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2012

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 1 - 30 of 279

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

In Their Own Words: Exploring The Unseen Wounds Of An Oif/Oef Veteran & A Civilian With Traumatic Brain Injury, Aswood M. Lafortune Dec 2012

In Their Own Words: Exploring The Unseen Wounds Of An Oif/Oef Veteran & A Civilian With Traumatic Brain Injury, Aswood M. Lafortune

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

In the past, when thinking of injured soldiers returning home from war, pictures of individuals in wheelchairs with amputations might come to mind. It was hard to ignore those visible injuries. Soldiers returning home from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan can have unseen wounds, some in the form of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI). In the past individuals with TBI died of their injuries. Currently, advances in technology has drastically change our image of what an injured individual with TBI looks like, whether veterans or civilians. Unseen wounds such as TBIs pose a new set ...


Protecting Against Low-Probability Disasters: The Role Of Worry, Christian Schade, Howard Kunreuther, Philipp Koellinger Dec 2012

Protecting Against Low-Probability Disasters: The Role Of Worry, Christian Schade, Howard Kunreuther, Philipp Koellinger

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

We carry out a large monetary stakes insurance experiment with very small probabilities of losses and ambiguous as well as exact probabilities. Many individuals do not want to pay anything for insurance whether the probabilities are given exactly or are ambiguous. Many others, however, are willing to pay surprisingly large amounts. With ambiguity, the percentage of those paying nothing is smaller and the willingness to pay (WTP) of the other individuals larger than with exact probabilities. Comparing elasticities with ambiguity, we find that worry is much more important than subjective probability in determining WTP for insurance. Furthermore, when the ambiguous ...


Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons Dec 2012

Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 7 experiments (N = 3,289), we replicate the procedure of Experiments 8 and 9 from Bem (2011), which had originally demonstrated retroactive facilitation of recall. We failed to replicate that finding. We further conduct a meta-analysis of all replication attempts of these experiments and find that the average effect size (d = 0.04) is no different from 0. We discuss some reasons for differences between the results in this article and those presented in Bem (2011).


Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley Dec 2012

Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases ...


The Impact Of Health Care Reform On Hospital And Preventive Care: Evidence From Massachusetts, Jonathan T. Kolstad, Amanda E. Kowalski Dec 2012

The Impact Of Health Care Reform On Hospital And Preventive Care: Evidence From Massachusetts, Jonathan T. Kolstad, Amanda E. Kowalski

Health Care Management Papers

In April 2006, Massachusetts passed legislation aimed at achieving near-universal health insurance coverage. The key features of this legislation were a model for national health reform, passed in March 2010. The reform gives us a novel opportunity to examine the impact of expansion to near-universal coverage state-wide. Among hospital discharges in Massachusetts, we find that the reform decreased uninsurance by 36% relative to its initial level and to other states. Reform affected utilization by decreasing length of stay, and the number of inpatient admissions originating from the emergency room. When we control for patient severity, we find evidence that preventable ...


Cultural Asset Mapping Project: Progress Report, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert Dec 2012

Cultural Asset Mapping Project: Progress Report, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert

CultureBlocks Philadelphia

This report describes SIAP work undertaken from December 2011 to December 2012 as part of the Philadelphia cultural asset mapping project. SIAP research and data analyses underway, in collaboration with Reinvestment Fund, included: a cross-sectional analysis of associations between cultural assets and social and community indicators by neighborhood; a time-­series of the geography of cultural assets between 1997 and 2010, using SIAP’s historical database; and a Philadelphia livability/social inclusion index that links information on cultural assets with other community indices on neighborhood vitality and social wellbeing.


Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, And Cortical Thickness In White-Collar Criminals, Adrian Raine, William S. Laufer, Yaling Yang, Katherine L. Narr, Paul Thompson, Arthur W. Toga Dec 2012

Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, And Cortical Thickness In White-Collar Criminals, Adrian Raine, William S. Laufer, Yaling Yang, Katherine L. Narr, Paul Thompson, Arthur W. Toga

Neuroethics Publications

Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Anxiety And Insistence On Sameness In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Katherine Gotham, Somer L. Bishop, Vanessa Hus, Marisela Huerta, Sabata Lund, Andreas Buja, Abba M. Krieger, Catherine Lord Dec 2012

Exploring The Relationship Between Anxiety And Insistence On Sameness In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Katherine Gotham, Somer L. Bishop, Vanessa Hus, Marisela Huerta, Sabata Lund, Andreas Buja, Abba M. Krieger, Catherine Lord

Marketing Papers

Elevated anxiety symptoms are one of the most common forms of psychopathology to co‐occur with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The purpose of this study was to explore the association between anxiety and ASD symptoms, particularly the degree to which the relationship is explained by insistence on sameness (IS) behaviors and/or cognitive ability. The sample included 1429 individuals aged 5:8–18:0 years who participated in the Simons Simplex Collection, a genetic consortium study of ASD. Child Behavior Checklist Anxiety Problems T‐scores and Autism Diagnostic Interview‐Revised “IS“ item raw totals were treated as both categorical and ...


2012 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2012

2012 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

No abstract provided.


Impulsivity And Inhibitory Control Deficits Are Associated With Unhealthy Eating In Young Adults, Agnes J. Jasinska, Marie Yasuda, Charles F. Burant, Nicolette Gregor, Sara Khatri, Mathew Sweet, Emily B. Falk Dec 2012

Impulsivity And Inhibitory Control Deficits Are Associated With Unhealthy Eating In Young Adults, Agnes J. Jasinska, Marie Yasuda, Charles F. Burant, Nicolette Gregor, Sara Khatri, Mathew Sweet, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Heightened impulsivity and inefficient inhibitory control are increasingly recognized as risk factors for unhealthy eating and obesity but the underlying processes are not fully understood. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, inhibitory control, eating behavior, and body mass index (BMI) in 210 undergraduates who ranged from underweight to obese. We demonstrate that impulsivity and inhibitory control deficits are positively associated with several facets of unhealthy eating, including overeating in response to external food cues and in response to negative emotional states, and making food choices based on taste preferences without consideration of health value. We ...


Teachers’ Explicit And Implicit Attitude Toward Homosexuality: The Role Of Internal And External Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice, Christina C. Graham Dec 2012

Teachers’ Explicit And Implicit Attitude Toward Homosexuality: The Role Of Internal And External Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice, Christina C. Graham

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Research has shown that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have increased rates of physical and mental health problems primarily due to the chronic stress incurred by the levels of prejudice and isolation experienced in their environment, especially in Southern States. Teachers are the most available and sought after adults by sexual minority students, helping them to mitigate such toxic environments. In this study, the aim was to examine the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes of homonegativity and the moderating role of motivation to control prejudiced reactions among teachers in Southern states. Additional information was gathered about the teachers’ school ...


Population Differentiation Of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates With Agricultural Expansions Predating The Caste System, Ganeshprasad Arunkumar, David F. Soria-Hernanz, Valampuri John Kavitha, Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun, Adhikarla Syama, Kumaran Samy Ashokan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan, Koothapuli Vijayakumar, Muthuswamy Narayanan, Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi, Janet S. Ziegle, Ajay K. Royyuru, Laxmi Parida, R. Spencer Wells, Colin Renfrew, Theodore G. Schurr, Chris Tyler Smith, Daniel E. Platt, Ramasamy Pitchappan, Genographic Consortium Nov 2012

Population Differentiation Of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates With Agricultural Expansions Predating The Caste System, Ganeshprasad Arunkumar, David F. Soria-Hernanz, Valampuri John Kavitha, Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun, Adhikarla Syama, Kumaran Samy Ashokan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj Gandhirajan, Koothapuli Vijayakumar, Muthuswamy Narayanan, Mariakuttikan Jayalakshmi, Janet S. Ziegle, Ajay K. Royyuru, Laxmi Parida, R. Spencer Wells, Colin Renfrew, Theodore G. Schurr, Chris Tyler Smith, Daniel E. Platt, Ramasamy Pitchappan, Genographic Consortium

Department of Anthropology Papers

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian ...


Getting The Word Out: Neural Correlates Of Enthusiastic Message Propagation, Emily B. Falk, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Matthew D. Lieberman Nov 2012

Getting The Word Out: Neural Correlates Of Enthusiastic Message Propagation, Emily B. Falk, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

What happens in the mind of a person who first hears a potentially exciting idea?We examined the neural precursors of spreading ideas with enthusiasm, and dissected enthusiasm into component processes that can be identified through automated linguistic analysis, gestalt human ratings of combined linguistic and non-verbal cues, and points of convergence/divergence between the two. We combined tools from natural language processing (NLP) with data gathered using fMRI to link the neurocognitive mechanisms that are set in motion during initial exposure to ideas and subsequent behaviors of these message communicators outside of the scanner. Participants' neural activity was recorded ...


Information Effect Of Entry Into Credit Ratings Market: The Case Of Insurers' Ratings, Neil A. Doherty, Anastasia V. Kartasheva, Richard D. Phillips Nov 2012

Information Effect Of Entry Into Credit Ratings Market: The Case Of Insurers' Ratings, Neil A. Doherty, Anastasia V. Kartasheva, Richard D. Phillips

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

The paper analyzes the effect of competition between credit rating agencies (CRAs) on the information content of ratings. We show that a monopolistic CRA pools sellers into multiple rating classes and has partial market coverage. This provides an opportunity for market entry. The entrant designs a rating scale distinct from that of the incumbent. It targets higher-than-average companies in each rating grade of the incumbent's rating scale and employs more stringent rating standards. We use Standard and Poor's (S&P) entry into the market for insurance ratings previously covered by a monopolist, A.M. Best, to empirically test ...


Signaling And Tacit Collusion In An Infinitely Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma, Joseph E. Harrington Jr, Wei Zhao Nov 2012

Signaling And Tacit Collusion In An Infinitely Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma, Joseph E. Harrington Jr, Wei Zhao

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

In the context of an infinitely repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma, we explore how cooperation is initiated when players signal and coordinate through their actions. There are two types of players–patient and impatient–and a player’s type is private information. An impatient type is incapable of cooperative play, while if both players are patient types–and this is common knowledge–then they can cooperate with a grim trigger strategy. We find that the longer that players have gone without cooperating, the lower is the probability that they will cooperate in the next period. While the probability of cooperation emerging is ...


Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman Nov 2012

Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper examines the effect of uncertainty about the future on whether individuals select want options (e.g., junk foods, lowbrow films) or instead exert self-control and select should options (e.g., healthy foods, highbrow films). Consistent with the ego-depletion literature, which suggests that self-control resembles an exhaustible muscle, coping with uncertainty about what the future may bring reduces self-control resources and increases individuals’ tendency to favor want options over should options. These results persist when real uncertainty is induced, when the salience of naturally-arising uncertainty is heightened and when individuals are able to make choices contingent upon the outcomes ...


The Productivity Advantages Of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection, Pierre-Philippe Combes, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, Diego Puga, Sébastien Roux Nov 2012

The Productivity Advantages Of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection, Pierre-Philippe Combes, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, Diego Puga, Sébastien Roux

Real Estate Papers

Firms are more productive, on average, in larger cities. Two main explanations have been offered: firm selection (larger cities toughen competition, allowing only the most productive to survive) and agglomeration economies (larger cities promote interactions that increase productivity), possibly reinforced by localized natural advantage. To distinguish between them, we nest a generalized version of a tractable firm selection model and a standard model of agglomeration. Stronger selection in larger cities left-truncates the productivity distribution, whereas stronger agglomeration right-shifts and dilates the distribution. Using this prediction, French establishment-level data, and a new quantile approach, we show that firm selection cannot explain ...


Sorting And Local Wage And Skill Distributions In France, Pierre-Philippe Combes, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, Sébastien Roux Nov 2012

Sorting And Local Wage And Skill Distributions In France, Pierre-Philippe Combes, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, Sébastien Roux

Real Estate Papers

This paper provides descriptive evidence about the distribution of wages and skills in denser and less dense employment areas in France. We confirm that on average, workers in denser areas are more skilled. There is also strong over-representation of workers with particularly high and low skills in denser areas. These features are consistent with patterns of migration including negative selection of migrants to less dense areas and positive selection towards denser areas. Nonetheless migration, even in the long-run, accounts for little of the skill differences between denser and less dense areas. Finally, we find marked differences across age groups and ...


The Term Structure Of Interest Rates In A Dsge Model With Recursive Preferences, Jules Van Binsbergen, Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, Ralph Koijen, Juan Rubio-Ramírez Nov 2012

The Term Structure Of Interest Rates In A Dsge Model With Recursive Preferences, Jules Van Binsbergen, Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, Ralph Koijen, Juan Rubio-Ramírez

Finance Papers

A dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model in which households have Epstein and Zin recursive preferences is solved with perturbation. The parameters governing preferences and technology are estimated by maximum likelihood using macroeconomic data and the term structure of interest rates. The estimates imply a large risk aversion, an elasticity of intertemporal substitution higher than one, and substantial adjustment costs. Furthermore, the paper identifies the tensions within the model by estimating it on subsets of these data. The analysis concludes by pointing out potential extensions that may improve the model's fit.


How Does The Composition Of A Cultural District Influence Its Sustainability?, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert Nov 2012

How Does The Composition Of A Cultural District Influence Its Sustainability?, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert

CultureBlocks Philadelphia

This research memo tests out different methods for identifying and classifying cultural clusters and estimating changes in Philadelphia clusters between 1997 and 2010. It concludes that block groups with a complex cultural ecology are more likely to retain their status, while those with a single strength are more likely to suffer a loss of resources (or at least a smaller gain) and a decline in overall position in the citywide cultural sector.


Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey Nov 2012

Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Macroeconomic Fluctuations And Poverty, Philip N. Jefferson, Kunhee Kim Nov 2012

Macroeconomic Fluctuations And Poverty, Philip N. Jefferson, Kunhee Kim

Health Care Management Papers

This article examines the dynamic relationship between macroeconomic performance and measures of poverty in the United States. The article is organized as follows. Section 2 presents insights on the relationship between poverty and macroeconomic performance that emerge from the literature. The emphasis is on empirical studies from 1986 to 2011. Section 3 provides a snapshot of the change in poverty over National Bureau of Economic Research-dated recessions for a variety of poverty measures. Section 4 uses vector autoregressions (VARs) to characterize the response of poverty to innovations in various social indicators and measures of macroeconomic performance. Section 5 expands the ...


The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn Nov 2012

The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn

CPRE Research Reports

As highlighted in recent news reports, many states are struggling to implement their new teacher-evaluation systems and most of the Race to the Top winners have asked to extend their timetables for completing this work. This paper, written by CPRE’s Patrick McGuinn for the Center for American Progress, offers an assessment of how early adopter states’ departments of education have understaken the preparation and implementation of new evaluation systems. It also identifies challenges and lessons that can be used to guide future reform efforts in this area.


Moral Reputation: An Evolutionary And Cognitive Perspective, Dan Sperber, Nicolas Baumard Oct 2012

Moral Reputation: An Evolutionary And Cognitive Perspective, Dan Sperber, Nicolas Baumard

Goldstone Research Unit

From an evolutionary point of view, the function of moral behaviour may be to secure a good reputation as a co-operator. The best way to do so may be to obey genuine moral motivations. Still, one's moral reputation maybe something too important to be entrusted just to one's moral sense. A robust concern for one's reputation is likely to have evolved too. Here we explore some of the complex relationships between morality and reputation both from an evolutionary and a cognitive point of view.


“I Didn't Know I Could Turn Colors”: Health Problems And Health Care Experiences Of Women Strangled By An Intimate Partner, Manisha Joshi, Kristie A. Thomas, Susan B. Sorenson Oct 2012

“I Didn't Know I Could Turn Colors”: Health Problems And Health Care Experiences Of Women Strangled By An Intimate Partner, Manisha Joshi, Kristie A. Thomas, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Strangulation is a unique and particularly pernicious form of intimate partner violence. To increase the relatively little that is known about strangulation survivors, focus groups and interviews were conducted as part of a practice–research engagement with a domestic violence shelter. All of the participants had been strangled and, among them, almost all were strangled multiple times. The loss of consciousness was common. Participants associated “choking” with use of body parts and “strangling” with use of objects. Although some minimized the assault, most considered strangulation to be serious and reported a variety of medical conditions following the assault. Few sought ...


The Great Divide: Campaign Media In The American Mind, Diana C. Mutz Oct 2012

The Great Divide: Campaign Media In The American Mind, Diana C. Mutz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

There is a huge difference between public perceptions of the power of media in elections and academic evidence of its influence. This gap stems from the fact that the public uses different forms of evidence than academics use to infer media power. This essay outlines the reasons for this great divide, then highlights the seriousness of its consequences for the allocation of political resources. Public beliefs in omnipotent media contribute to wasted time and money; ultimately, they undermine the legitimacy of election outcomes.


Some Observations On The Weddings Of Tokugawa Shogun’S Daughters – Part 2, Cecilia S. Seigle Ph.D. Oct 2012

Some Observations On The Weddings Of Tokugawa Shogun’S Daughters – Part 2, Cecilia S. Seigle Ph.D.

Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations

This section discusses the complex psychological and philosophical reason for Shogun Yoshimune’s contrasting handlings of his two adopted daughters’ and his favorite son’s weddings. In my thinking, Yoshimune lived up to his philosophical principles by the illogical, puzzling treatment of the three weddings. We can witness the manifestation of his modest and frugal personality inherited from his ancestor Ieyasu, cohabiting with his strong but unconventional sense of obligation and respect for his benefactor Tsunayoshi.


Some Observations On The Weddings Of Tokugawa Shogun’S Daughters – Part 1, Cecilia S. Seigle Ph.D. Oct 2012

Some Observations On The Weddings Of Tokugawa Shogun’S Daughters – Part 1, Cecilia S. Seigle Ph.D.

Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations

In this study I shall discuss the marriage politics of Japan's early ruling families (mainly from the 6th to the 12th centuries) and the adaptation of these practices to new circumstances by the leaders of the following centuries. Marriage politics culminated with the founder of the Edo bakufu, the first shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). To show how practices continued to change, I shall discuss the weddings given by the fifth shogun Tsunayoshi (1646-1709) and the eighth shogun Yoshimune (1684-1751). The marriages of Tsunayoshi's natural and adopted daughters reveal his motivations for the adoptions and for his choice of ...


Language Practices And Attitudes In Efl And English-Medium Classes At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Oleg Tarnopolsky, Bridget Goodman Oct 2012

Language Practices And Attitudes In Efl And English-Medium Classes At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Oleg Tarnopolsky, Bridget Goodman

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Improving Language Policy And Planning Through Evaluation: Approaches To Evaluating Minority Language Policies, Haley De Korne Oct 2012

Improving Language Policy And Planning Through Evaluation: Approaches To Evaluating Minority Language Policies, Haley De Korne

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.