not directly mapped onto social status, and this is particularly evident in the matrimonial market. In the light of these findings I argue that global nursing care chain (GNCC) analysis must assess more than just workplace contexts in order to conceptualize how global care ...


Gender Identity, Ethnic Identity, And Smoking Among First Nations Adolescents, Lorraine Greaves, Joy Johnson, Annie Qu, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Natalie Hemsing, Lucy Barney Mar 2012

Gender Identity, Ethnic Identity, And Smoking Among First Nations Adolescents, Lorraine Greaves, Joy Johnson, Annie Qu, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Natalie Hemsing, Lucy Barney

Nursing Faculty Publications

Smoking rates among Aboriginal adolescents are the highest of any population group in British Columbia, Canada. Recent studies suggest that substance use is affected by gender and ethnic identity among youth. The purpose of our study was to explore the association of gender and ethnic identity with smoking behaviour among First Nations adolescents. This study is based on a convenience sample (i.e., an on-hand, readily available sample) of 124 youth (123 First Nations and 1 Métis) recruited at youth drop-in centres, health fairs, and cultural activities. We obtained information on demographics, smoking history, Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), composite ...


Causal Effects Of Single-Sex Schools On College Entrance Exams And College Attendance: Random Assignment In Seoul High Schools, Hyunjoon Park, Jere R. Behrman, Jaesung Choi Jan 2012

Causal Effects Of Single-Sex Schools On College Entrance Exams And College Attendance: Random Assignment In Seoul High Schools, Hyunjoon Park, Jere R. Behrman, Jaesung Choi

PSC Working Paper Series

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul, the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools, to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. Attending all-boys schools or ...


"Spectacular Opacities": The Hyers Sisters' Performances Of Respectability And Resistance, Jocelyn Buckner Jan 2012

"Spectacular Opacities": The Hyers Sisters' Performances Of Respectability And Resistance, Jocelyn Buckner

Theatre Faculty Articles and Research

This essay analyzes the Hyers Sisters, a Reconstruction-era African American sister act, and their radical efforts to transcend social limits of gender, class, and race in their early concert careers and three major productions, Out of Bondage and Peculiar Sam, or The Underground Railroad, two slavery-to-freedom epics, and Urlina, the African Princess, the first known African American play set in Africa. At a time when serious, realistic roles and romantic plotlines featuring black actors were nearly nonexistent due to the country’s appetite for stereotypical caricatures, the Hyers Sisters used gender passing to perform opposite one another as heterosexual lovers ...


Gender, Culture And Intervention: Exploring Differences Between Aboriginal And Non-Aboriginal Children’S Responses To An Early Intervention Programme, Gary W. Robinson, William B. Tyler, Sven R. Silburn, Stephen R. Zubrick Jan 2012

Gender, Culture And Intervention: Exploring Differences Between Aboriginal And Non-Aboriginal Children’S Responses To An Early Intervention Programme, Gary W. Robinson, William B. Tyler, Sven R. Silburn, Stephen R. Zubrick

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

Evaluation of a group parenting programme in the Northern Territory of Australia showed significant differences in benefits for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal boys and girls. The analysis considers whether boys and girls from different cultural backgrounds present with different problems; whether parental expectations for boys and girls differ and whether the intervention activates different responses in different settings. Conclusions suggest that there is a need to closely examine the ‘cultural logic’ of interventions, the appropriateness of their assumptions about child development and hypothesised mechanisms of change in different settings.


Women's Legal History Symposium Introduction: Making History, Felice J. Batlan Jan 2012

Women's Legal History Symposium Introduction: Making History, Felice J. Batlan

All Faculty Scholarship

This essay introduces the Chicago-Kent Symposium on Women's Legal History: A Global Perspective. It seeks to situate the field of women's legal history and to explore what it means to begin writing a transnational women's history which transcends and at times disrupts the nation state. In doing so, it sets forth some of the fundamental premises of women's legal history and points to new ways of writing such histories.


Performance-Support Bias And The Gender Pay Gap Among Stockbrokers, Janice F. Madden Jan 2012

Performance-Support Bias And The Gender Pay Gap Among Stockbrokers, Janice F. Madden

PSC Working Paper Series

Organizational mechanisms, and their contexts, leading to gender inequality among stockbrokers in two large brokerages are analyzed. Inequality is the result of gender differences in sales, as both firms use performance-based pay, paying entirely by commissions. This paper develops and tests whether performance-support bias, whereby women receive inferior sales support and sales assignments, causes the commissions gap. Newly available data on the brokerages’ internal transfers of accounts among brokers allows measurement of performance-support bias. Gender differences in the quality and quantity of transferred accounts provide a way to measure gender differences in the assignment of sales opportunities and support. Sales ...