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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2011

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Articles 1 - 30 of 275

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Take Pride In America In Southern Nevada: Annual Progress Report, Period Covering January 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2011

Take Pride In America In Southern Nevada: Annual Progress Report, Period Covering January 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees

Anti-littering Programs

  • A meeting of stakeholders across Nevada was held to explore the potential for statewide collaboration on litter and dumping issues.
  • Website activity for the first three quarters of the year averaged 1,122 hits per month, with an average of 1,927 pages viewed per month.
  • The team attended 12 community outreach events resulting in 2,154 direct contacts and 324 new mailing list records.
  • The Take Pride in America (TPIA) in Southern Nevada completed a total of 41 volunteer events contributing a total of 10,779 volunteer hours.
  • The TPIA team filed a no-cost extension to SNPLMA and received ...


Nevada Interagency Volunteer Program: Helping Hands Across Public Lands – Phase Ii: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Covering October 1, 2011 To December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2011

Nevada Interagency Volunteer Program: Helping Hands Across Public Lands – Phase Ii: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Covering October 1, 2011 To December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees

Get Outdoors Nevada

  • The number of records in the volunteer database decreased by 20.7% over the last quarter. The database now contains 7,072 records.
  • Results show an average of 1,080 visits per month, and with an average of 2,328 pages viewed per month.
  • Get Outdoors Nevada supported 22 volunteer events in a variety of ways. These events utilized 867 volunteers whom contributed approximately 3,774.5 hours of service.
  • Two community outreach events were attended, resulting in 476 direct contacts with 50 names added to the database.
  • The 7th Annual Volunteer Recognition Banquet was held on 11/5/11 ...


Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Cultural Site Stewardship Program – Program Expansion And Steward Retention: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2011

Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Cultural Site Stewardship Program – Program Expansion And Steward Retention: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2011, Margaret N. Rees

Cultural Site Stewardship Program

  • Team completes plans for stewardship “refresher courses”
  • Annual stewardship recognition event held at Lake Mead
  • On December 1, 2012, ICSST was absorbed as a sub-committee into the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Cultural Committee.


Business Community Outreach: Exploration Of A New Service Role In An Academic Environment, Patrick Griffis, Sidney Lowe Dec 2011

Business Community Outreach: Exploration Of A New Service Role In An Academic Environment, Patrick Griffis, Sidney Lowe

Library Faculty Publications

A recent special issue of the Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship focusing on business librarianship and entrepreneurship includes many case studies detailing entrepreneurship outreach initiatives from academic libraries. The introductory article, "Entrepreneurship Outreach: A New Role for the Academic Business Librarian" by Karen MacDonald, outlines entrepreneurial outreach initiatives in the issue, stating that they “describe three very different approaches libraries have taken to align themselves with a key mission of the university – economic development” (MacDonald, 2010, p. 159). This chapter elaborates on this previous work in describing the exploration of a new role in business community outreach as a whole ...


School Counselor Assignment In Secondary Schools: Replication And Extension, Jennifer L. Williamson Dec 2011

School Counselor Assignment In Secondary Schools: Replication And Extension, Jennifer L. Williamson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Before school counselors can carry out the duties and responsibilities outlined as part of a comprehensive school counseling program, they must know which students they are responsible for helping. The topic of assigning students to school counselors has only recently been seen in the educational research arena in a study by Akos, Schuldt, and Walendin (2009). The current study attempts to replicate and extend the findings of Akos, Schuldt, and Walendin by addressing the questions of how secondary school counselors are assigned and what are their perceptions of their assignment. In addition, the study attempts to determine whether a particular ...


The Long-Term Impact Of A Loyalty Program: An Evaluation From A Las Vegas Casino Hotel, Myongjee Yoo Dec 2011

The Long-Term Impact Of A Loyalty Program: An Evaluation From A Las Vegas Casino Hotel, Myongjee Yoo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Loyalty programs are popular marketing strategies intended to attract, maintain, and enhance customer relationships. Despite the widespread usage of loyalty programs across various businesses, its effectiveness has not been well validated. Few empirical studies attempted to evaluate the value of loyalty programs but the findings have been conflicting with each other. Given the competitive climate of such a highly saturated competitive market of the hospitality industry, it is meaningful for hospitality marketers to evaluate the effectiveness of loyalty programs to increase customer retention and profitability. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a hospitality ...


Comparative And Critical Analysis: The Roles Of Civic And Traditional Journalism, Kendle Walters Dec 2011

Comparative And Critical Analysis: The Roles Of Civic And Traditional Journalism, Kendle Walters

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research contains a comparative and critical analysis of both civic and traditional journalism and the practices associated with the two models. In depth interviews were conducted with a total of nine respondents to explore their perspectives on the topic. Purposive sampling was employed to ensure the sample consisted solely of journalists and former journalists. From the data emerged five primary themes: Objectivity, Journalists as Problem Solvers, Confusion with the Term Civic Journalism, Journalists' Encouragement of Political Discourse and Deliberation, and Dedication to Traditional Journalism. Respondents overwhelmingly supported the notion of traditional journalism as the dominant model. There was support ...


The Impact Of Age, Education, Political Knowledge And Political Context On Voter Turnout, Roy Edward Snyder Iii Dec 2011

The Impact Of Age, Education, Political Knowledge And Political Context On Voter Turnout, Roy Edward Snyder Iii

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The following study will present an examination of factors that impact levels of voting activity among American citizens from 1972 through 2004. The subject of voter turnout has been thoroughly examined by political scientists over the years, as have aspects of youth voting and the influence of education. Many of the same variables presented by scholars in recent years will be employed in this study. However, these earlier studies tend to look only at individual level variables in explaining voter turnout. This study will contribute to a more complete understanding of voting through the analysis of individual, regional, and temporal ...


A Landscape Approach To Late Prehistoric Settlement And Subsistence Patterns In The Mojave Sink, Tiffany Ann Thomas Dec 2011

A Landscape Approach To Late Prehistoric Settlement And Subsistence Patterns In The Mojave Sink, Tiffany Ann Thomas

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The environment of the Late Prehistoric period (1200 A.D. to Historic Contact) Mojave Sink was wetter than modern conditions. The settlement and subsistence patterns of the occupants of the region during this period were driven by the availability of water, subsistence resources, raw material sources, and tradition. These people utilized the regional landscape based upon the seasonal availability of these resources. Supplemental agricultural production has been proposed for the Mojave River Delta due to the more favorable environmental conditions of this period. If agriculture was being practiced it would have affected the regional land-use patterns. For this thesis I ...


Mountain Monitor-3rd Quarter 2011, Mark Muro, Kenan Fikri Dec 2011

Mountain Monitor-3rd Quarter 2011, Mark Muro, Kenan Fikri

Mountain Monitor

Economic recovery in the Intermountain West’s major metropolitan areas edged forward in the third quarter of 2011, after idling for much of the year. Nationally, high technology and automotive-oriented metros showed the strongest signs of recovery; in the Intermountain West, manufacturing-intensive and technology-oriented metros had the strongest quarter. Employment and output grew in most metropolitan areas, and the unemployment rate fell throughout the region. At the same time, the housing market freefall came to an end—or at least paused—across most of the region, as home prices ticked upwards for the first time since the Monitor began tracking ...


The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi Dec 2011

The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal agencies follow some form of the policy. The Common Rule defines basic policies for conducting biomedical and social science research. Almost from the inception of the Common Rule social scientists have expressed concerns of the policy's medical framework of regulations having its applicability also to human research ...


The Influence Of Ethnic Identity And Family Support On Posttraumatic Symptoms In Maltreated Youth, Harpreet Kaur Dec 2011

The Influence Of Ethnic Identity And Family Support On Posttraumatic Symptoms In Maltreated Youth, Harpreet Kaur

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Maltreated children are at greater risk of developing PTSD than nonmaltreated children (Ackerman et al., 1998; Epstein et al., 1997; Famularo et al., 1996; Kilpatrick et al., 2003; Widom, 1999). This study sought to assess the role of ethnicity, ethnic identity, and family support on the effects of maltreatment and trauma in adolescents. Participants (n=145) included adolescents from Child Haven, a Department of Family Services (DFS)-related site in Las Vegas, and youths in foster care assessed at the offices of Dr. Stephanie Holland. The first hypothesis was that non-Caucasian youth would have higher levels of PTSD-related symptoms than ...


Effect Of A Work Site Exercise Program On Selected Fitness And Psychological Parameters, Kristen Ann Christiansen Dec 2011

Effect Of A Work Site Exercise Program On Selected Fitness And Psychological Parameters, Kristen Ann Christiansen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The increasing rates of obesity continue to threaten the vitality of our nation. Health care costs are soaring and chronic diseases are reaching even the youngest populations. Physical activity is an integral component in reversing the obesity epidemic and improving the health of today's workforce. The present study sought to determine the effect of a work site exercise program on select fitness and psychological parameters. Five female employees participated in a six-week exercise program utilizing HealthBeat(TM) outdoor exercise equipment in a circuit fashion for 30 minutes, 2 days per week. Eighty percent of participants were categorized as sedentary ...


For The Benefit Of Others: Harriet Martineau: Feminist, Abolitionist And Travel Writer, Laura J. Labovitz Dec 2011

For The Benefit Of Others: Harriet Martineau: Feminist, Abolitionist And Travel Writer, Laura J. Labovitz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

One of the distinctive and remarkable traits of Harriet Martineau was her need to publish information that she believed would benefit society. Her publications - Illustrations of Political Economy (1832), Society in America (1837) and Retrospect of Western Travel (1838) - have the distinct characteristic of being published with the intent to inform and educate the British public. Scholars have focused on her later 1848 publication, Eastern Life: Present and Past, as her most important publication. Yet I will argue that it was her earlier works which set the stage for this later, better known book. Her travel to the United States ...


Pain Tolerance And Thresholds In Women With Dyspareunia: Do Pain And Sex Primes Have Differential Effects?, Lea Thaler Dec 2011

Pain Tolerance And Thresholds In Women With Dyspareunia: Do Pain And Sex Primes Have Differential Effects?, Lea Thaler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Dyspareunia, defined as recurrent pain in the genital/pelvic region during sexual intercourse, is one of the most common types of female sexual dysfunction, affecting approximately 15% of women between the ages of 18 and 24. Women with dyspareunia display similar cognitive and emotional styles evidenced in other chronic pain conditions (e.g. hypervigilance for pain information, catastrophization, and negative affect); however, dyspareunia is a unique pain disorder in that it directly involves sexual functioning. This pairing of pain and sex raises the issue of conditioning. Is it possible that because intercourse is painful for women with dyspareunia, the presentation ...


Methodological Quality Of Quantitative Nursing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Research From 2000 To 2010, Michael Johnson Dec 2011

Methodological Quality Of Quantitative Nursing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Research From 2000 To 2010, Michael Johnson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people constitute one of the largest underserved populations in any nursing setting. Despite the large LGBT populations, very little nursing research has been conducted on these populations. Nurse researchers have recommended that nursing researchers end the silence on LGBT research. To accomplish this, the methodological rigor of LGBT nursing research must be evaluated and improved upon. Currently, no literature examines the methodological quality of quantitative nursing LGBT research. Using a cross-sectional design, it was the purpose of this study to evaluate the methodological quality of quantitative nursing LGBT research from 2000 to 2010 using ...


Visual Attention To Erotic Stimuli In Androphilic Male-To-Female Transsexuals, Sarah A. Akhter Dec 2011

Visual Attention To Erotic Stimuli In Androphilic Male-To-Female Transsexuals, Sarah A. Akhter

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The present study investigated sex differences in visual attention to erotic stimuli by comparing three groups of individuals: heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and androphilic MtF transsexuals. Twenty men, 20 women and 13 MtF transsexuals were shown 10 split-screen slides, each featuring one nude erotic photo of a man shown on half of the screen and one nude erotic photo of a woman shown on the other half of the screen. Eye movements were tracked as participants viewed the slides. All participants were heterosexual (Kinsey 0-1) relative to gender identity, thus erotic targets for natal men were nude women in the ...


The Relationship Between The Functions Of School Refusal Behavior And Family Environment, Rachel Marie Schafer Dec 2011

The Relationship Between The Functions Of School Refusal Behavior And Family Environment, Rachel Marie Schafer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The current study examined the relationship between the functions of school refusal behavior and family environment characteristics in a community sample of youth. The primary aim was to determine the family environments most strongly associated with each function of school refusal behavior in an ethnically diverse, community-based sample of youths referred to the legal process for absenteeism. Hypotheses for the current study were based on the premise that family environment characteristics of the community sample of youths with problematic absenteeism would generally resemble those identified in previous clinical samples. The first hypothesis was that youth who refuse school primarily to ...


Development Of A Simulation Tool For Analysis Of Freeway Crashes Due To Cell Phone Usage, Sourabh Sriom Dec 2011

Development Of A Simulation Tool For Analysis Of Freeway Crashes Due To Cell Phone Usage, Sourabh Sriom

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Research shows that drivers are susceptible to numerous distractions while driving which can be held responsible as the reason of a crash. Usage of cell phones, i.e. talking or texting while driving is considered one of the prominent distractions which causes a crash. This dissertation aims to study the number of crashes occurring on the freeways and their relation with the drivers of these cars using cell phones while they are driving. Since crashes occur relatively less frequently, the study of crashes is done using what is called the "rare event" theory. Java based simulations are done to model ...


Fall Prevention Training And Its Impact To Southern Nevada Construction Workers, Vedaspati Joshi Dec 2011

Fall Prevention Training And Its Impact To Southern Nevada Construction Workers, Vedaspati Joshi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Death and injury from falls are a long-standing and continuing problem in construction, responsible for at least a third of the construction deaths in the U.S. from 2004 to 2007. Each of those years, Nevada has exceeded the national percentage. Although 29 CFR 1926.503 sets forth Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)'s requirements that construction employers train employees exposed to fall hazards and document such training, the incidence of deaths and injuries from falls are an indicator that this training was not provided or else was not effective.

Conventional fall protection training is more narrowly focused on ...


Bridging The Chasm: Emerging Model Of Leadership In Intercollegiate Athletics Governance, John C. Chandler Iii Dec 2011

Bridging The Chasm: Emerging Model Of Leadership In Intercollegiate Athletics Governance, John C. Chandler Iii

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation examined how the executive leadership model influenced the leadership and governance of intercollegiate athletics. The focus centered on understanding the role of Athletic Directors who concurrently serve as institutional Vice Presidents using the Social Constructivist framework. Qualitative analysis was utilized to achieve the kind of examination necessary to uncover the rich and in-depth perspectives of the participants. At the time of the study, there were 119 institutions housing NCAA Division IA athletic departments. Of the 119 distinct athletic departments, there were 17 athletic departments that employed an athletic director that had been appointed to the post of university ...


Examining Experience In Depressed And Nondepressed Individuals, Jedidiah D. Gunter Dec 2011

Examining Experience In Depressed And Nondepressed Individuals, Jedidiah D. Gunter

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The inner experience of nine depressed and nine nondepressed individuals was explored using Descriptive Experience Sampling. Each participant completed four days of descriptive experience sampling, exploring about six moments of their inner experience on each sampling day. Although the Depressed participants self-reported substantially higher levels of depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) on each day of sampling, the differences in the frequency of depressive symptomatology in the inner experiences of these two groups were not statistically significant. Despite the group differences not reaching statistical significance, the Depressed group experienced somewhat more frequent moments of depression ...


Examining Revenue Management Practices In Las Vegas Casino Resorts, Arun Tanpanuwat Dec 2011

Examining Revenue Management Practices In Las Vegas Casino Resorts, Arun Tanpanuwat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overall goal of this study was to examine Revenue Management (RM) practices in Las Vegas casino resorts. A great deal of research has been done on RM in the hospitality industry. The academic research has examined RM in hospitality in general, but not specifically in casino resorts, which gain their revenue from both rooms and resort amenities. Moreover, the academic literature often show high-level mathematic-based solutions or statistical applications, but not necessarily pragmatic techniques for practitioners. This qualitative study investigates the extent to which the essential fundamentals of any RM system are implemented successfully by casino RM professionals and ...


The Information Battlefield: Al-Qaeda's Use Of Advanced Media Technologies For Framed Messaging, Jessica Marie Martin Dec 2011

The Information Battlefield: Al-Qaeda's Use Of Advanced Media Technologies For Framed Messaging, Jessica Marie Martin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Through a descriptive and qualitative content analysis of Al-Qaeda videos from 2001 to 2010, this thesis describes how the organization's video production has undergone a surge in production quality by using modern technology and skilled recruits. This thesis also provides background on the Islamic culture and the history of Al-Qaeda in order to put into perspective the goals of the organization's framed messages that are incorporated into their videos. The study also draws on parallels of propaganda use throughout history to highlight how regimes from all over the world understand the importance of communication during a time of ...


Evaluating A Social Skills Training Protocol In A Private Setting: Outcomes And Issues, Judi Davis Dec 2011

Evaluating A Social Skills Training Protocol In A Private Setting: Outcomes And Issues, Judi Davis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Society is dealing with a trend of aggressive and destructive behavior among children and adolescence. Children with social, emotional, and conduct problems are at high risk for academic failure, peer rejection, conduct disorder, school dropout, delinquency, and drug and alcohol problems (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoollmiller, 2008). A high priority for the United States public health and crime prevention is the prevention of aggressive and delinquent behavior during childhood and adolescence (Taylor, Eddy, & Biglan 1999).

Social skills trainings aim to increase the performance of key social behaviors that are important for children to succeed in social situations. Solutions may be provided with ...


Job Stress, Mentoring, Psychological Empowerment, And Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Faculty, Catherine Emily Ebersole Chung Dec 2011

Job Stress, Mentoring, Psychological Empowerment, And Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Faculty, Catherine Emily Ebersole Chung

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The National League for Nursing (NLN) endorses mentoring throughout the nursing faculty career trajectory as the method to recruit nurses into academia and improve retention of nursing faculty within the academy (NLN, 2006). One way mentoring assists faculty is by easing socialization to the culture of the employing institution and decreasing faculty stress (Lewallen, Crane, Letvak, Jones, & Hu, 2003). Mentoring can also be a facilitating factor of an individual's psychological empowerment. Academia is an environment able to foster psychological empowerment, a state in which faculty may be self-directed, highly productive, confident, and find a meaningful connection to their work (Spreitzer, 1995a).

This research study was a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative design, conducted via online survey administered by Survey Monkey. A nationwide sample of 959 Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) accredited full-time nursing faculty completed the study. The survey was comprised of a researcher-created demographic questionnaire plus several psychometrically tested instruments: Dreher's mentoring scale, Gmelch's faculty stress index, Spreitzer's psychological empowerment scale, and the National Survey for Postsecondary Faculty's (NSOPF) job satisfaction scale.

The average subject (N = 959) is female, 53 years old, Caucasian, married, and is not presently supporting dependent children. Professionally the average subject was doctorally prepared, and does not hold additional employment to their full-time faculty job. In addition, the following were the most commonly occurring career characteristics of the sample; less than 10 years of experience as a full-time faculty member, less than 10 years of employment at the current institution, rank of assistant professor or clinical assistant professor, untenured, and an annual salary of $70,000 to $79,999.

Results showed that ...


The Role Of Metrical Structure In Tonal Knowledge Acquisition, Matthew Rosenthal Dec 2011

The Role Of Metrical Structure In Tonal Knowledge Acquisition, Matthew Rosenthal

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Experienced listeners possess a working knowledge of pitch structure in Western music, such as scale, key, harmony, and tonality, which develops gradually throughout childhood. It is commonly assumed that tonal representations are acquired through exposure to the statistics of music, but few studies have investigated potential learning mechanisms directly. In Western tonal music, tonally stable pitches not only have a higher overall frequency of occurrence, but they may occur more frequently at strong than weak metrical positions, providing two potential avenues for tonal learning. Two experiments employed an artificial grammar learning paradigm to examine tonal learning mechanisms. During a familiarization ...


A Comparative Study Of Indicator Bacteria Present In Ice And Soda From Las Vegas Food Establishments, Kimberly Jo Hertin Dec 2011

A Comparative Study Of Indicator Bacteria Present In Ice And Soda From Las Vegas Food Establishments, Kimberly Jo Hertin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Microbial analysis has long been used as an indicator of water quality. Since the passing of the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974, microbial standards have been strictly set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that the public health is protected from bacterial pathogens. The bacteriological quality of water generally deteriorates as it travels from water treatment facilities through the main distribution system and into private plumbing and distribution systems. For example, Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) values typically increase once the water has entered plumbing devices such as beverage vending machines. Upon reaching a private facility, the opportunity ...


A Brief Content Analysis Of Attachment And Sexual Relationships In Sex Therapy And Research Journals, Kathryn Zambrano Devis Dec 2011

A Brief Content Analysis Of Attachment And Sexual Relationships In Sex Therapy And Research Journals, Kathryn Zambrano Devis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A surge of scholarly publications on attachment within couple relationships prompted this content analysis of attachment articles published in six sex therapy and sex research journals. This study investigates the extent to which these journals attend to attachment in the context of adult sexual relationships. The researcher found 2257 articles published within these journals; 64 of which attend to attachment and 9 of which attend to attachment and sex. Implications for couples therapy in the field of sex therapy and future directions are discussed.


Causes Of Job Turnover In The Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis In The Western United States, Toby A. Melver Dec 2011

Causes Of Job Turnover In The Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis In The Western United States, Toby A. Melver

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine the factors that affect public school superintendent turnover in five western states. An explanatory theory was developed to cover all of the possible variables and show the relationship between those variables. The questions that guided this research study were:

(1) What environmental factors influence the tenure of superintendents in western states?

(2) What governance factors influence the tenure of superintendents in western states?

(3) What personal factors influence the tenure of superintendents in western states?

(4) What are the incentives and/or disincentives that influence the tenure of superintendents in western ...