Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

An Economic Theory Of Discrimination, Nadeem Naqvi Oct 2012

An Economic Theory Of Discrimination, Nadeem Naqvi

Nadeem Naqvi

Discrimination involves rewarding or penalizing persons based on their respective social identities rather than on their merits or qualifications. All explanations of discrimination, including contributions in Becker (1957) and Akerlof and Kranton (2000), ascribe a utility function to each individual. This is deeply problematic, because I prove that assigning to individuals binary preferences or their utility function representations entails the impossibility of interpersonal social-identity diversification, rendering all persons in society indistinguishable by identity. Instead, I identify individuals with non-binary preferences, and prove the existence of endogenous social diversification in a Pareto optimal state that exhibits discrimination.


Gender Disparity In Human Capital: Going Beyond Schooling, Mohammad Amin, Khrystyna Kushnir L. Sep 2012

Gender Disparity In Human Capital: Going Beyond Schooling, Mohammad Amin, Khrystyna Kushnir L.

Mohammad Amin

The paper contributes to the literature on gender-based disparity in human capital by extending existing results on educational attainment to the number of years of experience that top female and male managers have. For a sample of 71 developing countries, results show that the number of years of experience for female managers is significantly lower, equaling 83-86 percent that of their male counterparts. This gender-based difference is particularly large among young firms, but small an insignificant among older firms.


Gender Discrimination And Quality Of Life: A Perspective Of The Health Care Delivery In Zuba District, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, Tanimu T. Zakariah, Esther Englama Sep 2012

Gender Discrimination And Quality Of Life: A Perspective Of The Health Care Delivery In Zuba District, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, Tanimu T. Zakariah, Esther Englama

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

The study seeks to find out the reasons for gender discrimination in health care service provision having established that gender discrimination exists in the area. The paper also examines the implications and the impact of this discrimination on the quality of life in the area. The instrument used to generate data for the study was the questionnaire two hundred questionnaire copies were administered by the researchers with the help of the research assistant. The data generated were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation, while the hypothesis was tested with student, t-test. It was discovered that women are discriminated in ...


The Female-Firm Under-Performance Hypothesis And Gender Disparity In The Laws, Mohammad Amin Jun 2012

The Female-Firm Under-Performance Hypothesis And Gender Disparity In The Laws, Mohammad Amin

Mohammad Amin

Using firm-level data on developing countries, the present paper explores and extends the well-known female-firm under-performance hypothesis. Using firm-size as the measure of performance, we contribute to the literature in three important ways. First, in contrast to existing studies that focus on the gender of the owner(s), we focus on the gender of the top manager of the firm. Hence, a new dimension of female vs. male-firms is suggested. Second, we argue that the gender-based difference in firm-size in favor of men need not be uniform across countries. Specifically, we argue that it is likely to be larger in ...


Flexible Work Schedule, Child Care And Female Employment In Developing Countries: Evidence Using Firm-Level Data, Mohammad Amin Apr 2012

Flexible Work Schedule, Child Care And Female Employment In Developing Countries: Evidence Using Firm-Level Data, Mohammad Amin

Mohammad Amin

Using newly available data on whether a country gives additional legal rights or not for flexible or part-time work schedule to employees with minor children, we analyze the impact of such provision in the law on female employment. For a representative sample of manufacturing firms in 57 developing countries, we find that the stated provision in the law has a large positive effect on the employment of females. Specifically, on the conservative side, the provision in the law increases the proportion of females in the workforce by 7.7 percentage points, a large effect given that on average females constitute ...


Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, And Course Selection: Evidence From Rule-Based Student Assignments In Trinidad And Tobago, C. Kirabo Jackson Feb 2012

Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, And Course Selection: Evidence From Rule-Based Student Assignments In Trinidad And Tobago, C. Kirabo Jackson

C. Kirabo Jackson

Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases because students who attend single-sex schools differ in unmeasured ways from those who do not. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and estimate the causal effect of attending a single-sex school versus a similar coeducational school. While students (particularly females) with strong expressed preferences for single-sex schools benefit, most students perform no better at single-sex schools. Girls at single-sex-schools take fewer sciences courses and more traditionally female subjects.


Contemporary Innovation And Entrepreneurship Concepts, Journal Of Entrepreneurship, Management And Innovation, Vol. 8, Issue 4, Anna Ujwary-Gil Jan 2012

Contemporary Innovation And Entrepreneurship Concepts, Journal Of Entrepreneurship, Management And Innovation, Vol. 8, Issue 4, Anna Ujwary-Gil

Anna Ujwary-Gil

This collection of articles constitutes an important review of innovativeness concepts in micro and macro perspectives and innovation capital measurement as well as organizational learning, modeling and problem-solving, age management or female entrepreneurship. Employees and their innovative behavior are of crucial importance for the organization’s market success. The article provided by researchers from HIVA- KULeuven and CESO-KULeuven contributed to the discussion on how organizations can become more learning and flexible through innovative involvement of their employees. The research also emphasized the significance of distinguishing between various categories of employees (blue versus white-collar workers) in the context of variables used ...


Of Coyotes, Cooperation, And Capital: Social Capital And Women’S Migration At The Margins Of The State, Anna O. Oleary Jan 2012

Of Coyotes, Cooperation, And Capital: Social Capital And Women’S Migration At The Margins Of The State, Anna O. Oleary

Anna Ochoa OLeary

Examined here are some of the tenets of social capital in the context of the migrants’ crossing the U.S.-Mexico border without official authorization. Using this context helps identify how social capital development is weakened by the structural and gendered dimensions of migration, contributing to the rise in undocumented border crosser deaths since 1993.


Mixed Immigration Status Households In The Context Of Arizona’S Anti-Immigrant Policies, Anna O. Oleary, Azucena Sanchez Jan 2012

Mixed Immigration Status Households In The Context Of Arizona’S Anti-Immigrant Policies, Anna O. Oleary, Azucena Sanchez

Anna Ochoa OLeary

Although the seeds of legislated restrictions for immigrants can be traced to 1986 with California’s unsuccessful Prop 187, more recent trends epitomized by Arizona’s proposed Senate Bill 1070, signed by that state’s governor in April, 2010, have renewed concerns about the effects that such measures will have on the life and livelihood of communities that include immigrants present in the country without official authorization (“undocumented immigrants”). In this paper we use some of the results of a binational study of reproductive health care strategies to show how emerging anti-immigrant policies neglect how such policies impact mixed immigration ...


Gender Disparity In Laws And Female Employment, Mohammad Amin Jan 2012

Gender Disparity In Laws And Female Employment, Mohammad Amin

Mohammad Amin

In a large sample of firms in 66 developing countries, it is shown that gender specific disparity in the laws favoring males over females tends to lower the employment of females relative to males at the firm level. However, this relationship between gender disparity in laws and employment is driven by small and medium firms, and it does not hold for the sample of large firms. However, the relationship holds equally in rich vs. poor countries, small vs. large cities within countries and among firms with and without female owners. We also confirm a sharp negative effect of gender disparity ...


Responding To Spousal Violence: Does Gender Matter?, Hong Xiao, Jeanne Blackburn Jan 2012

Responding To Spousal Violence: Does Gender Matter?, Hong Xiao, Jeanne Blackburn

Hong Xiao

Research on domestic violence has documented a persistent gender difference in partner violence; men are more likely than women to be violent and male aggression is viewed more negatively than female aggression. Yet few studies have explained why this is the case. In this paper, we explore the sources of this gender difference in the perceptions of partner aggression. Using a vignette describing a violent episode between a heterosexual couple, we assess the mediating effect of perceived level of danger on spousal aggression. Findings suggest there are significant differences in perceptions based on gender of perpetrators and gender of respondents ...