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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

European Strategies For Energy Security In The Natural Gas Market, Boyka M. Stefanova Oct 2012

European Strategies For Energy Security In The Natural Gas Market, Boyka M. Stefanova

Journal of Strategic Security

This article examines the European Union's (EU) approach to energy security on the example of its natural gas imports from Russia, the largest supplier of gas to European markets. Two major projects, Nord Stream in the Northern and Western part of the EU, and Nabucco in South-Central Europe, demonstrate opposing energy security strategies, seemingly at odds with the EU objective of achieving energy independence from Russia. The question arises: Are these strategies sustainable? How can they be reconciled and pursued under a common policy? The main argument is that such conflicting sub-regional policy initiatives are amenable to progressive realignment ...


The Strategic Implications Of China's Rare Earths Policy, Shane Bilsborough Oct 2012

The Strategic Implications Of China's Rare Earths Policy, Shane Bilsborough

Journal of Strategic Security

Drawing on literature in China studies, strategic theory, and expert interviews, this article analyzes the possibility of "rare earths" being leveraged by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in a crisis. The evidence suggests China's position in the rare earths market could constitute a significant security liability for the United States. It also seems that even if coercion fails to materialize, China's rare earths policies have the potential to intensify security dilemmas in Sino-American relations.


The 2011 Mena Revolutions: A Study In U.S. Energy (In)Security, Jessie Rumsey Oct 2012

The 2011 Mena Revolutions: A Study In U.S. Energy (In)Security, Jessie Rumsey

Journal of Strategic Security

The recent upheavals in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have brought into stark relief the conflict between democratic values and strategic interests in U.S. foreign policy. Americans are known for commitment to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, yet the U.S. Government is frequently unwilling to step forward and openly express even rhetorical support for reform movements in foreign countries. In fact, initial American reluctance to support the recent "Arab Spring" uprisings serves as another example of what scholars argue is a general exception in the MENA to broader post-Cold War rising costs of maintaining ...


Assessing Whether Oil Dependency In Venezuela Contributes To National Instability, Adam Kott Oct 2012

Assessing Whether Oil Dependency In Venezuela Contributes To National Instability, Adam Kott

Journal of Strategic Security

The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation ...


Arctic Energy Resources: Security And Environmental Implications, Peter Johnston Oct 2012

Arctic Energy Resources: Security And Environmental Implications, Peter Johnston

Journal of Strategic Security

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and ...


Cover & Front Matter Oct 2012

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter Aug 2012

Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cover & Front Matter Jul 2012

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of The Arab Spring On Islamist Strategies, Ioana E. Matesan Jul 2012

The Impact Of The Arab Spring On Islamist Strategies, Ioana E. Matesan

Journal of Strategic Security

The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt created a contagion effect that inspired a series of uprisings by sending two signals: first, that even entrenched authoritarian regimes are vulnerable; and second, that nonviolent tactics can be effective in bringing about dramatic political changes. Subsequent developments, especially in Libya and Syria, convoluted these messages. Nonetheless, the political openings and the electoral victory of Islamists in Egypt and Tunisia continue to send the signal to many Islamist opposition groups that nonviolent means and participation in politics can be effective ways to produce political change. The chance of gaining power through electoral means can ...


The Youth Bulge In Egypt: An Intersection Of Demographics, Security, And The Arab Spring, Daniel Lagraffe Jul 2012

The Youth Bulge In Egypt: An Intersection Of Demographics, Security, And The Arab Spring, Daniel Lagraffe

Journal of Strategic Security

During the Arab Spring, Egyptians revolted against decades of poor governance and failed institutions. A wide range of grievances contributed to the eventual fall of the Mubarak regime, and most of these grievances were influenced by the demographic composition of the Egyptian population. This paper argues that the youth bulge in Egypt played a major role in the political transition and as such serves as the prime example of the intersection of demographics, security, and the Arab Spring.


War Without Violence: Leveraging The Arab Spring To Win The War On Terrorism, Pat Proctor Jul 2012

War Without Violence: Leveraging The Arab Spring To Win The War On Terrorism, Pat Proctor

Journal of Strategic Security

After a decade of war, the United States has failed to eradicate the threat of salafist jihadism. No matter how hard it tries, the United States cannot kill its way to victory in the war on terrorism. Sweeping changes across the Middle East—dubbed the "Arab Spring" by the media—have presented the West with a unique opportunity to pursue an alternative approach. Rather than engaging in war (politics through violence), the United States should engage in mass politics (war without violence) to compel the Arab world to reject the salafist jihadism idea. This article proposes a strategy calibrated to ...


Learning From Libya, Acting In Syria, Caitlin A. Buckley Jul 2012

Learning From Libya, Acting In Syria, Caitlin A. Buckley

Journal of Strategic Security

The international community has reached an impasse. The violence committed by Syrian President Assad's government against opposition forces, who have been calling for democratic reform, regime change, and expanded rights, has necessitated a response from the international community. This article explores various ways the international community could respond to the crisis in Syria and the consequences of each approach. It compares the current calamity in Syria to the crisis in Libya and examines the international community's response to the violence perpetrated by Qaddafi's regime. It further analyzes reports, primarily from the UN and news sources, about the ...


Libya And Resolution 1973: The Law Of Politics, Monica Naime Jul 2012

Libya And Resolution 1973: The Law Of Politics, Monica Naime

Journal of Strategic Security

This paper analyzes recent developments in the intervention in Libya from the perspective of international relations and international law. The evidence suggests that states decided to intervene in Libya prior to sanction from the United Nations Security Council's Resolution 1973. The implication from the Libyan example is that politics was the impetus for the formulation and implementation of law, and not the other way around. Law "happens" in a context, and this context is shaped and bounded by international politics. This article is intended to invigorate further research into how international politics influences the creation, interpretation, and application of ...


Ten Years Of Gwot, The Failure Of Democratization And The Fallacy Of “Ungoverned Spaces”, David P. Oakley, Patrick Proctor Apr 2012

Ten Years Of Gwot, The Failure Of Democratization And The Fallacy Of “Ungoverned Spaces”, David P. Oakley, Patrick Proctor

Journal of Strategic Security

October 7, 2011, marked a decade since the United States invaded Afghanistan and initiated the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). While most ten-year anniversary gifts involve aluminum, tin, or diamonds, the greatest gift U.S. policymakers can present American citizens is a reconsideration of the logic that guides America's counterterrorism strategy. Although the United States has successfully averted large-scale domestic terrorist attacks, its inability to grasp the nature of the enemy has cost it dearly in wasted resources and, more importantly, lost lives. Two of the most consistent and glaring policy flaws revolve around the concepts of filling "ungoverned ...


Deterring And Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism, John J. Klein Apr 2012

Deterring And Dissuading Nuclear Terrorism, John J. Klein

Journal of Strategic Security

While nuclear deterrence theory may be well-suited to dealing with nuclear-armed states, its suitability for deterring nuclear terrorism has frequently been questioned since 9/11. While terrorist organizations do not necessarily act uniformly or according to the same underlying beliefs, many of the most aggressive organizations are motivated by an ideology that embraces martyrdom and an apocalyptic vision.1 This ideology may be based on religion or a desire to overthrow a government. Consequently, terrorists motivated by ideology who intend to use a stolen or improvised nuclear device against the United States or its interests may not care about the ...


Policy Intervention In Fata: Why Discourse Matters, Nazya Fiaz Dr. Apr 2012

Policy Intervention In Fata: Why Discourse Matters, Nazya Fiaz Dr.

Journal of Strategic Security

Despite years of wide-scale counterterrorism measures in Pakistan's FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas), the injection of substantial funds, and the "close" collaboration between the United States and Pakistan, the ugly truth is that the extremism and militancy in FATA continues to recruit members. Moreover, there is little indication that the killing of Usama bin Ladin will have any significant effect on reducing support for militancy. While taking stock of these realities, this article will not seek to rehash the many successes and failures of the counterterrorist operations in FATA. Instead, its purpose will be to argue that while the ...


Cover & Front Matter Apr 2012

Cover & Front Matter

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


A Systems-Based Approach To Intelligence Reform, Austen Givens Apr 2012

A Systems-Based Approach To Intelligence Reform, Austen Givens

Journal of Strategic Security

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 prompted the most comprehensive changes to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) since its creation via the National Security Act of 1947. Recent structural and organizational reforms, such as efforts to enhance information sharing and recruit speakers of hard-target languages, have also triggered new challenges to successful transformation. In light of the systemic problems facing the IC, this paper argues that systems engineering, a discipline increasingly useful in organizational change, offers a more efficient, holistic approach to the intelligence reform process than the status quo. Systems engineering views the IC as an integrated ...


Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter Jan 2012

Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

The quality of contemporary democracies hinges on the breadth and depth of the citizenship regimes on which democracy ultimately rests. This article argues that, to assess citizenship, two important dimensions are of crucial interest, namely to what extent formal citizens are able to live and practice substantive citizenship roles and, secondly, how access to citizenship rights is used by different societal groups in order to defend privilege. Having conducted a comparative case study of Portugal and France, I now argue that political elites are contributing to a framing of non-whites as foreigners and immigrants because it serves their purpose and ...


Cyberwar And International Law: An English School Perspective, Anthony F. Sinopoli Jan 2012

Cyberwar And International Law: An English School Perspective, Anthony F. Sinopoli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cyberwar challenges future endeavors of state security. As technological capability has improved, and access to information has become more widespread the importance of the issue in today's ever-globalizing world grows each day. A primary objective is to evaluate the place of cyber-warfare against nation-states and any repercussions under an international law paradigm. Utilizing an English School perspective, emphasis will be applied to the argument that disruptive circumstances could come to fruition if international conventions are not created to bring consensus and order among nation-states on this subject. This study hypothesizes that a future application could be an agreement under ...