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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Managing Social-Business Tensions: A Review And Research Agenda For Social Enterprise, Michaël Gonin, Marya Besharov, Wendy Smith, Nicholas Gachet Nov 2012

Managing Social-Business Tensions: A Review And Research Agenda For Social Enterprise, Michaël Gonin, Marya Besharov, Wendy Smith, Nicholas Gachet

Articles and Chapters

In a world filled with poverty, environmental degradation, and moral injustice, social enterprises offer a ray of hope. These organizations seek to achieve social missions through business ventures. Yet social missions and business ventures are associated with divergent goals, values, norms, and identities. Attending to them simultaneously creates tensions, competing demands, and ethical dilemmas. Effectively understanding social enterprises therefore depends on insight into the nature and management of these tensions. While existing research recognizes tensions between social missions and business ventures, we lack any systematic analysis. Our paper addresses this issue. We first categorize the types of tensions that arise ...


Leading Amidst Competing Technical And Institutional Demands: Revisiting Selznick’S Conception Of Leadership, Marya Besharov, Rakesh Khurana Nov 2012

Leading Amidst Competing Technical And Institutional Demands: Revisiting Selznick’S Conception Of Leadership, Marya Besharov, Rakesh Khurana

Articles and Chapters

This chapter explores how Selznick’s approach to leadership can inform contemporary organizational theory and research. Drawing on Selznick’s writing in Leadership in Administration and related works, we characterize organizations as simultaneously technical entities pursuing economic goals and value-laden entities pursuing non-economic goals arising from their members and their role in society. These two aspects of organizations are deeply intertwined and in continual tension with one another, and the essential task of leadership is to uphold both – protecting and promoting values while also meeting technical imperatives. To do so, leaders establish a common purpose that includes values and ideals ...


The Career Of Vernon Briggs, Jr.: A Liberal Economist’S Struggle To Reduce Immigration, Jerry Kammer Sep 2012

The Career Of Vernon Briggs, Jr.: A Liberal Economist’S Struggle To Reduce Immigration, Jerry Kammer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] At the conclusion of Cornell’s spring semester in 2007, Briggs ended his 47 years of college teaching. As he retired, Cornell honored him with emeritus status. Since then, he has occasionally given public talks and written articles on the need for immigration reform. He says his work still draws motivation from a principle he left with his students at the end of the last lecture in each of his classes over his entire career: “The mode through which the impossible comes to pass is effort.”

That quote from Justice Oliver Wendell Homes was passed on to Briggs by ...


Getting Through The Hard Times Together? Chinese Workers And Unions Respond To The Economic Crisis, Eli D. Friedman Sep 2012

Getting Through The Hard Times Together? Chinese Workers And Unions Respond To The Economic Crisis, Eli D. Friedman

Articles and Chapters

How do post-socialist unions respond to market crisis? And what are the implications of this response for labor representation? Drawing on literature on post-socialist labor and union democracy, I argue that economic crisis affects not just labor – capital and labor – state relations, but also the relationship between union representatives and workers. Such a dynamic is highlighted by an empirical account of the divergent activities of workers and All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) unions in China following the economic crisis of 2008. While the union responded to mass unemployment with an administrative and policy-oriented strategy, workers took to the streets ...


Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Challenges And Policy Lessons For The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields Jan 2012

Employment And Development In The Developing World: Taking Stock Of What Research Can Teach Us, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Productivity growth and structural change are generally considered to be important determinants of economic growth. However recent research revealed that they do not necessarily lead to higher growth and employment rates. Recent studies, drawing on data from developing countries, showed that only the “right” kind of productivity growth resulted in higher employment rates. Enterprises in Africa and Latin America caught up in matters of technology; however, this process resulted in a substitution of employment by technology. The same is true for structural change; only the “right” kind of structural change caused more growth and employment. Whereas in Asia, labour shifted ...


Leveraging Health Capital At The Workplace: An Examination Of Health Reporting Behavior Among Latino Immigrant Restaurant Workers In The United States, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2012

Leveraging Health Capital At The Workplace: An Examination Of Health Reporting Behavior Among Latino Immigrant Restaurant Workers In The United States, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article examines the choices made by a sample of Latino immigrant restaurant workers in regard to their health management, particularly in response to illness and injury. I draw on 33 interviews with kitchen staff employed in the mainstream restaurant industry in San Jose, California, and Houston, Texas, in 2006 and 2007. I argue that workers must consider complex power relationships at work in weighing the advantages of calling in sick, using protective equipment, seeking medical care, or filing a workers' compensation claim. These decisions implicate direct and opportunity costs, such as risk of job loss and missed opportunities for ...


Introduction: Everything Old Is New Again, Louis Hyman Jan 2012

Introduction: Everything Old Is New Again, Louis Hyman

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the 1920s, Americans, both borrowers and lenders, discovered new ways to finance consumer credit, and, of course, it was only the beginning. Debt was everywhere, and its ubiquity was made possible by changes in finance, manufacturing, and law that had occurred after the First World War. High interest on consumer loans had long been illegal in the U.S., but around World War I, progressive reformers, seeking to drive out loan sharks, pushed states across the country to raise the legal interest rate. Now able to lend money legally, at rates which could be profitable, new consumer finance ...


When Do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis Of Undocumented Life In The United States, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2012

When Do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis Of Undocumented Life In The United States, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article assesses how two key institutions differentially shape immigrants’ relationship to their rights in American society. We draw on over 200 in-depth interviews to argue that there is a stark difference between how schools encourage undocumented youth to view themselves as equal members of US society and how undocumented workers are marginalized in the workplace. We find that even as schools track and stratify students, they also foster a culture of meritocracy between documented and undocumented youth. Schools ultimately render immigration status irrelevant as undocumented youth learn to navigate the primary institution of this stage of their lives. Conversely ...


Guilt By Design: Structuring Organizations To Elicit Guilt As An Affective Reaction To Failure, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis K. Flynn Jan 2012

Guilt By Design: Structuring Organizations To Elicit Guilt As An Affective Reaction To Failure, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis K. Flynn

Articles and Chapters

In this article, we outline a model of how organizations can effectively shape employees’ affective reactions to failure. We do not suggest that organizations eliminate the experience of negative affect following performance failures—instead, we propose that they encourage a more constructive form of negative affect (guilt) instead of a destructive one (shame). We argue that guilt responses prompt employees to take corrective action in response to mistakes, while shame responses are likely to elicit more detrimental effects of negative affect. Further, we suggest that organizations can play a role in influencing employees’ discrete emotional reactions to the benefit of ...


Underestimating One's Influence In Help-Seeking, Francis J. Flynn, Vanessa K. Bohns Jan 2012

Underestimating One's Influence In Help-Seeking, Francis J. Flynn, Vanessa K. Bohns

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Robert Cialdini's book, Influence (Cialdini, 1984), has counseled countless readers on the art and science of persuasion. Some have read the book looking for tips on how to become more persuasive, while others have flipped the pages searching for clues on how to protect themselves from persuasive attempts. Whatever they are hoping to find, readers come away with a similar emotional response. Almost without exception, their common reaction is a feeling of surprise. Scan the reviews of Influence available online and you will be told in clear detail about a strong sense of shock, awe, and amazement, all ...


Outside Advantage: Can Social Rejection Fuel Creative Thought?, Sharon H. Kim, Lynne C. Vincent, Jack Goncalo Jan 2012

Outside Advantage: Can Social Rejection Fuel Creative Thought?, Sharon H. Kim, Lynne C. Vincent, Jack Goncalo

Articles and Chapters

Eminently creative people working in fields as disparate as Physics and Literature refer to the experience of social rejection as fuel for creativity. Yet, the evidence of this relationship is anecdotal, and the psychological process that might explain it is as yet unknown. We theorize that the experience of social rejection may indeed stimulate creativity but only for individuals with an independent self-concept. In three studies, we show that individuals who hold an independent self-concept performed more creatively following social rejection relative to inclusion. We also show that this boost in creativity is mediated by a differentiation mindset, or salient ...


The Quality Of Jobs Created By Entrepreneurs, Adam Seth Litwin, Philip H. Phan Jan 2012

The Quality Of Jobs Created By Entrepreneurs, Adam Seth Litwin, Philip H. Phan

Articles and Chapters

Few dare to challenge the conventional wisdom that small business is the engine of job creation. Indeed, in the United States, the image of the small business owner left largely unfettered to create novel products and services sits on the same cultural plane as baseball and apple pie, and one would be hard-pressed to find a policymaker who would openly question the wisdom that most new jobs arise either directly or indirectly from these small businesses. This near religious belief in the small business owner as job creator yields a steady stream of policies offering tax relief to small businesses ...


The Elusive Goal: The Quest For A Credible Immigration Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Jan 2012

The Elusive Goal: The Quest For A Credible Immigration Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The starting point for all immigration reform efforts must be making the immigration system enforceable. Nothing else makes sense. Otherwise, immigration policy is on a squirrel wheel going nowhere. Illegal immigrants will keep coming in defiance of its terms.


Counterpoint: Reply To Orrenius And Zavodny, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Jan 2012

Counterpoint: Reply To Orrenius And Zavodny, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] On the fundamental conclusions, the positions argued by Pia Orrenius and Madeline Zavodny and my own are in essential agreement. The immigration policy of the United States is in dire need of changes. The public concern is, in their words, “driven by the increase in immigration in recent years, particularly of unauthorized immigration.” Our mutual worries pertain to the disproportionately adverse impacts of the immigrant inflow on the nation’s low-skilled work force and the high fiscal burden borne by local communities and states with growing immigrant populations.

The differences between the two papers center on the approaches taken ...


The State Of The Art In Performance Management: Learnings From Discussions With Leading Organizations, Bradford S. Bell, Christopher J. Collins Jan 2012

The State Of The Art In Performance Management: Learnings From Discussions With Leading Organizations, Bradford S. Bell, Christopher J. Collins

Articles and Chapters

Performance management is one of the fundamental HR tools that has been part of organizational life for decades and has long been the backbone of other activities of the HR system (e.g., pay decisions, development plans). Despite the importance of performance management, it has historically been rated by employees, managers, and the HR function itself as one of the least effective and understood HR practices. Given the stagnation in academic research on the topic and discontent on the part of organizational stakeholders, we decided it was an opportune time to meet with leading companies to understand the state of ...


A Voice Is Worth A Thousand Words: The Implications Of The Micro-Coding Of Social Signals In Speech For Trust Research, Benjamin Waber, Michele Williams, John Carroll, Alex Pentland Jan 2012

A Voice Is Worth A Thousand Words: The Implications Of The Micro-Coding Of Social Signals In Speech For Trust Research, Benjamin Waber, Michele Williams, John Carroll, Alex Pentland

Articles and Chapters

While self-report measures are often highly reliable for field research on trust (Mayer and Davis, 1999), subjects often cannot complete surveys during real time interactions. In contrast, the social signals that are embedded in the non-linguistic elements of conversations can be captured in real time and extracted with the assistance of computer coding. This chapter seeks to understand how computer-coded social signals are related to interpersonal trust.


American Higher Education In Transition, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2012

American Higher Education In Transition, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In public higher education, tuition increases in recent decades have barely offset a long-run decline in state appropriations per full-time equivalent student. State appropriations per full-time equivalent student at public higher educational institutions averaged $6,454 in fiscal year 2010; at its peak in fiscal year 1987, the comparable number (in constant dollars) was $7,993 (State Higher Education Executive Officers 2011, figure 3), translating into a decline of 19 percent over the period. Even if one leaves out the "Great Recession," real state appropriations per full-time equivalent student were still lower in fiscal year 2008 than they were ...


It Hurts When I Do This (Or You Do That): Posture And Pain Tolerance, Vanessa K. Bohns, Scott Wiltermuth Jan 2012

It Hurts When I Do This (Or You Do That): Posture And Pain Tolerance, Vanessa K. Bohns, Scott Wiltermuth

Articles and Chapters

Recent research (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010) has shown that adopting a powerful pose changes people's hormonal levels and increases their propensity to take risks in the same ways that possessing actual power does. In the current research, we explore whether adopting physical postures associated with power, or simply interacting with others who adopt these postures, can similarly influence sensitivity to pain. We conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants who adopted dominant poses displayed higher pain thresholds than those who adopted submissive or neutral poses. These findings were not explained by semantic priming. In Experiment 2, we manipulated power ...


Remote Work: Examining Current Trends And Organizational Practices, Bradford S. Bell Jan 2012

Remote Work: Examining Current Trends And Organizational Practices, Bradford S. Bell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Although remote work offers a number of potential benefits, it is not without risks and challenges. Companies can find it difficult to build a culture that is accepting and supportive of remote work. It can also be difficult to track exactly who is working remotely, particularly when remote work is adopted more informally, and to measure the business impact of these initiatives. Remote workers can face a number of personal and professional challenges. For instance, they may struggle for exposure and access to professional opportunities and there is the risk that those working outside the office can become socially ...


Three Conceptual Themes For Future Research On Teams, Bradford S. Bell Jan 2012

Three Conceptual Themes For Future Research On Teams, Bradford S. Bell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, and Cohen (2011) identify three change themes – dynamic composition, technology/distance, and delayering/empowerment – that are affecting the nature of teams and discuss future research directions within each thematic area. They acknowledge that these emerging research needs may require new theories, research methods, and analyses and describe a few specific approaches that may hold promise, but focus their attention largely on describing the substantive issues and questions research should target going forward. We do not dispute that these themes are important – they are garnering substantial research attention (see Bell, 2007; Chen & Tesluk, in press; Kirkman, Gibson, & Kim, in press ...


Team Learning: A Theoretical Integration And Review, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Sabrina Blawath Jan 2012

Team Learning: A Theoretical Integration And Review, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Sabrina Blawath

Articles and Chapters

With the increasing emphasis on work teams as the primary architecture of organizational structure, scholars have begun to focus attention on team learning, the processes that support it, and the important outcomes that depend on it. Although the literature addressing learning in teams is broad, it is also messy and fraught with conceptual confusion. This chapter presents a theoretical integration and review. The goal is to organize theory and research on team learning, identify actionable frameworks and findings, and emphasize promising targets for future research. We emphasize three theoretical foci in our examination of team learning, treating it as multilevel ...


Bias In White: A Longitudinal Natural Experiment Measuring Changes In Discrimination, Brian Rubineau, Yoon Kang Jan 2012

Bias In White: A Longitudinal Natural Experiment Measuring Changes In Discrimination, Brian Rubineau, Yoon Kang

Articles and Chapters

Many professions are plagued by disparities in service delivery. Racial disparities in policing, mortgage lending, and healthcare are some notable examples. Because disparities can result from a myriad of mechanisms, crafting effective disparity mitigation policies requires knowing which mechanisms are active and which are not. In this study we can distinguish whether one mechanism—statistical discrimination—is a primary explanation for racial disparities in physicians’ treatment of patients. In a longitudinal natural experiment using repeated quasi-audit studies of medical students, we test for within-cohort changes in disparities from medical student behaviors as they interact with white and black patient actors ...


Stretching The Moral Gray Zone: Positive Affect, Moral Disengagement And Dishonesty, Lynne C. Vincent, Kyle J. Emich, Jack A. Goncalo Jan 2012

Stretching The Moral Gray Zone: Positive Affect, Moral Disengagement And Dishonesty, Lynne C. Vincent, Kyle J. Emich, Jack A. Goncalo

Articles and Chapters

We propose that positive affect promotes dishonest behavior by providing the cognitive flexibility necessary to reframe and to rationalize dishonest acts. This hypothesis was tested in two studies. The results of Study 1 showed that individuals experiencing positive affect morally disengage to a greater extent than individuals experiencing neutral affect. Study 2 built upon this finding by demonstrating that the ability to morally disengage can lead individuals who experience positive affect to behave dishonestly. Specifically, the results of Study 2 show that people experiencing positive affect are more likely to steal than individuals who experience neutral affect, particularly when self-awareness ...