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2012

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd Dec 2012

An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic problems of our time. Desertification describes circumstances of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from the climatic variation and human activities. The fundamental goal of this thesis was to assess the effects of desertification in Yobe State, Nigeria. The present threat of desertification in the sahel has reached an alarming stage where crops cultivation and animal rearing/grazing are no more productive, soil has lost its nutrient/fertility, various infrastructure had given way because of windstorm from the neighbouring Niger Republic and sand dunes had taken ...


Critique Of Microcredit As A Development Model, Grace Levin Dec 2012

Critique Of Microcredit As A Development Model, Grace Levin

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The field of microcredit (otherwise known as microfinance, microlending, or microcapital) has expanded rapidly since the 1980s as an economic means of lifting people out of poverty. Generally, microcredit has been accepted as an effective method for empowering both individuals and communities. In recent years, however, critics have brought to light some of the problems associated with microlending, such as the complex socioeconomic factors that can cause loan programs to fail. These problems stem from the basic tenet of microfinance: the need for lending programs to be managed locally in order to understand the needs of a community and assess ...


Tutorial Report: Understanding Spatial Thought Through Language Use, Thora Tenbrink, Tommaso D'Odorico, Christoph Hertzberg, Güzin Mazman, Chiara Meneghetti, Nina Reshöft, Jinlong Yang Dec 2012

Tutorial Report: Understanding Spatial Thought Through Language Use, Thora Tenbrink, Tommaso D'Odorico, Christoph Hertzberg, Güzin Mazman, Chiara Meneghetti, Nina Reshöft, Jinlong Yang

Journal of Spatial Information Science

The tutorial "Understanding spatial thought through language use" took place at the International Spatial Cognition Conference on August 31, 2012 at Kloster Seeon in Germany. This report outlines the main rationale for the tutorial along with central contributions by its participants, who considerably enhanced the success of the tutorial by sharing and discussing their own research experiences with respect to the analysis of language in spatial cognition contexts. The tutorial's website is http://knirb.net/TutorialSC2012.html.


The Influence Of Landscape Variation On Landform Categorization, Maia Williams, Werner Kuhn, Marco Painho Dec 2012

The Influence Of Landscape Variation On Landform Categorization, Maia Williams, Werner Kuhn, Marco Painho

Journal of Spatial Information Science

This paper compares the landform vocabularies of residents from two regions in Portugal. Participants described both their own and the other less familiar landscapes in response to video footage of the regions. The results indicate that participants used more detailed vocabularies to describe the known landscape compared to the less familiar study site with detail triggered by individual place recognition. A relationship between landform lexica content and landscape type was observed in the relative placement of detail within each vocabulary. The observed drivers of categorization were the salient features of the landscape (elevation and land cover) and utilitarian motivations (land ...


Geospatial Images In The Acquisition Of Spatial Knowledge For Wayfinding, Pyry Kettunen, Katja Irvankoski, Christina M. Krause, Tapani Sarjakoski, L. Tiina Sarjakoski Dec 2012

Geospatial Images In The Acquisition Of Spatial Knowledge For Wayfinding, Pyry Kettunen, Katja Irvankoski, Christina M. Krause, Tapani Sarjakoski, L. Tiina Sarjakoski

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Geospatial images such as maps and aerial photographs are important sources of spatial knowledge that people use for wayfinding. The rapid development of geodata acquisition and digital graphics has recently led to rather complete geographic coverage of both traditional and novel types of geospatial images. Divergent types of geospatial images vary in their support of human acquisition of spatial knowledge. However evaluative studies about the acquisition of spatial knowledge from the diversity of geospatial images have been rare. In this article we review a variety of literature about the acquisition of spatial knowledge while paying particular attention to the role ...


Approaching The Notion Of Place By Contrast, Stephan Winter, Christian Freksa Dec 2012

Approaching The Notion Of Place By Contrast, Stephan Winter, Christian Freksa

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Place is an elusive notion in geographic information science. This paper presents an approach to capture the notion of place by contrast. This approach is developed from cognitive concepts and the language that is used to describe places. It is complementary to those of coordinate-based systems that dominate contemporary geographic information systems. Accordingly the approach is aimed at explaining structures in verbal place descriptions and at localizing objects without committing to geometrically specified positions in space. We will demonstrate how locations can be identified by place names that are not crisply defined in terms of geometric regions. Capturing the human ...


Spatial Reasoning With Augmented Points: Extending Cardinal Directions With Local Distances, Reinhard Moratz, Jan Oliver Wallgrün Dec 2012

Spatial Reasoning With Augmented Points: Extending Cardinal Directions With Local Distances, Reinhard Moratz, Jan Oliver Wallgrün

Journal of Spatial Information Science

We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We ...


Socio-Environmental Considerations At The Usuma Reservoir In Abuja, Nigeria, Fanan Ujoh Mr, James Ikyernum Mr, Olarewaju O. Ifatimehin Dr Dec 2012

Socio-Environmental Considerations At The Usuma Reservoir In Abuja, Nigeria, Fanan Ujoh Mr, James Ikyernum Mr, Olarewaju O. Ifatimehin Dr

Dr. Fanan Ujoh

Reservoirs are Man’s attempt towards water re-distribution from regions/seasons of abundance/surplus to regions/seasons of scarcity. This study focuses on socio-environmental impacts of the Lower Usuma dam in Abuja, on its four surrounding communities. Stratified random sampling technique was employed in the administration of a questionnaire to 200 respondents. Using descriptive statistics and the student t-test for the analysis, the study discovered that: (i) there has been no significant improvement in infrastructure provision by Government; (ii) cases of water-borne diseases are high; (iii) the communities have lost land for cultivation; and, (iv) the communities believe that the ...


Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa Dec 2012

Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This research work looked in the used of Remote Sensing to improve Agricultural production in Kutigi, Niger State. The aim of the study is to use remote sensing to improve rice farming activities in Kutigi, Niger State. It is very important to identify such methods to improve Agricultural production because experts are always interested in new researches and findings to better the standard of living in any environment. In view of this, Remotely-sensed data could be used or employed to elevate most of these agricultural problems in Kutigi through the following objectives: Using Landsat imagery to assess the present landuse ...


Analysis Of Land Use Changes And Its Hydrological Implication On River Niger, Lokoja, Nigeria, O O. Ifatmehin Phd, P A. Essoka Phd, A Ahmed Dec 2012

Analysis Of Land Use Changes And Its Hydrological Implication On River Niger, Lokoja, Nigeria, O O. Ifatmehin Phd, P A. Essoka Phd, A Ahmed

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This study evaluates the impact of urbanization on Meme river catchment of 667,560.5Km2 area in the Lokoja urbanizing area of Kogi State. The emphasis was to examine the rate of urbanization, changes in land-use, and changes in meme river channel. Land-sat satellite imageries of 1987, 2001, 2006 and 2011 were processed to examine how land use change processes affects rate of urbanization and impacted on the stream. Hydrological map of Meme River was digitized using ARCGIS 9 software to extract the precise study area. It was discovered from multiple regression analysis that light vegetation (.92), built up area ...


Landscaping Israel: Power And Resistance On The Ground, Janey Kemp Dec 2012

Landscaping Israel: Power And Resistance On The Ground, Janey Kemp

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Factors That Shape Environmental Perceptions: The Role Of Health And Place, Elizabeth Langlois Dec 2012

Factors That Shape Environmental Perceptions: The Role Of Health And Place, Elizabeth Langlois

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Risk perception is the judgment people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Numerous theories and models exist which have identified the factors that influence risk perception. Among these factors, location, health status, and demographic characteristics are known to shape risk perception. To measure the influence of these factors on environmental perception, a series of surveys conducted in four Louisiana communities between 2004 and 2005 describe community perceptions about environmental issues and health status. The objective of the study was to characterize and compare environmental concerns relative to location, health status, and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that location ...


Detection And Mapping Of Phragmites Australis Using High Resolution Multispectral And Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery, Nicholas J. Lantz Dec 2012

Detection And Mapping Of Phragmites Australis Using High Resolution Multispectral And Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery, Nicholas J. Lantz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mapping invasive plant species is important to establish an invasion baseline, monitor plant propagation, and to implement an effective plan to deal with the invasion. In this thesis, methods are proposed to map invasive Phragmites australis in a Great Lakes coastal wetland. Chapter 2 presents an object-based Phragmites extraction method using Worldview-2 high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery. For the 4024 ha study area at Walpole Island,Ontario, 94% overall accuracy was achieved.

Chapter 3 uses CHRIS PROBA hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping the pixel abundance of Phragmites using a spectral mixture analysis method. An evaluation method was developed to assess the accuracy ...


Emotional Geographies Of Home: Place Identities Among Senior Women Residing In A Long-Term Care Facility, Malgorzata M. Milczarek Dec 2012

Emotional Geographies Of Home: Place Identities Among Senior Women Residing In A Long-Term Care Facility, Malgorzata M. Milczarek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research aimed to document the meanings and identities attached to the concept of ‘home’ among older women residing in long-term care. The study is based upon semi-structured, open-ended interviews with eleven senior women who reside in a long-term care home in The City of London, Ontario. This study contributes towards theoretical and methodological debates by combining critical humanism, feminism and the newly developing body of work called ‘emotional geographies’ in its approach. Along with the interview, the novel method of using the body as an ‘instrument of research’ is utilized (Longhurst, 2008). The methodology allows for ‘emotional spaces’ occupied ...


Kernel Density Estimation Of Traffic Accidents In A Network Space, Zhixiao Xie, Jun Yan Dec 2012

Kernel Density Estimation Of Traffic Accidents In A Network Space, Zhixiao Xie, Jun Yan

Dr Jun Yan

A standard planar Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) aims to produce a smooth density surface of spatial point events over a 2-D geographic space. However, the planar KDE may not be suited for characterizing certain point events, such as traffic accidents, which usually occur inside a 1-D linear space, the roadway network. This paper presents a novel network KDE approach to estimating the density of such spatial point events. One key feature of the new approach is that the network space is represented with basic linear units of equal network length, termed lixel (linear pixel), and related network topology. The use ...


Monitoring Land-Cover Change In The Las Vegas Valley: A Study Of Five Change Detection Methods In An Urban Environment, Bonnie Diane Weidemann Dec 2012

Monitoring Land-Cover Change In The Las Vegas Valley: A Study Of Five Change Detection Methods In An Urban Environment, Bonnie Diane Weidemann

All Theses and Dissertations

Change detection is currently a topic of great interest to theoretic geographic researchers. The necessity to map, monitor, and model land cover change is also important to a variety of applied fields as varied as urban planning and military intelligence. This research compares five algorithms to map urban land cover change in the greater Las Vegas, Nevada metropolitan area. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery acquired on May 1990 and May 2000 was used as the primary data. The change detection methods yielded simple maps of change vs. no change. These algorithms included image differencing, image ratioing, image regression, vegetation index differencing ...


Traditional Knowledge: Considerations For Protecting Water In Ontario, Deborah Mcgregor Dec 2012

Traditional Knowledge: Considerations For Protecting Water In Ontario, Deborah Mcgregor

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

In Canada, the water crisis increasingly felt around the world is being experienced primarily in small, usually Indigenous, communities. At the heart of this issue lies an ongoing struggle to have Indigenous voices heard in the decision-making processes that affect their lives, lands, and waters. As part of ancient systems of Traditional Knowledge (TK), Indigenous people bear the knowledge and the responsibility to care for the waters upon which they depend for survival. A series of internationally developed documents has supported Indigenous peoples’ calls for increased recognition of the importance of TK in resolving environmental crises, including those involving water ...


The Role Of Interdisciplinary Gis And Data Curation Librarians In Enhancing Authentic Scientific Research In The Classroom, Benjamin D. Branch, Michael Fosmire Dec 2012

The Role Of Interdisciplinary Gis And Data Curation Librarians In Enhancing Authentic Scientific Research In The Classroom, Benjamin D. Branch, Michael Fosmire

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Data science is a recently evolved area of scientific inquiry, where data, often collected by others, is analyzed by independent investigators to draw new conclusions. As such, data literacy needs to be incorporated into authentic research activities. The earth sciences in particular have a trove of data that resides in national data centers as well as individual investigators’ labs, which can be repurposed to provide the inputs for students to make their own inquiries into the data. With the amount of data available, students can make more substantive conclusions than if relying just on data they’ve collected themselves.


The Flow Of Water, Power, And Ideas: Water Commodification In Cape Town, South Africa And The Stratified Experiences Of Time And Space Compression, Jenna Washburn Dec 2012

The Flow Of Water, Power, And Ideas: Water Commodification In Cape Town, South Africa And The Stratified Experiences Of Time And Space Compression, Jenna Washburn

Master's Theses

I use the neoliberalization of the water sector in Cape Town, South Africa in order to test my theory of unequal development. I assert that the neoliberal economic practices of water commodification, business-friendly tariff policies, and prepaid management devices keep people along the periphery from accessing water, power, and ideas – thus causing a stratification of time and space compression between the core and the periphery.

By painting a theoretical picture of world cities, I wish to complicate the dominant views of time/space compression and suggest that, much like development and arguably because of it, time and space compression actually ...


Producing Edge City: Publics, Perceptions, And The Right To Life On The New Frontier, Ben Alan Gerlofs Dec 2012

Producing Edge City: Publics, Perceptions, And The Right To Life On The New Frontier, Ben Alan Gerlofs

Geography - Theses

This thesis explores Oak Brook, IL, an edge city (Garreau 1991) in the western suburbs of Chicago. A number of authors have advanced criticisms of edge cities (Beauregard 1995; Marcuse 1997), including that they are particularly exploitative and exclusionary. Some authors have claimed that edge cities are a "new frontier" (Garreau 1991), while others suggest that they are nothing new at all (Walker 1994). I address these concerns by way of an in-depth engagement with Oak Brook, Chicago's truest edge city. I ultimately argue that while edge cities have unique characteristics, they are part of a long heritage of ...


Net Zero Water Study For Fort Irwin California, Oludamilola Eyelade Dec 2012

Net Zero Water Study For Fort Irwin California, Oludamilola Eyelade

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

Fort Irwin, a US Army base located in the Mojave desert area of California derives its water needs from aquifers underlying the Bicycle, Irwin, and Langford basins. At present natural recharge from the surface basins is not sufficient to balance water drawn from the aquifers. As part of efforts to improve aquifer recharge, a system was required to determine the volume of runoff generated in each basin as well as the feasibility and potential sites for storm water capture. This study used GIS to create models for basin delineation, runoff calculation and site suitability analysis for storm water capture. Outputs ...


Managing Marine Mammal Observations Using A Volunteered Geographic Information Approach, Melodi C. King Dec 2012

Managing Marine Mammal Observations Using A Volunteered Geographic Information Approach, Melodi C. King

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

Traditional methods of gathering the data needed to understand human impact on marine mammals requires extensive time and resources. To reduce the burden associated with collecting and managing marine mammal observations, a geographic information system (GIS) solution was developed using a volunteered geographic information (VGI) approach. Web and mobile applications were built for the general public to submit marine mammal observations and visualize the results. The web application also includes querying and authorized download of data. Both applications consume web services published from an ArcSDE geodatabase using ArcGIS Server 10.0.


Web Maps For Environmental Learning At Highland Sam J. Racadio Library & Environmental Learning Center, Clifford Otieno Okembo Dec 2012

Web Maps For Environmental Learning At Highland Sam J. Racadio Library & Environmental Learning Center, Clifford Otieno Okembo

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

There is an exponential increase in the environmental issues globally causing various destructive events to both people and resources. This has raised concern to the industry stakeholders and the governments at local, regional, and global levels. Highland Library located in the City of Highland in California was not left behind. With their mission to educate the public of the importance of sound environmental management through learning, they had a problem in identifying the best media to use in communicating this to a wider audience. The project proposed the use of web maps for environmental learning. Using the ArcGIS API for ...


Modeling The Impact Of Terrain On Wind Speed And Dry Particle Deposition Using Windninja And Arcgis Spatial Analyst, Amber Nicole Brooks Dec 2012

Modeling The Impact Of Terrain On Wind Speed And Dry Particle Deposition Using Windninja And Arcgis Spatial Analyst, Amber Nicole Brooks

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

While developed countries have been able to implement engineering techniques and sanitation technologies to keep water resources clean from runoff and ground contamination, air pollution and its contribution of harmful contaminants to our water resources has yet to be fully understood and prevented.

Due to the large spatial and temporal extent and subsequent computational intensity required to understand atmospheric deposition as a pollutant source, a geographic information system (GIS) was utilized. Specifically, the flux of particulate matter at the air – water interface of a lake surface was quantified by season for the year of 2009 for Lake Perris in Southern ...


A Prototype Path Prediction Tool, Andrew Woizesko Dec 2012

A Prototype Path Prediction Tool, Andrew Woizesko

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

When a person moves through an environment he/she will decide where to travel based on their interpretation of the surroundings. This becomes important in search and rescue scenarios and military operations when a person’s route is of interest. One solution to predict this route is to model the way people travel. This paper documents the process of developing a prototype path prediction tool using the Python scripting language and ArcMap tools. The general model approach was to create a simulation based on a least cost path analysis restricted by viewshed analysis. While the concept is straightforward, creating the ...


Assessment Of Climate Change Scenarios On The Yukon River Basin, John Ngwembo Yembu Dec 2012

Assessment Of Climate Change Scenarios On The Yukon River Basin, John Ngwembo Yembu

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

There are indications that the climate is going to experience drastic change in the future, as it has occurred in the past and is currently happening now. Climate simulations have shown some potential hydrologic effects of climate change in the Yukon River Basin due to changes in temperature and precipitation. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council currently does not utilize spatial software to manage, analyze, or produce maps of climate change scenarios in the Yukon River basin. It is important to create a geodatabase, determine differences in climate change scenarios, and calculate peak discharge rates in the different regions using ...


Constraints In Adoption Of Moongbean Production Technology In Sundarban, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra Dec 2012

Constraints In Adoption Of Moongbean Production Technology In Sundarban, West Bengal, Ganesh Chandra

Ganesh Chandra

The new agricultural technologies are considered to be the prime mover to the process of agricultural development in India. Understanding farmers’ perceptions of a given technology is crucial in the generation and diffusion of new technologies and farm household information dissemination. Pulses in India have long been considered as the poor man’s only source of protein. Moongbean (green gram) is one of the important pulse crop in India, plays a major role in augmenting the income of small and marginal farmers of Sundarban. Constraints are the circumstances or causes, which prohibit farmer to adopt improved farm technology. This constraint ...


Returning The Commons: Resource Access And Environmental Governance In San Luis, Colorado, Keith Lindner Dec 2012

Returning The Commons: Resource Access And Environmental Governance In San Luis, Colorado, Keith Lindner

Geography - Dissertations

In Lobato v. Taylor (2002) the Colorado Supreme Court awarded Hispano heirs to the 1843 Mexican-era Sangre de Cristo Land Grant returned access to formerly communal land known as La Sierra, the Taylor Ranch, or today Cielo Vista Ranch. The 77,000 acre parcel of mountainous land remains privately owned, yet through Lobato over 4,000 individuals have been awarded legal rights to access the land for the "reasonable use" of pastures and forests for grazing, firewood, and timber. Based on roughly 15 months of ethnographic research in collaboration with the Land Rights Council and based in San Luis, CO ...


Competing Sovereignties: Corporate Social Responsibility, Oil Extraction, And Indigenous Subjectivity In Ecuador, Emily Billo Dec 2012

Competing Sovereignties: Corporate Social Responsibility, Oil Extraction, And Indigenous Subjectivity In Ecuador, Emily Billo

Geography - Dissertations

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs developed in recent years as the business response to social and environmental criticism of corporate operations, and are most debated in those societies where neoliberalism emerged most prominently, the United States and the United Kingdom. My dissertation expands these debates investigating the CSR programs of a Spanish-owned multinational oil company, Repsol-YPF operating in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. It explores CSR programs as institutions that can facilitate ongoing resource extraction, and particular technologies of rule that serve to discipline indigenous peoples at the point of extraction. I conducted an institutional ethnography to examine the social relationships ...


Examining Land Use/Land Cover Change And Potential Causal Factors In The Context Of Climate Change In Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, Kamal Humagain Dec 2012

Examining Land Use/Land Cover Change And Potential Causal Factors In The Context Of Climate Change In Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, Kamal Humagain

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In the context of growing tourism and global warming, the fragile landscape of the Himalayas is under immense pressure because of rapid land cover changes in developing countries like Nepal. Remotely sensed data combined with ethnographic knowledge are useful tools for studying such changes. The quantitative change can be measured analyzing satellite images whereas local people’s perceptions provide supportive information. To measure such changes in Sagarmatha National Park of Nepal, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) images since 1972 were used. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated for different elevation classes and land cover types. These measurements ...