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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2621

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Design Considerations For Legalizing Marijuana, Jonathan Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Peter Reuter Dec 2015

Design Considerations For Legalizing Marijuana, Jonathan Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Peter Reuter

Robert MacCoun

No abstract provided.


Endogenous R&D And Intellectual Property Laws In Developed And Emerging Economies, Aniruddha Bagchi, Abhra Roy May 2015

Endogenous R&D And Intellectual Property Laws In Developed And Emerging Economies, Aniruddha Bagchi, Abhra Roy

Abhra Roy

The incentive of providing protection of intellectual property has been analyzed, both for an emerging economy as well as for a developed economy. The optimal patent length and the optimal patent breadth within a country are found to be positively related to each other for a fixed structure of laws abroad. Moreover, a country can respond to stronger patent protection abroad by weakening its patent protection under certain circumstances and by strengthening its patent protection under other circumstances. These results depend upon the curvature of the R&D production function. Finally, we investigate the impact of an increase in the ...


Supply Response, Exchange Rate And Domestic Price In Nigeria, Emmanuel C. Ani, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare Dec 2012

Supply Response, Exchange Rate And Domestic Price In Nigeria, Emmanuel C. Ani, Samson Adeniyi Aladejare

Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the impact of exchange rate and domestic price on export trade in Nigeria. Firstly, based on the literature review and findings of the study in the area, the paper aligned itself within the premise of the traditionalist view which concludes that non-oil export trade in Nigeria is predicated by currency depreciation via lower export prices. Secondly, the introduction of domestic prices, alongside naira rate of exchange as major determinants of non–oil exports in Nigeria, has the implication of showing that currency devaluation could be used to improve the balance of ...


Housing, The Neighborhood Environment, And Physical Activity Among Older African Americans, Lonnie Hannon Iii, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M. Allman Dec 2012

Housing, The Neighborhood Environment, And Physical Activity Among Older African Americans, Lonnie Hannon Iii, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M. Allman

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Abstract

This study examines the association of neighborhood environment, as measured by housing factors, with physical activity among older African Americans. Context is provided on the effects of structural inequality as an inhibitor of health enhancing neighborhood environments. The study population included African Americans participating in the UAB Study of Aging (n=433). Participants demonstrated the ability to walk during a baseline in-home assessment. The strength and independence of housing factors were assessed using neighborhood walking for exercise as the outcome variable. Sociodemographic data, co-morbid medical conditions, and rural/urban residence were included as independent control factors. Homeownership, occupancy, and ...


The Beginning Of The End? Agricultural Modernization And Dissolution Of The Peasantry In Contemporary China, Qian Forrest Zhang, John Andrew Donaldson Dec 2012

The Beginning Of The End? Agricultural Modernization And Dissolution Of The Peasantry In Contemporary China, Qian Forrest Zhang, John Andrew Donaldson

Qian Forrest ZHANG

No abstract provided.


Agricultural Modernization In China And Its Impact On Cities: From The Perspective Of Rural-Urban Linkage, Qian Forrest Zhang Dec 2012

Agricultural Modernization In China And Its Impact On Cities: From The Perspective Of Rural-Urban Linkage, Qian Forrest Zhang

Qian Forrest ZHANG

No abstract provided.


Scaling Up From Smallholder Agriculture In China, North Branch River Vegetable Cooperative, Kevin Kimle, Hongdong Guo Dec 2012

Scaling Up From Smallholder Agriculture In China, North Branch River Vegetable Cooperative, Kevin Kimle, Hongdong Guo

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Zhang Guan liang is a Chinese agricultural entrepreneur, who lives in Fuyang, China. In 2009, he founded North Branch River Vegetable Cooperative, with a vision of creating a vegetable production and distribution entity of significant scale. He has successfully launched the venture, with more than 200 farmers producing vegetables for it. Today, he faces significant challenges to further growth; some common to entrepreneurs, others unique to agriculture, and others unique to growing an agricultural venture in China. The case charts Zhang's efforts to increase production capacity, access growth capital, and manage food safety issues. In a larger sense, the ...


Hambrunas Socialistas, Guillermo Arosemena Dec 2012

Hambrunas Socialistas, Guillermo Arosemena

Guillermo Arosemena

No abstract provided.


National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Comparative Report Of 2012 Results, Glen Mays Dec 2012

National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Comparative Report Of 2012 Results, Glen Mays

Glen Mays

The third wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems was fielded in 2012 in a nationally-representative cohort of local communities. The survey measures the availability of 20 recommended public health activities in the community, the range of organizations that participate in performing each activity, and the perceived effectiveness of each activity. Prior waves of the survey were fielded in 1998 and 2006. Local health officials report data for this survey and receive a customized report of results that compare data for their community with national norms and with "peer groups" of similar communities. This document provides an ...


“The Role Of Switching Costs In The Markets For Pc Operating Systems, Online Search, Internet Access And Mobile Service: Implications For Australian Competition And Consumer Protection Policy”, Robert G. Harris Dec 2012

“The Role Of Switching Costs In The Markets For Pc Operating Systems, Online Search, Internet Access And Mobile Service: Implications For Australian Competition And Consumer Protection Policy”, Robert G. Harris

Robert G Harris

This paper addresses the role of switching costs in computing, communications and information technologies. Switching costs (and closely related network effects) play an increasingly important role in competitive analysis and competition policy. This paper considers the interplay of switching costs and the emergence of the digital, online economy, and examines the implications of switching costs for competition and competition policies in Australia.


Edad Y Enseñanza, Guillermo Arosemena Dec 2012

Edad Y Enseñanza, Guillermo Arosemena

Guillermo Arosemena

No abstract provided.


El Estadista Civilizado, Guillermo Arosemena Dec 2012

El Estadista Civilizado, Guillermo Arosemena

Guillermo Arosemena

No abstract provided.


Optimal Environmental Taxation With Pre-Commitment And Green R&D, Stuart Mcdonald Dec 2012

Optimal Environmental Taxation With Pre-Commitment And Green R&D, Stuart Mcdonald

Stuart McDonald

Two approaches for modelling investment in R\&D have been developed by d'Aspremont and Jacquemin (AJ, 1988) and Kamien, Muller and Zang (KMZ, 1992), when there are spillovers associated with R\&D effort. This paper examines how these two approaches predict investment in green technology, when environmental policy takes the form of an optimal emission tax. The results show that the two models are equivalent when there are no R\&D spillovers; but when R\&D spillovers are present, significant differences in their predictions are observed. Specifically, the KMZ model predicts higher emission tax rates, higher level of R\&D expenditures and higher levels of aggregate emissions than the AJ model, under both cooperative and non-cooperative R\&D regimes. The KMZ model also predicts a counter intuitive positive relationship between R\&D spillovers and emissions taxes when firms choose not to cooperate in R\&D. Due to these results, we argue the KMZ model is of questionable validity when modelling green technology R\&D.


Antitrust And The 'Filed Rate' Doctrine: Deregulation And State Action, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Antitrust And The 'Filed Rate' Doctrine: Deregulation And State Action, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its Keogh decision the Supreme Court held that although the Interstate Commerce Act did not exempt railroads from antitrust liability, a private plaintiff may not recover treble damages based on an allegedly monopolistic tariff rate filed with a federal agency. Keogh very likely grew out of Justice Brandeis's own zeal for regulation and his concern for the protection of small business — in this case, mainly shippers whom he felt were protected from discrimination by filed rates. The Supreme Court's Square D decision later conceded that Keogh may have been “unwise as a matter of policy,” but reaffirmed ...


¿Formalismo Anticuado?, Jose Luis Sardon Dec 2012

¿Formalismo Anticuado?, Jose Luis Sardon

Jose Luis Sardon

Corte Internacional de La Haya debe acoger solicitud peruana de fijar límite marítimo con Chile, porque no existe un tratado de límites al respecto.


Economic Theory Gives Us Two 'Weapons' To Combat Gun Violence, Louis D. Johnston Dec 2012

Economic Theory Gives Us Two 'Weapons' To Combat Gun Violence, Louis D. Johnston

Economics Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Pricing Lower Or Buying Cheaper? How Grocery Consumers Pay Less During Seasonal Demand Peaks, Colin Watson Dec 2012

Pricing Lower Or Buying Cheaper? How Grocery Consumers Pay Less During Seasonal Demand Peaks, Colin Watson

Undergraduate Economic Review

The average price paid for a seasonal grocery category is (surprisingly) lower during the category's seasonal demand peak. For several product categories at one supermarket chain, demand peaks are shown to be associated with 1) consumer substitution to lower-quality products, 2) product price reductions, especially on products that increase their market shares, and as a result 3) a decline in the average price paid for the product category. In one very seasonal category, price reductions are driven by intertemporal substitution associated with large weekly discounts. Findings are consistent with any of several loss leader models.


Do Training Funds Raise The Pace Of Training? The Case Of Mauritius, Oluyemisi Kuku, Peter F. Orazem, Sawkut Rojid, Milan Vodopivec Dec 2012

Do Training Funds Raise The Pace Of Training? The Case Of Mauritius, Oluyemisi Kuku, Peter F. Orazem, Sawkut Rojid, Milan Vodopivec

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Many developing countries have tried to increase firm provision of training by providing subsidies funded by taxes proportional to the firm's wage bill. These training funds, however, may backfire if the adverse effect of the tax on training incentives outweighs the positive effects of the subsidy. We show that the value of these training funds depends critically on the extent to which firms are liquidity constrained. If the effective firm discount rate is low, the disincentives outweigh the benefits. Using an administrative dataset on the Mauritius training fund, we show that larger, high-wage and more capital intensive firms are ...


State-Space Versus Multiple Regression For Forecasting Urban Water Demand, R. Bruce Billings, William C. Horrace, Donald E. Agthe Dec 2012

State-Space Versus Multiple Regression For Forecasting Urban Water Demand, R. Bruce Billings, William C. Horrace, Donald E. Agthe

William C Horrace

No abstract provided.


Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This brief essay reviews Firat Cengiz’s book Antitrust Federalism in the EU and the US (2012), which compares the role of federalism in the competition law of the European Union and the United States. Both of these systems are “federal,” of course, because both have individual nation-states (Europe) or states (US) with their own individual competition provisions, but also an overarching competition law that applies to the entire group. This requires a certain amount of cooperation with respect to both territorial reach and substantive coverage.

Cengiz distinguishes among “markets,” “hierarchies,” and “networks” as forms of federalism. Markets are the ...


Antitrust And Nonexcluding Ties, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Antitrust And Nonexcluding Ties, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Notwithstanding hundreds of court decisions, tying arrangements remain enigmatic. Conclusions that go to either extreme, per se legality or per se illegality, invariably make simplifying assumptions that frequently do not obtain. For example, by ignoring double marginalization or tying product price cuts it becomes very easy to prove that a wide range of ties are anticompetitive. At the other extreme, by ignoring foreclosure possibilities one can readily conclude that ties are invariably benign.

Ties have historically been thought to produce two kinds of competitive harm: “leverage,” or extraction; and foreclosure, or exclusion. The two theories are not mutually exclusive. Indeed ...


St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report, Vol. 14, No. 4, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald Dec 2012

St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report, Vol. 14, No. 4, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald

St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report

No abstract provided.


Time Series, Unit Roots, And Cointegration: An Introduction, Lonnie K. Stevans Dec 2012

Time Series, Unit Roots, And Cointegration: An Introduction, Lonnie K. Stevans

Lonnie K. Stevans

The econometric literature on unit roots took off after the publication of the paper by Nelson and Plosser (1982) that argued that most macroeconomic series have unit roots and that this is important for the analysis of macroeconomic policy. Yule (1926) suggested that regressions based on trending time series data can be spurious. This problem of spurious correlation was further pursued by Granger and Newbold (1974) and this also led to the development of the concept of cointegration (lack of cointegration implies spurious regression). The pathbreaking paper by Granger (1981), first presented at a conference at the University of Florida ...


Examining Eurozone Divergence, Charles Noble Dec 2012

Examining Eurozone Divergence, Charles Noble

Economics Theses

This paper provides a brief history of European integration followed by an examination of the Eurozone financial crisis and the economic divergence among particular economies (Germany compared with Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Ireland) it induced. Afterwards a list of structural and policy reforms meant to achieve economic convergence is provided. The paper concludes that in order for the Eurozone to achieve economic convergence, it would be best if Greece and Portugal exited the monetary union. The smaller, more homogeneous union could then more readily achieve economic convergence to function, both politically and economically, as a sustainable monetary union.


Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell Dec 2012

Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell

Master's Theses

Abstract

I examine the following elements in regards to women’s mobilization in Latin America and Venezuela from the late 1950s to the present: (a) the influence of the state and economy on times when women mobilized (b) class division within the movement (c) women’s demands during different time periods (d) the ways in which women were successful in working towards gender equality. This thesis reviews the literature on women’s mobilization in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century. I find that women mobilized across class lines with the masses to end dictatorships. Women demobilized ...


Competitive Balance In Division 1 College Hockey: An Economic Analysis, Christopher Decarlo Dec 2012

Competitive Balance In Division 1 College Hockey: An Economic Analysis, Christopher Decarlo

Honors Theses

This paper seeks to determine the levels of competitive balance in Division I college hockey using several well known measures of competitive balance. It focuses on the five hockey conferences, specifically on win percentages and concentration of conference and national championships. This paper also seeks to determine any correlation between university actions, specifically athletic spending, and successful hockey programs. Finally, it suggests possible areas of future research and ways to improve on the current research.


Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller Dec 2012

Struggling Recovery And Economic Policy Uncertainty: Testimony Before The Joint Revenue Hearing, House And Senate Ways And Means Committees, Massachusetts State House, Boston, Ma, Christian Weller

Christian Weller

The U.S. economy is in the fourth year of a recovery that started in June 2009. The fact that the economy is in recovery, even modestly, is something of a miracle given how stacked the deck is against it. This is absolutely unique in American economic history: There has never been a recovery without the housing market expanding substantially as well; There has never been a recovery with state and local governments shrinking for three years in a row; There has never been a recovery with households owing, on average, well more than 100 percent of their after-tax income ...


The Sherman Act And The Balance Of Power, David K. Millon Dec 2012

The Sherman Act And The Balance Of Power, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


Pearl District Market Study, Thomas Potiowsky, Scott Stewart Dec 2012

Pearl District Market Study, Thomas Potiowsky, Scott Stewart

Northwest Economic Research Center Publications and Reports

Economic viability assessment of the Pearl District in Portland, including descriptions of demography, industry, and office space supply and demand.


Export Strength And Opportunities For Kentucky Industries, Christopher R. Bollinger, Derrick Jenniges Dec 2012

Export Strength And Opportunities For Kentucky Industries, Christopher R. Bollinger, Derrick Jenniges

CBER Research Report

Executive Summary:

This project's primary goal is to quantify export strengths and opportunities in Kentucky industries. We measure export strength as the relative dollar value of exports per worker in four digit industries using U.S. dollar value of exports per worker as the base. Tables were prepared for total exports and a selection of 50 countries representing 98.5% of Kentucky exports and 93.2% of U.S. exports. In addition to the export index, a measure of industry strength based upon labor and comparisons to regional competitor states is provided.

  • Industries with a low index value, either ...