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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Generation X: Redefining The Norms Of The Academy, Ronald Ehrenberg Oct 2012

Generation X: Redefining The Norms Of The Academy, Ronald Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] The members of Generation X are the young faculty members of today and the immediate future. The panelists at this session of the conference were asked to discuss the effects of this generation on academic norms and institutional governance and the types of new models that may be emerging for academia as a result of them. More specifically, they were asked if the attitudes and loyalties of these young faculty members really do differ from that of the Baby Boom Generation, how their attitudes and behavior affect graduate programs, what academic institutions will need to do to attract the ...


Prospects In The Academic Labor Market For Economists, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Aug 2012

Prospects In The Academic Labor Market For Economists, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] American colleges and universities are increasingly substituting nontenure track full-time and part-time faculty for full-time tenured and tenure track faculty. Moreover, institutions of public higher education, where almost two-thirds of the full-time faculty members at four-year institutions are employed, are under severe financial pressure. The share of state budgets devoted to public higher education is declining. The salaries of economics department faculty members at public higher education institutions have fallen substantially relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions, and it is becoming increasingly difficult for the publics to compete for top faculty in economics ...


The Social Security Student Benefit Program And Family Decisions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Aug 2012

The Social Security Student Benefit Program And Family Decisions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

In 1965 Congress established the Social Security Student Benefit Program which provided benefits for children of deceased, disabled or retired workers, who were enrolled in college full—time and were not married, up until the semester they turned age 22. The program grew to be a major financial aid program; at its peak in FY 81 it represented about 20% of all federal outlays on student assistance for higher education. The program was terminated for students newly entering college as of May 1, 1982. Somewhat surprisingly, in contrast to the debate that accompanies most social programs, debate over the student ...


The Changing Distributions Of New Ph.D. Economists And Their Employment: Implications For The Future, Ronald Ehrenberg Aug 2012

The Changing Distributions Of New Ph.D. Economists And Their Employment: Implications For The Future, Ronald Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] Academic careers are no longer the be-all and end-all for economics Ph.D. students, and the findings and background provided by Siegfried and Stock help to explain why this is so. The median age at which individuals receive economics Ph.D.'s in the Siegfried and Stock sample is 32. While they are somewhat surprised at this finding, it parallels the experiences of many other fields. Increasingly, students are working before proceeding to doctoral studies. Often Ph.D. students in economics enter their programs after having spent several years working for government agencies or research consulting companies—work that ...


Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Aug 2012

Retirement Policies, Employment, And Unemployment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] There is a growing consensus among economists that reliance on aggregate demand policies alone will not be sufficient to move the economy to full employment with a nonaccelerating inflation rate, and that policies which alter the structure of labor markets will be required. While obvious structural policies such as public sector employment programs and training programs are the focus of current debate, many other public policies affect labor markets in subtle ways which may well adversely affect the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. To help improve the inflation-unemployment tradeoff, policymakers should seek to marginally modify these policies ...


The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald Ehrenberg Aug 2012

The Impact Of Retirement Policies On Employment And Unemployment, Ronald Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] This paper has focused on the impact of retirement policies on the level and distribution of employment and unemployment. All of the policies discussed, except for early retirement provisions in privately negotiated collective bargaining contracts were seen to have adverse effects on the level and distribution of employment. Hence, the paper illustrates the more general point that policies designed to promote one social goal may well detract from achieving other goals and suggests that more explicit attention should be given to the employment effects of social programs and legislation prior to their adoption.


[Review Of The Book Discrimination In Labor Markets], Ronald G. Ehrenberg Aug 2012

[Review Of The Book Discrimination In Labor Markets], Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] In sum, I consider Discrimination in Labor Markets a fine volume. Anyone who has the slightest interest in the analysis of labor-market discrimination should seriously contemplate purchasing it. The relatively nontechnical nature of the papers will appeal to a wide range of readers, and the book should quickly find its way onto reading lists for undergraduate and graduate courses that discuss the economics of discrimination.


The Effect Of Casino Tax Policy On Short-Run Gaming Development, Kahlil Philander Aug 2012

The Effect Of Casino Tax Policy On Short-Run Gaming Development, Kahlil Philander

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the effect of casino tax rate structure on investment by casino operators. Using a panel data set consisting of all states with legal commercial casino gambling from 1998 to 2009, a fixed-effect model with two-stage least squares is estimated to examine the effect of gambling taxes on firms' short-run behavior. The study finds that maximum casino tax rates decrease casino employment, with an estimated average elasticity of -0.5. This result is noted to be robust to several different model specifications and data subsets. No robust relationship is found between maximum tax rates and casino wages. No ...


The Demand For State And Local Government Employees, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2012

The Demand For State And Local Government Employees, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] The primary purpose of this paper is to present empirical estimates of the wage elasticities of demand for different categories of state and local government employees. The employment demand equations that are estimated are derived from a utility maximization model of state and local government behavior. After presenting this model in the first section, we next briefly discuss the data used in the study. The structural system of demand equations is then estimated using pooled time-series and cross-section information, with annual individual state data as the units of observation. A number of alternative estimation methods are used in the ...


Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2012

Absenteeism And The Overtime Decision, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] Upon reading the congressional hearing on the Overtime Pay Penalty Act of 1964, one cannot fail to be impressed by the emphasis that management places on absenteeism as a primary cause of overtime. The argument given is basically quite simple: Large firms, it is claimed, attempt to account for absenteeism by hiring standby workers; however because of the stochastic nature of the absentee rate, it is impossible for them to have replacements always available. Hence overtime must be worked by existing employees in order to meet production schedules. One concludes from this argument that the randomness of absenteeism is ...


The Impact Of The Overtime Premium On Employment And Hours In U.S. Industry, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2012

The Impact Of The Overtime Premium On Employment And Hours In U.S. Industry, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] This paper presents empirical estimates of the intra-industry cross-section relationship between annual overtime hours per man and the ratio of these quasi-fixed costs to the overtime wage rate. Estimates are also made of the impact of a change in the overtime premium on employment and hours; these estimates have implications for policymakers concerned with the wisdom of increasing the overtime premium as a method of job creation.


Problems Affecting Aboriginal Education, Employment And Training Programs, Nadia Verrucci, Robert Castle Jun 2012

Problems Affecting Aboriginal Education, Employment And Training Programs, Nadia Verrucci, Robert Castle

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Aboriginal Employment In Rural New South Wales, 1883-1982, Robert Castle, James Hagan Jun 2012

Aboriginal Employment In Rural New South Wales, 1883-1982, Robert Castle, James Hagan

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Seasonal Work And Aboriginal Employment In Two Nsw Rural Areas, Robert Castle, James Hagan Jun 2012

Seasonal Work And Aboriginal Employment In Two Nsw Rural Areas, Robert Castle, James Hagan

Robert G. Castle

This paper has several areas of focus. It chronicles the history of Aboriginal employment in Australia in two contrasting areas; it identifies the characteristics of that employment and traces the nature of its change over time; it outlines the attitude of Aborigines towards their work, and the impact of that work on Aboriginal society; it also considers the attitudes of white Australians towards Aborigines and their employment. Finally, it draws some conclusions concerning the responses of the Aborigines to pressures put on them by the economy and society of the white man.


Employment Opportunities For Aborigines In New South Wales, R Castle, A Endres, J Hagan, T Maher Jun 2012

Employment Opportunities For Aborigines In New South Wales, R Castle, A Endres, J Hagan, T Maher

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Regional Problems In The Implementation Of Labout Market Programs: Aboriginal Employment Programs In Australia, Robert Castle Jun 2012

Regional Problems In The Implementation Of Labout Market Programs: Aboriginal Employment Programs In Australia, Robert Castle

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Employment Prospects For Aboriginals In Rural Labour Markets: Report To Australian Council For Education And Training, Robert Castle Jun 2012

Employment Prospects For Aboriginals In Rural Labour Markets: Report To Australian Council For Education And Training, Robert Castle

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Seasonal Work And Aboriginal Employment In Two Rural Areas Of New South Wales, 1921–78, Robert Castle, James Hagan Jun 2012

Seasonal Work And Aboriginal Employment In Two Rural Areas Of New South Wales, 1921–78, Robert Castle, James Hagan

Robert G. Castle

This paper has several areas of focus. It chronicles the history of Aboriginal employment in Australia in two contrasting areas; it identifies the characteristics of that employment and traces the nature of its change over time; it outlines the attitude of Aborigines towards their work, and the impact of that work on Aboriginal society; it also considers the attitudes of white Australians towards Aborigines and their employment. Finally, it draws some conclusions concerning the responses of the Aborigines to pressures put on them by the economy and society of the white man.


Trends In Australian Public Sector Employment, Robert Castle Jun 2012

Trends In Australian Public Sector Employment, Robert Castle

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


A Critique Of Aboriginal Employment And Training Programmes, Robert Castle, James Hagan Jun 2012

A Critique Of Aboriginal Employment And Training Programmes, Robert Castle, James Hagan

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Prospects For Public Sector Employment, Robert Castle Jun 2012

Prospects For Public Sector Employment, Robert Castle

Robert G. Castle

No abstract provided.


Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin Jun 2012

Flexibility And Fairness In Liberal Market Economies: The Comparative Impact Of The Legal Environment And High Performance Work Systems, Alexander Colvin

Alexander Colvin

This paper compares management flexibility in employment decision-making in the United States and Canada through a cross-national survey of organizations in representative jurisdictions in each country, Pennsylvania and Ontario respectively, that investigates the impact of differences in their legal environments. The results indicate that, compared to their Ontario counterparts, organizations in Pennsylvania have a higher degree of flexibility in employment outcomes, such as higher dismissal and discipline rates, yet do not experience any greater flexibility or simplicity in management hiring and firing decisions. One explanation for this result may lie in the finding that organizations in Pennsylvania experience greater legal ...


The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg May 2012

The Effects Of Recruitment Message Specificity On Applicant Attraction To Organizations, Quinetta M. Roberson, Christopher J. Collins, Shaul Oreg

Christopher J Collins

We used the elaboration likelihood model from marketing research to explain and examine how recruitment message specificity influences job seeker attraction to organizations. Using an experimental design and data from 171 college-level job seekers, the results showed that detailed recruitment messages led to enhanced perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit. Perceptions of fit were found to mediate the relationship between message specificity and intention to apply to the organization. In addition, perceptions of organization attributes and person-organization fit were found to influence intentions to apply under circumstances of explicit recruitment information while attractiveness and fit perceptions were shown to ...


Interpreter Roles And Transition For Public School Students Who Are Deaf: A Multiple Case Study, John Hinz May 2012

Interpreter Roles And Transition For Public School Students Who Are Deaf: A Multiple Case Study, John Hinz

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This qualitative multiple case study research project examines interpreter use for students who are Deaf in the public school system and juxtaposes it with interpreter use found in the work sector after the school-to-work (STW) transition. Semi-structured interviews with 16 Deafness professionals and 6 study participants who are Deaf, as well as workplace observations yield bits of data which are coded and themed for review. Results confirm that interpreter use is abundant in public schools and scant in the work sector. Further results determine that STW placements for students who are Deaf can be haphazard, while employers are largely unaware ...


Centrelink Prosecutions At The Employment/Benefit Nexus: A Case Study Of Wollongong, Freda Hui, Lee Moerman, Kathy Rudkin Apr 2012

Centrelink Prosecutions At The Employment/Benefit Nexus: A Case Study Of Wollongong, Freda Hui, Lee Moerman, Kathy Rudkin

Lee Moerman

This report examines financial and social issues pertaining to Centrelink prosecutions for overpayments of unemployment‐related social security benefits. Specifically, it examines the circumstances of prosecutions of those returning to work, and those in precarious casual employment. A sample of overpayment prosecutions in the Wollongong area of New South Wales from July 2008 to June 2010 is profiled and analysed.


Centrelink Prosecutions At The Employment/Benefit Nexus: A Case Study Of Wollongong, Freda Hui, Lee Moerman, Kathy Rudkin Apr 2012

Centrelink Prosecutions At The Employment/Benefit Nexus: A Case Study Of Wollongong, Freda Hui, Lee Moerman, Kathy Rudkin

Freda Hui

This report examines financial and social issues pertaining to Centrelink prosecutions for overpayments of unemployment‐related social security benefits. Specifically, it examines the circumstances of prosecutions of those returning to work, and those in precarious casual employment. A sample of overpayment prosecutions in the Wollongong area of New South Wales from July 2008 to June 2010 is profiled and analysed.


Partnering With The Massachusetts Department Of Developmental Services On Employment-Focused Systems Change, Cindy Thomas, Margaret Van Gelder, John Butterworth, Institute For Community Inclusion, University Of Massachusetts Boston Apr 2012

Partnering With The Massachusetts Department Of Developmental Services On Employment-Focused Systems Change, Cindy Thomas, Margaret Van Gelder, John Butterworth, Institute For Community Inclusion, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The Massachusetts Department of Developmental Services (MA-DDS) has been working to make its system of day services and supports more focused on competitive employment outcomes. This effort has involved a partnership among DDS, the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI), the State Employment Leadership Network, and the Work Without Limits project. ICI has worked alongside DDS throughout this effort, providing consulting, technical assistance, training, and evaluation activities.


The Latino Immigrant Labor Experience As Depicted In Film, Duane Wright Feb 2012

The Latino Immigrant Labor Experience As Depicted In Film, Duane Wright

Duane E Wright II

The author argues that traditional macro-level methods of gathering data on populations create an impersonal depiction of the group. A useful pedagogical tool for teachers to counter this is to use fictional accounts in film and literature to put a more human face on the subjects being studied. Two films, Bread and Roses and El Norte, are used in this way to enhance or add another dimension to studies of the labor experience of Latino immigrants in the United States. The films are looked at through various sociological theories, Assimilation, Competition, and Neo-Marxist. The author concludes that Neo-Marxist theory best ...


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...