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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 77

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Risk Factors For Driving Cessation Vary By Race And Ethnicity, Elizabeth Dugan, Frank Porell, Chae Man Lee Dec 2011

Risk Factors For Driving Cessation Vary By Race And Ethnicity, Elizabeth Dugan, Frank Porell, Chae Man Lee

Frank Porell

Driving is related to our identity and independence as well as allowing us to get needed goods, services, and social opportunities that enrich daily life. Yet with increasing age, the risk for developing threats to medical fitness to drive increases. Driving cessation is related to a long list of negative outcomes, such as: depression, social isolation, diminished access to health care, and diminished quality of life. We investigated risks for driving cessation, paying close attention to racial differences. This study used data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1998-2008. The study included N=46, 528 older people (age 65 ...


Risk Factors For Driving Cessation Vary By Race And Ethnicity, Elizabeth Dugan, Frank Porell, Chae Man Lee Dec 2011

Risk Factors For Driving Cessation Vary By Race And Ethnicity, Elizabeth Dugan, Frank Porell, Chae Man Lee

Elizabeth Dugan

Driving is related to our identity and independence as well as allowing us to get needed goods, services, and social opportunities that enrich daily life. Yet with increasing age, the risk for developing threats to medical fitness to drive increases. Driving cessation is related to a long list of negative outcomes, such as: depression, social isolation, diminished access to health care, and diminished quality of life. We investigated risks for driving cessation, paying close attention to racial differences. This study used data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1998-2008. The study included N=46, 528 older people (age 65 ...


If And How Many 'Races'? The Application Of Mixture Modeling To World-Wide Human Craniometric Variation, Bridget Frances Beatrice Algee-Hewitt Dec 2011

If And How Many 'Races'? The Application Of Mixture Modeling To World-Wide Human Craniometric Variation, Bridget Frances Beatrice Algee-Hewitt

Doctoral Dissertations

Studies in human cranial variation are extensive and widely discussed. While skeletal biologists continue to focus on questions of biological distance and population history, group-specific knowledge is being increasingly used for human identification in medico-legal contexts. The importance of this research has been often overshadowed by both philosophic and methodological concerns. Many analyses have been constrained in their scope by the limited availability of representative samples and readily criticized for adopting statistical techniques that require user-guidance and a priori information. A multi-part project is presented here that implements model-based clustering as an alternative approach for population studies using craniometric traits ...


The R-Word: A Tribute To Derrick Bell, Kenneth B. Nunn Dec 2011

The R-Word: A Tribute To Derrick Bell, Kenneth B. Nunn

UF Law Faculty Publications

Racism has become the “R-word,” an allegation that is so outrageous that it cannot even be spoken in public, let alone seriously addressed. In this brief exploration, I propose that it is exactly because racism continues to loom large in American society that talking about it has become taboo. In other words, banning the “R-word” serves a political function. It masks the failure of American society to confront the existence of racism and do something about its effects. Derrick Bell's path breaking work can be used to show why the focus of race discourse has moved from debating over ...


Structural Determinants Of Homicide: The Big Three, Maria Tcherni Dec 2011

Structural Determinants Of Homicide: The Big Three, Maria Tcherni

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Building upon and expanding the previous research into structural determinants of homicide, particularly the work of Land, McCall and Cohen (1990), the current paper uses county-level data to disentangle three major influences on homicide rates: poverty, racial composition, and the disruption of family structure. Theoretical foundations of these influences are laid out, and the effects of the three factors on homicide rates are tested at two time periods as far removed from one another as possible: 1950-1960 and 1995-2005. All major variables typically used in homicide research are included as controls. The results of analyses show that the effects of ...


Expanding A Model Of Female Heterosexual Coercion: Are Sexually Coercive Women Hyperfeminine?, Elizabeth Anne Schatzel-Murphy Dec 2011

Expanding A Model Of Female Heterosexual Coercion: Are Sexually Coercive Women Hyperfeminine?, Elizabeth Anne Schatzel-Murphy

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The present study aimed to replicate a preliminary model of female heterosexual coercion and subsequently expand the model with gender- and race-related variables. The preliminary model, which specified sexual compulsivity, sexual dominance, sociosexuality, and prior sexual abuse, as predictors of female heterosexual coercion, was sufficiently replicated with a racially diverse sample of college women. The model was then successfully expanded by adding rape myth acceptance and hyperfemininity to the model. Hyperfemininity was found to be a core predictor of female heterosexual coercion, challenging the notion that sexual coercion is an inherently "masculine" behavior. Actual minority status, perceived minority status, and ...


Subtle Discrimination In The Rental Housing Market: Evidence From E-Mail Correspondence Of Landlords, Andrew Hanson, Zackary Hawley, Aryn Taylor Dec 2011

Subtle Discrimination In The Rental Housing Market: Evidence From E-Mail Correspondence Of Landlords, Andrew Hanson, Zackary Hawley, Aryn Taylor

Economics Faculty Research and Publications

We find that landlords practice subtle discrimination in the rental housing market through the use of language associated with describing and viewing a unit, inviting further correspondence, making a formal greeting, and using polite language when replying to e-mail inquiries from a white name more often than to an African American name, they also send longer e-mails and respond quicker to white names.


Race-Ethnicity And Medical Services For Infertility: Stratified Reproduction In A Population-Based Sample Of U.S. Women, Arthur L. Greil, Julia Mcquillan, Karina M. Shreffler, Katherine M. Johnson, Kathleen S. Slauson-Blevins Dec 2011

Race-Ethnicity And Medical Services For Infertility: Stratified Reproduction In A Population-Based Sample Of U.S. Women, Arthur L. Greil, Julia Mcquillan, Karina M. Shreffler, Katherine M. Johnson, Kathleen S. Slauson-Blevins

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Evidence of group differences in reproductive control and access to reproductive health care suggests the continued existence of “stratified reproduction” in the United States. Women of color are overrepresented among people with infertility but are underrepresented among those who receive medical services. The authors employ path analysis to uncover mechanisms accounting for these differences among black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white women using a probability-based sample of 2,162 U.S. women. Black and Hispanic women are less likely to receive services than other women. The enabling conditions of income, education, and private insurance partially mediate the relationship between race-ethnicity ...


Poverty In Massachusetts By Race, Randy Albelda, Ferry Cadet, Dinghong Mei Nov 2011

Poverty In Massachusetts By Race, Randy Albelda, Ferry Cadet, Dinghong Mei

Randy Albelda

Massachusetts has lower total poverty rates compared to the US average. However, Asian and other minorities in Massachusetts higher poverty rates while Black and White populations have lower poverty rates than compared to US averages. Poverty rates by race differ considerably across Massachusetts’ ten largest cities. For Blacks, the highest poverty rates are in Fall River (41.7%), for Asians it is Boston (30.2%) and for Whites is it s New Bedford (19.4%). Quincy’s poverty rates are the lowest for Whites (8.0%) and other racial groups (11.2%), while Cambridge has the lowest poverty rates for ...


Locating Sociological Concepts In Business Games, Dylan Kissane, Helen Roux-Fontaine Oct 2011

Locating Sociological Concepts In Business Games, Dylan Kissane, Helen Roux-Fontaine

Dylan Kissane

"This article describes one strategy for demonstrating the value of sociological concepts to business students by adopting a cross-discipline approach to a business game at a French-American business school. This strategy proved effective in allowing a social science professor to demonstrate the practical implications of two concepts – gender and race – to undergraduate students while simultaneously allowing an international management professor to demonstrate how cross-cultural teams should be managed in order to work effectively. This article first explains the Ecotonos business game; secondly, it explains the crucial debriefing process for the business game and demonstrates how sociological concepts can be highlighted ...


Racial/Ethnic Matching Of Clients And Therapists In Mental Health Services: A Meta-Analytic Review Of Preferences, Perceptions, And Outcomes, Timothy B. Smith, Raquel R. Cabral Oct 2011

Racial/Ethnic Matching Of Clients And Therapists In Mental Health Services: A Meta-Analytic Review Of Preferences, Perceptions, And Outcomes, Timothy B. Smith, Raquel R. Cabral

Faculty Publications

The effects of matching clients with therapists of the same race/ethnicity have been explored using a variety of approaches across several decades. We conducted a meta-analysis of three variables frequently used in research on racial/ethnic matching: Clients' preferences for a therapist of their own race/ethnicity, clients' perceptions of therapists, and therapeutic outcomes. Across 52 studies of preferences, the average effect size was d = .63, indicating a moderately strong preference for a therapist of one's own race/ethnicity. Across 81 studies of individuals' perceptions of therapists, the average effect size was d = .32, indicating a tendency to ...


Integrating Diversity Into Graduate Social Work Education: A 30-Year Retrospective View By Msw-Level African American Social Workers., Stan Bowie, J. Hall, Oliver Johnson Sep 2011

Integrating Diversity Into Graduate Social Work Education: A 30-Year Retrospective View By Msw-Level African American Social Workers., Stan Bowie, J. Hall, Oliver Johnson

J. Camille Hall, PhD., LCSW

The study surveyed a national sample of 100 African American master of social work graduates to retroactively assess perceived diversity content in Human Behavior courses before and after the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) established accreditation standards on diversity. Seventy-one percent of the respondents were females, the mean age was 45.8 years, and their graduation years ranged from 1958 to 2002. Most graduated from northeastern schools (34%), followed by midwestern (28%), southeastern (22%), northwestern (11%), and southwestern (5%) schools. Investigators used the Preparation for Graduate Education Social Work Education Scale and the Human Behavior Survey Addendum (alpha = .97 ...


Health Worker Experiences With Environmental Pollution : Health In Urban Targeted Community : A Study Of Pollution And Clinicians' Experiences And Attitudes Towards It In Urban Low-Income Communities And Communities Of Color, Leslie B. Bosworth Sep 2011

Health Worker Experiences With Environmental Pollution : Health In Urban Targeted Community : A Study Of Pollution And Clinicians' Experiences And Attitudes Towards It In Urban Low-Income Communities And Communities Of Color, Leslie B. Bosworth

Theses, Dissertations, and Projects

Research suggests that exposure to pollution can impact people's health, and that there are more chances for exposure in some urban low-income communities or communities of color. The purpose of the study is to explore whether social service oriented clinicians consider whether their clients are exposed to pollution, how large of a problem the believe pollution is for their clients, and what actions they and their clients have taken to protect against pollution. A second purpose is to assess whether clinicians view pollution as product of discrimination. A third purpose is to see if pollution is indeed higher in ...


Blood-Speak: Ward Churchill And The Racialization Of American Indian Identity, Casey Ryan Kelly Sep 2011

Blood-Speak: Ward Churchill And The Racialization Of American Indian Identity, Casey Ryan Kelly

Papers in Communication Studies

After publishing a controversial essay on 9/11, Professor Ward Churchill’s scholarship and personal identity were subjected to a hostile public investigation. Evidence that Churchill had invented his American Indian identity created vehemence among many professors and tribal leaders who dismissed Churchill because he was not a “real Indian.” This essay examines the discourses of racial authenticity employed to distance Churchill from tribal communities and American Indian scholarship. Responses to Churchill’s academic and ethnic self-identification have retrenched a racialized definition of tribal identity defined by a narrow concept of blood. Employing what I term blood-speak, Churchill’s opponents ...


The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu Aug 2011

The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research examined discriminatory responding in a forced choice employment decision paradigm, using a justification-suppression perspective to interpret the findings. In this paradigm, participants play the role of employers and make employment choices between two excellent and similarly qualified individuals that differ only on one dimension. In the first three studies, participants chose between two individuals who were described as differing only in ethnicity (European vs. Middle Eastern), gender (Male vs. Female), religion (Christian vs. Muslim), age (Young vs. Old), height (Tall vs. Short), weight (Average Weight vs. Overweight), nationality (Canadian vs. Immigrant), or sexual orientation (Heterosexual vs. Homosexual). Patterns ...


Explicating Correlates Of Juvenile Offender Detention Length: The Impact Of Race, Mental Health Difficulties, Maltreatment, Offense Type, And Court Dispositions, Christopher A. Mallett, Patricia A. Stoddard Dare, Mamadou M. Seck Aug 2011

Explicating Correlates Of Juvenile Offender Detention Length: The Impact Of Race, Mental Health Difficulties, Maltreatment, Offense Type, And Court Dispositions, Christopher A. Mallett, Patricia A. Stoddard Dare, Mamadou M. Seck

Social Work Faculty Publications

Detention and confinement are widely acknowledged juvenile justice system problems which require further research to understand the explanations for these outcomes. Existing juvenile court, mental health, and child welfare histories were used to explicate factors which predict detention length in this random sample of 342 youth from one large, urban Midwestern county in the United States. Data from this sample revealed eight variables which predict detention length. Legitimate predictors of longer detention length such as committing a personal crime or violating a court order were nearly as likely in this sample to predict detention length as other extra-legal predictors such ...


Characteristics Of Players In The 2005-2006 U.S. National Basketball Association (Nba), Amadu Jacky Kaba Jun 2011

Characteristics Of Players In The 2005-2006 U.S. National Basketball Association (Nba), Amadu Jacky Kaba

Amadu Jacky Kaba

No abstract provided.


Bad Girls Of Art And Law: Abjection, Power, And Sexuality Exceptionalism In (Kara Walker’S) Art And (Janet Halley’S) Law, Adrienne D. Davis Jun 2011

Bad Girls Of Art And Law: Abjection, Power, And Sexuality Exceptionalism In (Kara Walker’S) Art And (Janet Halley’S) Law, Adrienne D. Davis

Women, Gender & Sexuality Studies Research

This paper seeks to make some connections between legal theorist Janet Halley and contemporary artist Kara Walker. It compares their recent oeuvre to show how both reject understandings of the interplay of sex, power, and subordination proffered by conventional "justice projects" - specifically civil rights’ and feminism’s articulations of bodily violence and violation as key modes of racial and gender injury and subordination. Neither of these two is the first to dispute such accounts of injury and identity; yet, what distinguishes them is that both attempt to ground their theoretical and aesthetic indictments in the notion of abjection, or the ...


Direct Effects Of Assets And Savings On The College Progress Of Black Young Adults, William Elliott Iii, Ilsung Nam Jun 2011

Direct Effects Of Assets And Savings On The College Progress Of Black Young Adults, William Elliott Iii, Ilsung Nam

Center for Social Development Research

Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults


George Bush Doesn’T Care About Black People: An Ideological Rhetorical Criticism Of Whiteness And Racism, Kate Braden Jun 2011

George Bush Doesn’T Care About Black People: An Ideological Rhetorical Criticism Of Whiteness And Racism, Kate Braden

College of Communication Master of Arts Theses

On September 2, 2005, hip-hop artist Kanye West’s made the comment on live television that standing President “George Bush doesn’t care about black people” in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, contributing to the national debate surrounding the government’s response to the storm and its survivors and the impact of race (and class) on such circumstances. An ideological criticism is conducted to assess how the dominant ideologies of whiteness and racism emerge in Bush’s rhetoric and affective performances in reaction to that accusation. In my analysis of Bush’s discursive and emotional enactments that responded to Kanye ...


Race, Substance Abuse, And Mental Health Disorders As Predictors Of Juvenile Court Outcomes: Do They Vary By Gender?, Chiquitia Welch-Brewer, Patricia A. Stoddard Dare, Christopher A. Mallett Jun 2011

Race, Substance Abuse, And Mental Health Disorders As Predictors Of Juvenile Court Outcomes: Do They Vary By Gender?, Chiquitia Welch-Brewer, Patricia A. Stoddard Dare, Christopher A. Mallett

Social Work Faculty Publications

Predicting juvenile court outcomes based on youthful offenders’ delinquency risk factors is important for the adolescent social work field as well as the juvenile justice system. Using a random sample of 341 delinquent youth from one Midwestern urban county, this study extends previous research by examining if race, substance abuse, and mental health disorders influence important delinquency outcomes (number of court offenses, felony conviction(s), probation supervision length, detention length, and number of probation services) differently for male and female juvenile offenders. Multivariate analysis findings revealed that race was significant only for males, and having a substance use disorder was ...


Love Is Not Enough: A Look At Race In Transracial Adoption, Azucena Espindola Jun 2011

Love Is Not Enough: A Look At Race In Transracial Adoption, Azucena Espindola

Social Sciences

This research paper looks at the different types of child adoption, in particular to transracial adoption. There is an emphasis in the role of race in transracial adoption and how transracial adoption can benefit and/or affect the children who are part of it. There has been a long fought debate regarding transracial adoption. Those who favor transracial adoption state that the children are receiving a home that they would otherwise not get. On the contrary, those who oppose transracial adoption state that the children are deprived from their heritage. However, the main thing that should be taken into account ...


La Máscara Afro-Puertorriqueña: Una Auto-Re-Presentación A Través De La Búsqueda De La Identidad Racial, Étnica Y Nacional En Down These Mean Streets, Forrest Blackbourn Jun 2011

La Máscara Afro-Puertorriqueña: Una Auto-Re-Presentación A Través De La Búsqueda De La Identidad Racial, Étnica Y Nacional En Down These Mean Streets, Forrest Blackbourn

The Coastal Review: An Online Peer-reviewed Journal

This article analyzes the textual elements of Piri Thomas’s Down These Mean Streets that demonstrate, in addition to the continual problematization of closed racial categories, the problems that are associated with static categorizations of ethnicity and nationality. This article calls into question traditional definitions of race, yet it also challenges definitions of Puerto Rican and Nuyorican identities. Race, nationality, and ethnicity are all vital elements to the human experience, and we will discover who is/are responsible for the protagonist Piri’s lack of racial recognition in the United States.


Race And Gender Differences And The Role Of Sexual Attitudes In Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Laura E. Simon Jun 2011

Race And Gender Differences And The Role Of Sexual Attitudes In Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Laura E. Simon

Sociology Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Attitudes towards premarital sex have become more permissive in the past fifty years and adolescent sexual behavior reflects this attitudinal trend. The majority of adolescents are having sex prior to marriage and many adolescents are having sexual intercourse outside of committed relationships. Sexual behavioral trends vary by race and gender adding further intricacies in understanding adolescent sexuality. Past research examining adolescent sexual behavior has not examined the role of sexual attitudes in sexual behavior and the potential differences by race and gender. I draw on the Theory of Reasoned Action to further the understanding of the role of sexual attitudes ...


A Question Of Comfort: Race, Whiteness, And The Creation Of Diverse, Inclusive, And Engaged Learning Environments, H. Elizabeth Braun May 2011

A Question Of Comfort: Race, Whiteness, And The Creation Of Diverse, Inclusive, And Engaged Learning Environments, H. Elizabeth Braun

Open Access Dissertations

Most colleges and universities in the United States today claim that “diversity” is an important institutional value, but it is not always clear what this term means or how “diversity” is actually experienced and understood by students at predominantly white institutions. This ethnographic study examines a predominantly white liberal arts woman’s college in New England, applying data from participant observation, semistructured interviews, autoethnography, and textual data. My research addresses three intersecting areas of inquiry: the experience of students attending a predominantly white institution in relation to issues of race and racial identity, institutional practices related to race, “diversity,” and ...


Book Review Of "The Archaeology Of Race And Racialization In Historic America" By Charles E. Orser, Paul A. Shackel May 2011

Book Review Of "The Archaeology Of Race And Racialization In Historic America" By Charles E. Orser, Paul A. Shackel

Northeast Historical Archaeology

No abstract provided.


Poverty In Massachusetts By Race, Randy Albelda, Ferry Cadet, Dinghong Mei May 2011

Poverty In Massachusetts By Race, Randy Albelda, Ferry Cadet, Dinghong Mei

Center for Social Policy Publications

Massachusetts has lower total poverty rates compared to the US average. However, Asian and other minorities in Massachusetts higher poverty rates while Black and White populations have lower poverty rates than compared to US averages.

Poverty rates by race differ considerably across Massachusetts’ ten largest cities. For Blacks, the highest poverty rates are in Fall River (41.7%), for Asians it is Boston (30.2%) and for Whites is it s New Bedford (19.4%). Quincy’s poverty rates are the lowest for Whites (8.0%) and other racial groups (11.2%), while Cambridge has the lowest poverty rates for ...


The Returns To Skill And Racial Difference In Parenting: Evidence From The Civil Rights Movement, Owen Thompson May 2011

The Returns To Skill And Racial Difference In Parenting: Evidence From The Civil Rights Movement, Owen Thompson

Economics Department Working Paper Series

On average, the parental practices adopted by African American parents of young children are much less cognitively stimulating than those of their white counterparts. This paper argues that these differences stem from the low rates of return to human capital historically experienced by African Americans. To study the relationship between the race-specific returns to skill and parenting, I use intergenerational data containing direct measures of parental behaviors, and examine the child rearing practices of mothers who came of age in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement, during a period of rapidly increasing returns to skill for African Americans in ...


Direct Effects Of Assets And Savings On The College Progress Of Black Young Adults, William Elliott Iii, Ilsung Nam Apr 2011

Direct Effects Of Assets And Savings On The College Progress Of Black Young Adults, William Elliott Iii, Ilsung Nam

Center for Social Development Research

Large disparities in attendance and graduation rates exist between White and Black young adults. We find that 63% of White young adults between the ages of 17 to 23 are on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007 compared to only 35% of Black young adults. Moreover, research suggests that Black young adults who manage to stay on course and graduate are facing ever increasing amounts of college debt. Debt can lessen the return on education, making college appear less desirable for future generations. Thus, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress ...


Depicting Simultaneously Similarity, Diversity, Ancestry, And Admixture?, Peter J. Taylor Apr 2011

Depicting Simultaneously Similarity, Diversity, Ancestry, And Admixture?, Peter J. Taylor

Working Papers on Science in a Changing World

Can any depiction of genetic relationships among humans allow simultaneously for similarity, diversity, ancestry, and admixture (i.e., groups that had split mixing again)? I asked this question while puzzling over the messages conveyed by diagrams from the work of Tishkoff and collaborators on genetic variation among humans in and out of Africa. In this talk I present explorations of alternative depictions of human genetic variation keeping my initial question in mind. By the end I will have prepared the ground for an assertion that the very methodology of generating and depicting human ancestry privileges a racialized view of human ...