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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2012

Portland State University

Medicine and Health Sciences

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo Nov 2012

Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of ageing. We examined frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥ 60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥ 2 and pre-frailty as meeting one of the following four-item criteria: (1) slow walking; (2) muscular weakness; (3) exhaustion and (4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as ‘sometimes’ or ‘often’ not having enough food to eat. Analyses were adjusted ...


Health Behaviour Changes After Diagnosis Of Chronic Illness Among Canadians Aged 50 Or Older, Jason T. Newsom, Nathalie Huguet, Pamela L. Ramage-Morin, Michael Joseph Mccarthy, Julie Bernier, Mark S. Kaplan, Bentson H. Mcfarland Nov 2012

Health Behaviour Changes After Diagnosis Of Chronic Illness Among Canadians Aged 50 Or Older, Jason T. Newsom, Nathalie Huguet, Pamela L. Ramage-Morin, Michael Joseph Mccarthy, Julie Bernier, Mark S. Kaplan, Bentson H. Mcfarland

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Changes in health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behavior. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except ...


Htlv-1 And -2 Infections Among 10 Indigenous Groups In The Peruvian Amazon, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana, Magaly M. Blas, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Armando Cotrina, Marina Chiappe, Tadeusz J. Kochel, Cesar P. Cárcamo, Patricia J. García, Joseph R. Zunt, Anne L. Buffardi, Silvia M. Montano Nov 2012

Htlv-1 And -2 Infections Among 10 Indigenous Groups In The Peruvian Amazon, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana, Magaly M. Blas, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Armando Cotrina, Marina Chiappe, Tadeusz J. Kochel, Cesar P. Cárcamo, Patricia J. García, Joseph R. Zunt, Anne L. Buffardi, Silvia M. Montano

Social Work Faculty Publications and Presentations

Infections with HTLV-1 and -2 were detected in 12 (1.9%) and 6 (0.9%) indigenous individuals living in 27 Amazonian villages in Peru. All infections occurred in Shipibo-Konibo people. HTLV was more common among participants living in villages distant from larger port cities and women with non-monogamous sexual partners.


Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo Oct 2012

Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: This article presents cohort studies that use data from the National Health Information Survey from 1986 to 1994 and compares the effectiveness of Cox proportional hazards models that assume a linear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of prostate cancer with models that assume a J-shaped relationship. Methods and results: Our study found that for black males over 40 years of age, neither a linear nor a J-shaped relationship yielded a statistically significant model. With white males over 40 years, assuming a linear relationship did not yield a statistically significant model (P = 0.582). When we ...


Family Aided Community Treatment As An Intervention For The Treatment Of Early Psychosis: A Proof Of Concept Study, Ryan P. Melton Oct 2012

Family Aided Community Treatment As An Intervention For The Treatment Of Early Psychosis: A Proof Of Concept Study, Ryan P. Melton

Regional Research Institute

Major psychotic disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, having severe impacts on the people who suffer from the conditions, their families and society. There is evidence that if these conditions are identified and treated early, the prognosis is improved. The purpose of this study is to produce findings related to the use of year long trial of family aided community treatment (FACT) with individuals who are experiencing a first episode psychosis as defined by the SIPS. Using a proof of concept design with multiple repeated measure t tests, this study focused on first-episode psychotic disorder participants ...


Variation In Genes Related To Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated With Adult-Onset Deafness In Border Collies, Jennifer S. Yokoyama, Ernst T. Lam, Alison L. Ruhe, Carolyn A. Erdman, Kathryn R. Robertson, Aubrey A. Webb, D. Colette Williams, Melanie L. Chang, Marjo K. Hytönen, Hannes Lohi, Steven P. Hamilton, Mark W. Neff Sep 2012

Variation In Genes Related To Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated With Adult-Onset Deafness In Border Collies, Jennifer S. Yokoyama, Ernst T. Lam, Alison L. Ruhe, Carolyn A. Erdman, Kathryn R. Robertson, Aubrey A. Webb, D. Colette Williams, Melanie L. Chang, Marjo K. Hytönen, Hannes Lohi, Steven P. Hamilton, Mark W. Neff

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The domestic dog offers a unique opportunity to study complex disorders similar to those seen in humans, but within the context of the much simpler genetic backgrounds of pure breeds, which represent closed populations. We performed a whole-genome search for genetic risk factors of adult-onset deafness in the Border Collie, a breed of herding dog that relies on acute hearing to perceive and respond to commands while working. Adult-onset deafness in Border Collies typically begins in early adulthood and is similar to age-related hearing loss in humans. This earlier onset has particular impact on the utility of working Border Collies ...


From Portland To Paris: Clinical Perspectives On Supporting Young People Suffering From Early Psychosis, Craigan Usher, Ryan P. Melton, Sarah Lynch Jul 2012

From Portland To Paris: Clinical Perspectives On Supporting Young People Suffering From Early Psychosis, Craigan Usher, Ryan P. Melton, Sarah Lynch

Regional Research Institute

This workshop examines the Early Detection and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) that focuses on reducing the incidence of major psychotic disorders in a defined population, by early detection and treatment.


Social And Contextual Factors That Influence Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Indigenous Msm In The Peruvian Amazon, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana May 2012

Social And Contextual Factors That Influence Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Indigenous Msm In The Peruvian Amazon, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana

Social Work Faculty Publications and Presentations

Men who have sex with men (MSM) face a significantly higher risk of HIV infection than the general population around the globe. In Peru, HIV prevalence among MSM range from 14% to 23%, with Lima, the capital, and port cities in the Amazonian region being the most affected. Recent studies found that indigenous MSM who leave their villages for cities along the Amazon River and its tributaries, engage in high risk behaviors such as high alcohol consumption and unprotected sex with mestizo (non- indigenous) MSM. This study examined social and contextual factors associated with risky behaviors among indigenous MSM in ...


Motivating Men Who Have Sex With Men To Get Tested For Hiv, Magaly M. Blas, Luis A. Menacho, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana May 2012

Motivating Men Who Have Sex With Men To Get Tested For Hiv, Magaly M. Blas, Luis A. Menacho, Isaac E. Alva, E. Roberto Orellana

Social Work Faculty Publications and Presentations

Although men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest HIV prevalence in Peru, they are underserved by traditional preventive programs. Interestingly, in Peru the Internet and cell-phones have emerged as a convenient tool to reach this population.


Family Psychoeducation In Clinical High Risk And First- Episode Psychosis, William R. Mcfarlane, Sarah Lynch, Ryan P. Melton Apr 2012

Family Psychoeducation In Clinical High Risk And First- Episode Psychosis, William R. Mcfarlane, Sarah Lynch, Ryan P. Melton

Regional Research Institute

Seventy percent of those who will have an episode of psychosis will have done so by age 25. Data from clinical trials of intervention during the clinical high risk period of psychosis have determined that the mean age is in mid-adolescence, 16-18 years of age. For those reasons, early intervention inherently involves adolescents, and by extension their parents and other family members and supports. Regarding the type of intervention, it is relevant that the current empirically-derived standard of treatment for schizophrenia, as concluded by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research survey of the treatment outcome literature, includes family ...


The Health And Housing Specialist: An Emerging Job Classification To Support Aging In Place In Subsidized Housing, Paula C. Carder, Jenny Weinstein, Jacklyn Nicole Kohon Jan 2012

The Health And Housing Specialist: An Emerging Job Classification To Support Aging In Place In Subsidized Housing, Paula C. Carder, Jenny Weinstein, Jacklyn Nicole Kohon

Institute on Aging Publications

As the U.S. population ages, the availability of workers with a basic understanding of aging and health-related services has not kept pace. This is true in traditional health care organizations such as hospitals and primary care clinics as well as in long-term care settings and senior housing, including subsidized housing, the focus of this report. Nearly 1.8 million older persons receive some form of publicly-subsidized rental assistance. Some subsidized housing providers, including those that operate buildings designated for older persons, are developing new systems of service delivery that would either coordinate or provide health screenings, physical activity programs ...


A Novel Tool For Assessing And Summarizing The Built Environment, Gretchen L. Kroeger, Lynne C. Messer, Sharon E. Edwards, Marie Lynn Miranda Jan 2012

A Novel Tool For Assessing And Summarizing The Built Environment, Gretchen L. Kroeger, Lynne C. Messer, Sharon E. Edwards, Marie Lynn Miranda

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data ...


Addressing The Physical Health Challenges Impacting Young Individuals With Major Mental Illness, Ryan P. Melton Jan 2012

Addressing The Physical Health Challenges Impacting Young Individuals With Major Mental Illness, Ryan P. Melton

Regional Research Institute

Research has found that individuals who suffer from major mental illness, such as schizophrenia, are dying on average 15-25 years earlier than those who do not suffer from schizophrenia.1 Many causes for this shortened lifespan are suspected. Those causes include: lack of access to health care, suicide, poverty, substance use and side effects from anti-psychotic medications. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has challenged mental health providers treating major mental illness to address this disturbing trend by promoting their “10x10” campaign. The goal of the campaign is to increase the lifespan of individuals who suffer from ...


A Counselor’S Role In Diagnosing The Proposed Dsm-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: A Pathway To Early Intervention Or Iatrogenic Consequences?, Vanessa Jung Tirman, Ryan P. Melton Jan 2012

A Counselor’S Role In Diagnosing The Proposed Dsm-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: A Pathway To Early Intervention Or Iatrogenic Consequences?, Vanessa Jung Tirman, Ryan P. Melton

Regional Research Institute

Psychosis in general, and schizophrenia specifically, are among the most debilitating and difficult to treat disorders in mental health (Correll, Hauser, Auther, & Cornblatt, 2010). Identifying a patient with at-risk symptoms before the first episode of schizophrenia can be invaluable to the patient, clinician, and the community because the patient is treated early in the course of the disease where treatment is highly effective. After years of research it has been confirmed that at-risk symptoms for schizophrenia generally precede the first episode of psychosis, which results in the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Correll et al., 2010). At present however, the assessment and recognition of these symptoms for schizophrenia or APS remain under debate (Carpenter, 2009). Research has shown that utilizing low dose antipsychotic medication, cognitive behavioral therapy, and having a supportive family and social environment are essential resources to recovery and reduction of trauma for a patient experiencing symptoms of APS (Lencz, Smith, Auther, Correll, & Cornblatt, 2003; McGlashan, Walsh, & Woods, 2010; Olsen & Rosenbaum, 2006; Portland Identification and Early Referral Program, 2009; S.Trevino, personal communication, November 18, 2010). At this time research shows that early detection of APS symptoms can achieve secondary and tertiary prevention, such as delaying the onset of psychosis and reducing suicide, but does not prevent schizophrenia from occurring (McGlashan, et al., 2010.) There are various ways in which counselors can receive referrals to assess a patient for APS. The patient can be referred by a ...


The Crossover Effects Of Supervisor Work-Family Positive Spillover On Employee Sleep Deficiency: Moderating Effects Of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (Fssb), Tori Laurelle Crain, Leslie B. Hammer, Todd Bodner, Orfeu Buxton Jan 2012

The Crossover Effects Of Supervisor Work-Family Positive Spillover On Employee Sleep Deficiency: Moderating Effects Of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (Fssb), Tori Laurelle Crain, Leslie B. Hammer, Todd Bodner, Orfeu Buxton

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Abstract of presentation presented at SLEEP 2012 held June 9-13, 2012 in Boston, Massachusetts


Exploring Support Network Structure, Content, And Stability As Youth Transition From Foster Care, Jennifer E. Blakeslee Jan 2012

Exploring Support Network Structure, Content, And Stability As Youth Transition From Foster Care, Jennifer E. Blakeslee

Dissertations and Theses

Many older youth in foster care lack adequate resources and ongoing support in their social networks as they transition into young adulthood, while other youth in these circumstances experience stable social networks providing comprehensive support. Systematically measuring the supportive personal and service-oriented relationships in youth networks expands the scope of inquiry in this area by identifying patterns of social network structure, member composition, and relational qualities that are associated with more or less support provision through formal and informal relationships. These can also be measured over time to observe changes in network form and content and assess network stability. This ...


Nine Months, Esther Lim Jan 2012

Nine Months, Esther Lim

Dissertations and Theses

This is a collection of short stories that traces a chronological movement through one family's experience of the mother's illness. Each piece in the collection is meant to be an independent, free-standing short story. Each story is different, told from distinctive points-of-view, angles, and voices. However, every story covers a span of time within the nine months of the family's experience, in the presented order, as part of a collective movement toward the core. All together, the pieces hope to reflect a mosaic of sorts--one that tells a story that cannot otherwise be told.


Humor-Related Social Exchanges And Mental Health In Assisted Living Residents, Ann Elizabeth Mcqueen Jan 2012

Humor-Related Social Exchanges And Mental Health In Assisted Living Residents, Ann Elizabeth Mcqueen

Dissertations and Theses

Social contact is known to be vital for older adults' mental and physical health, but few studies of social interactions have taken place in long-term care settings. The current study investigated whether the psychological well-being of assisted living residents was influenced by factors associated with residents' social interactions involving humor. Specific aims of the present study were to develop and test a measure related to humor-related social exchanges, to examine how humor-related social exchanges affect residents' mental health, and to explore whether humor-related social exchanges mediated the effects of resident and facility characteristics on indices of mental health. One hundred ...


Conscientiousness As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Work Autonomy And Job Satisfaction, Kyle Garret Mack Jan 2012

Conscientiousness As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Work Autonomy And Job Satisfaction, Kyle Garret Mack

Dissertations and Theses

Autonomy is one of the most commonly studied job characteristics in the work design literature and is commonly associated with large and positive effects on job satisfaction. There is reason to believe that autonomy may interact with personality characteristics to affect attitudinal outcomes, but prior research has tended to focus on the original growth-need-strength construct as a potential moderator with mixed results. One glaring gap in the literature is the lack of research that examines the Big Five constructs of personality as a potential class of moderators. Grant, Fried, and Juillerat (2010) have suggested additional research into the Big Five ...


Euthanasia, The Ethics Of Patient Care And The Language Of Propaganda, Elizabeth Maria Krapf Jan 2012

Euthanasia, The Ethics Of Patient Care And The Language Of Propaganda, Elizabeth Maria Krapf

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis is an examination of euthanasia, eugenics, the ethic of patient care, and linguistic propaganda in the Second World War. The examination of euthanasia discusses not only the history and involvement of the facility at Hadamar in Germany, but also discuss the current euthanasia debate. Euthanasia in World War II arose out of the Nazi desire to cleanse the Reich and was greatly influenced by the American eugenics movement of the early 20th century. Eugenics was built up to include anyone considered undesirable and unworthy of life and killed many thousands of people before the invasion of allied troops ...


Coping With Interpersonal Conflicts At Work: An Examination Of The Goodness Of Fit Hypothesis Among Nurses, Robert Randon Wright Jan 2012

Coping With Interpersonal Conflicts At Work: An Examination Of The Goodness Of Fit Hypothesis Among Nurses, Robert Randon Wright

Dissertations and Theses

Increasingly, evidence indicates that workplace interpersonal conflicts (WIC) are the most upsetting/troublesome daily work stressors (Sulsky & Smith, 2007), and within the context of nursing, WIC is a problem of high prevalence and intensity (Baltimore, 2006; Farrell, 1999). In relation to coping with stressors such as WIC, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) established the transactional model of stress and coping, where cognitive appraisals of the stressor (e.g., perceived control) are central to coping and classified all coping behaviors as either problem-focused or emotion-focused. They also proposed the "goodness of fit hypothesis", which predicts that problem-focused coping efforts used to cope with stressors of high appraised control and emotion-focused coping paired with stressors of low appraised control will produce the ...