Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Study Of Intake And Assessment In Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Christopher J. Richmond Dec 2007

A Study Of Intake And Assessment In Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Christopher J. Richmond

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare clients' assessment of two different counseling intake procedures used by clinicians. This study compared a Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) intake intervention with an intake intervention constructed from the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). The SCID-I is one of the most widely used diagnostic interviews and reflects a "gold standard" in formulating accurate diagnoses. The SFBTintake intervention developed for this study stands in stark contrast to the SCID-I and its primary objective, evaluation of the problem. SFBT is a strength-based model that maintains a positive and future-oriented focus ...


A Qualitative Exploration Of First-Generation Asian Indian Women In Cross-Cultural Marriages, Monica Thiagarajan Dec 2007

A Qualitative Exploration Of First-Generation Asian Indian Women In Cross-Cultural Marriages, Monica Thiagarajan

Dissertations

The literature on Asian Indian women has not adequately addressed the experiences that first generation Asian Indian women face while going through the process of making the decision to marry cross-culturally. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify, describe, and understand the struggles, challenges, and conflict experienced by Asian Indian women who decide to marry cross-culturally and to understand the consequences of the decision on the lives of these women and their interpersonal relationships.

Initial and follow-up phone interviews were conducted with eight Asian Indian women who had experienced cultural and familial challenges regarding their decision to marry ...


An Investigation Of Relationship Characteristics, Exercise And Physical Activity, Couple And Life Satisfaction, Mark W. St. Martin Dec 2007

An Investigation Of Relationship Characteristics, Exercise And Physical Activity, Couple And Life Satisfaction, Mark W. St. Martin

Dissertations

Exercise has been shown to be positively related to many different variables including sexual satisfaction, mental health, and physical health. These variables, in turn, have been linked to increased life satisfaction and couple satisfaction. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between exercise and couple satisfaction as well as exercise and life satisfaction. A secondary purpose was to replicate previous findings on the relationships between communication, love, sexual satisfaction, self-esteem, and physical health and couple satisfaction.

A total of 229 undergraduate and graduate students from a large Midwestern university in the United States participated in this ...


Behavioral, Attitudinal, And Decision-Altering Effects Of Aggressive Video Games On Young Adults, Kent Smallwood Dec 2007

Behavioral, Attitudinal, And Decision-Altering Effects Of Aggressive Video Games On Young Adults, Kent Smallwood

Dissertations

Each year, interactive video game technology becomes more and more advanced, offering more lifelike environments, immersive experiences, and realistic situations in which the player must decide how to act. As a result of these technological advancements, the violent content in video games has become increasingly realistic and graphic. Unlike the passive viewing experience of television, video game players adopt roles in which they initiate actions and direct the progression of video game experience. In these active roles, they may engage in and be rewarded for violent acts against fictitious video game characters or other online players. Furthermore, the videogame industry ...


The Effects Of Acute Nicotine Abstinence On Vigilance And Verbal Memory In Non-Diagnosed Smokers, David W. Ayer Dec 2007

The Effects Of Acute Nicotine Abstinence On Vigilance And Verbal Memory In Non-Diagnosed Smokers, David W. Ayer

Dissertations

Research has shown a differential prevalence of smoking in the schizophrenic population compared to other psychiatric and non-diagnosed populations. The three most commonly investigated reasons for this differential prevalence in schizophrenics are: the self-medication hypothesis, side effects hypothesis, and sociological hypothesis. The self-medication hypothesis which proposes that schizophrenics smoke at a higher rate to ameliorate cognitive deficits is the most substantiated by the research. Of current interest is the possible role of nicotine in improving performance on vigilance and verbal memory, the two areas shown to be most related to impaired social functioning in schizophrenics. It is difficult to make ...


Treatment Of Co-Morbid Methamphetamine Substance Abuse And Borderline Personality Disorder Features Using Modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Jessica R. Schultz Fischer Dec 2007

Treatment Of Co-Morbid Methamphetamine Substance Abuse And Borderline Personality Disorder Features Using Modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Jessica R. Schultz Fischer

Dissertations

The study investigated the effectiveness of a time-limited, skills-based treatment in a population of female substance abusers. This project implemented a pilot clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-session modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) protocol among a small sample of women, with co-morbid borderline personality disorder features, receiving concurrent outpatient treatment for methamphetamine abuse. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used. In addition to on-going assessment conducted during baseline and weekly over the course of treatment, a comprehensive assessment battery was administered pre-, and post-treatment as well as at 1 and 3 months following treatment. Findings suggest that ...


Therapists' Handling Of Secrets Between Partners In Couple Therapy, Michael Alan Jansen Dec 2007

Therapists' Handling Of Secrets Between Partners In Couple Therapy, Michael Alan Jansen

Dissertations

This study examines couple therapists' policies, procedures, and perspectives regarding secrets between partners in couple therapy. Handling secrets appropriately is necessary to avoid legal, ethical and therapeutic problems, especially when the secret involves contentious or potentially dangerous material such as infidelity, divorce, paternity, and HIV/AIDS infection. One hundred sixty randomly selected Clinical Members of the AAMFT participated in a 38-question researcher-generated mail survey. Data provided descriptive statistics and allowed for between-groups comparisons to explore for differences between therapists with regard to experience and several specific practices related to handling secrets. The study also examined whether courses in HIV/AIDS ...


Structural Models Of Comorbid Anxiety And Depression In A Primary-Care Older Adult Sample: Effect Of Medical Illness Severity, Threat, Chronicity, And Progressiveness On Model Fit, William Michael Palmer Sep 2007

Structural Models Of Comorbid Anxiety And Depression In A Primary-Care Older Adult Sample: Effect Of Medical Illness Severity, Threat, Chronicity, And Progressiveness On Model Fit, William Michael Palmer

Dissertations

Recent research suggests that anxiety disorders may be more common in later life than previously thought. Among other factors, the presence of comorbid mood disorders and medical illness confounds accurate assessment and diagnosis of these conditions in the elderly. There have been few studies, however, examining the structural relationships between anxiety and depression with older-adult samples, and even fewer have considered the effect of medical illness on these relationships. This study examined three established structural models of anxiety and depression, using a clinical sample of older adults seeking treatment in a primary-care setting (N = 2,163). It was hypothesized that ...


The Role Of Communication Channel, Feedback Valence And Cultural Differences In Performance Appraisal Outcomes, James C. Matchen Sep 2007

The Role Of Communication Channel, Feedback Valence And Cultural Differences In Performance Appraisal Outcomes, James C. Matchen

Dissertations

The effects of feedback valence (positive or negative) across culture (Individualistic or Collectivistic) for both the verbal and nonverbal communication channels on performance appraisal outcomes were investigated. It was hypothesized that participants would react differently to the performance appraisal they received based on (1) their own cultural values and on (2) the valence of the verbal feedback and nonverbal feedback provided by the manager. Main effects of both verbal feedback valence and nonverbal feedback valence were predicted and found. Participants reported more positive reactions to both the performance appraisal process and to the manager after receiving positive feedback than after ...


Evaluating The Immediate Impact And Short-Term Therapeutic Effects Of The “Internalized-Other” Interviewing With Couples, Shai M. Brosh Aug 2007

Evaluating The Immediate Impact And Short-Term Therapeutic Effects Of The “Internalized-Other” Interviewing With Couples, Shai M. Brosh

Dissertations

The present study examined empirically the immediate and short-term therapeutic effects of the internalized-other interview (Tomm, 1996) with couples during a single session and compared it with the standard method of interviewing couples (i.e., treatment as usual). Thirty-two married couples (N = 64 participants) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions (internalized-other versus standard interviewing). Couples attended an initial interview session and two follow-ups (one and four-weeks respectively). Self-reported measures of session impact were taken immediately after the session, while self-reported measures of marital satisfaction, intimacy, closeness and empathy were taken at baseline (before the session) and during follow-up ...


Citation Analysis And Journal Impact In School Psychology: 1995-2004, Rebecca Lanai Jennings-Knotts Aug 2007

Citation Analysis And Journal Impact In School Psychology: 1995-2004, Rebecca Lanai Jennings-Knotts

Dissertations

The present study is a citation analysis of the school psychology literature from 1995-2004. Data from six major journals over a 10-year period were analyzed to determine the disciplines, books, and authors who most heavily impacted school psychology. Findings suggest that school psychology is characterized by high levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, and that the school psychology literature maintains relatively low self-citation and cross-citation rates when compared to other domains of psychology. As in previous investigations, the field of education was found to be less influential than the field of special education. The impact of behavior analysis varied significantly by school ...


Evaluation Of A School-Based Program Targeting Pediatric Asthma Self-Management Skills In An Urban Population, Dawn J. Dore-Stites Aug 2007

Evaluation Of A School-Based Program Targeting Pediatric Asthma Self-Management Skills In An Urban Population, Dawn J. Dore-Stites

Dissertations

Asthma is the most commonly diagnosed chronic disorder in childhood and is linked with several problematic outcomes including frequent school absences, increased hospitalizations and decreased quality of life. Further, urban populations struggling with low socioeconomic status are disproportionately represented in prevalence statistics and suffer from increased functional morbidity relative to other children with asthma. These findings exist in the midst of largely effective pharmacological interventions.

Asthma self-management programs (SMPs) target several behaviors linked to improved outcomes and are often used as an adjunct to medication management. SMPs have been employed using a variety of techniques and treatment targets in a ...


Effect Of Extinction Across Multiple Contexts On Renewal Of Responses Within A Functional Response Class, Jennifer L. Sobie Aug 2007

Effect Of Extinction Across Multiple Contexts On Renewal Of Responses Within A Functional Response Class, Jennifer L. Sobie

Dissertations

Resistance to extinction in applied settings is a common problem seen in behavior excess scenarios including those that deal with dangerous responding such as high-intensity aggressive responding, or drug dependence--where relapse is discouragingly high and is acknowledged as the most significant challenge in treatment--or eating disorders, or those that include simple reduction of common but undesired behavior in adults, children, and even pets. Behavior reappearance (i.e., the untargeted return of a learned response following extinction) implicates the physical context in which learning occurs as having a critical influence on what is learned and how, when and where this learning ...


Cognitive Vs. Supportive Therapy For Distressed Collegians, Jean Clore Aug 2007

Cognitive Vs. Supportive Therapy For Distressed Collegians, Jean Clore

Dissertations

Rates of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and low self-esteem appear to be growing on college campuses. Determining how best to help distressed collegians is an important public health concern, as these individuals appear to be at significant risk for further deterioration, disrupted quality of life, and impaired ability to succeed in college. This study compared the effects of (a) six sessions of cognitive therapy (CT; training in two cognitive modification strategies—building positive self-thoughts and disputing negative self-thoughts) to (b) six sessions of non-directive, supportive therapy (ST). Fifty-three students from a large mid-western university reporting low self-esteem and significant levels ...


Private Narratives In Public Places: The Experiences Of Predominantly White Gay Male Undergraduates On Lgb Classroom Panels, James Patrick Dolan Jr. Aug 2007

Private Narratives In Public Places: The Experiences Of Predominantly White Gay Male Undergraduates On Lgb Classroom Panels, James Patrick Dolan Jr.

Dissertations

The scholarly literature addresses the common practice and effectiveness of using classroom panel presentations by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) speakers to increase awareness of LGB experiences and to change attitudes. However, little is known about the experiences of the speakers themselves or how the experience may affect the speaker's sense of self or identity. From an identity as narrative perspective, the goal of this study was to learn what effect the repeated telling of a coming out story in a public setting may have on the teller's identity, the story they tell, and the meanings and feelings ...


A Phenomenological Study Assessing African American Women’S Perspectives On Successful Heterosexual Relationships, Shamika Yolanda Latrell Hall Aug 2007

A Phenomenological Study Assessing African American Women’S Perspectives On Successful Heterosexual Relationships, Shamika Yolanda Latrell Hall

Dissertations

This study seeks to understand successful African American relationships from the perspective of African American females. Recognizing the impact of structural factors on African Americans, as well as the limits of imposing Eurocentric definitions of successful relationships, this study seeks to understand how African American women themselves describe successful relationships and to identify factors that have influenced their ideas about what is required for them to have healthy, happy, long-lasting, nurturing relationships. Design of the present study is informed by findings from Stephens-Williams' (1992) study of successful African American relationships, as well as a broader review of structural, sociological, and ...


Using Structured Employment Interviews To Predict Task And Contextual Performance, Brian M. Bonness Jul 2007

Using Structured Employment Interviews To Predict Task And Contextual Performance, Brian M. Bonness

Dissertations

This study investigated the extent to which structured interviews predict task and contextual performance dimensions. Participants recruited from undergraduate business courses at a mid-sized, Midwestern university participated in a structured interview and received performance assessments from three separate rating sources (self-assessment, performance assessment exercise, peer/supervisor assessors). Study results showed that the contextual performance dimensions of the interview significantly predicted contextual performance ratings provided in peer/supervisor assessor questionnaires and predicted these ratings above and beyond the prediction of the task dimension of the interview. Conversely, the task dimension of the interview did not predict task performance in any of ...


A Qualitative Study Of Women Therapists’ Experiences Of Spirituality In The Counseling Process, Sharon A. Carney Jun 2007

A Qualitative Study Of Women Therapists’ Experiences Of Spirituality In The Counseling Process, Sharon A. Carney

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Automatic Reinforcement In Early Speech Acquisition, Barbara E. Esch Jun 2007

The Role Of Automatic Reinforcement In Early Speech Acquisition, Barbara E. Esch

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Behavioral Tolerance Under Variable Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement, Barry Eshkol Adelman Jun 2007

Behavioral Tolerance Under Variable Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement, Barry Eshkol Adelman

Dissertations

Previous studies (e.g., Hoffman, Branch, & Sizemore, 1987) have demonstrated that greater drug tolerance develops in responding under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement when the schedule parameter is small than when it is large; little research has been done on related schedules such as variable-ratio (VR). In Experiment 1, three pigeons responded under a multiple FR 5 FR 125 VR 5 VR 125. A range of prechronic doses of cocaine produced dose-dependent reductions in response rates under the component schedules. Following chronic dosing with daily administrations of 5.6 mg/kg, similar dose-response curves were derived by substitutions of the usual dose. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar but the chronic dose was adjusted to ensure reductions of response rate and reinforcers earned within the range of ...


A Role Of Problem-Solving In Complex Intraverbal Repertoires, Rachael A. Sautter Jun 2007

A Role Of Problem-Solving In Complex Intraverbal Repertoires, Rachael A. Sautter

Dissertations

kinner described intraverbal behavior as verbal behavior with no point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response. This verbal operant encompasses a wide range of response topographies ranging from answering simple questions to complex conversational exchanges. Previous interventions for teaching complex responding to questions about category membership have focused primarily on transfer of stimulus control procedures to teach specific intraverbal responses. These procedures have proven effective at establishing basic intraverbal responses but have consistently produced small and somewhat restricted repertoires. Theoreticians have hypothesized that effective use of problem-solving strategies rather than simple stimulus control may account for the performance of ...


Struggling With Race: A Grounded Theory Study Of The Developing Of Awareness Of Racism, Shawn Victoria Macdonald Jun 2007

Struggling With Race: A Grounded Theory Study Of The Developing Of Awareness Of Racism, Shawn Victoria Macdonald

Dissertations

White counselors and psychologists need to have a strong understanding of racism and white privilege for effective therapeutic work with people of color. However, many white counselors struggle in various ways with multicultural training. The phenomenon of white counselors in training struggling with awareness of racism and white privilege is well-recognized but not fully understood.

A constructivist grounded theory study was conducted to explore the phenomena of "struggle" among white counselors in training who were engaged in multicultural training. 33 interviews were conducted with 17 participants who were students in master's and doctoral level counseling, counseling psychology, and related ...


Fluency In Pigeons: The Effects Of Response Rate On Learning, Matthew L. Porritt Apr 2007

Fluency In Pigeons: The Effects Of Response Rate On Learning, Matthew L. Porritt

Dissertations

Instructional procedures that build high response rates are purported to have significant benefits over procedures that do not focus on fast responding (Binder, 1996). However, much of the research exploring rate-building procedures is confounded by two variables: rate of reinforcement and number of exposures (Doughty, Chase, & O'Shields, 2004). In six experiments, the present study examined the effects of three variables, rate of reinforcement, number of exposures, and rate of responding, on learning under rate-building procedures in pigeons. In Experiment 1, rate-building produced significantly better learning outcomes when compared to a rate-controlled condition with number of exposures held constant. In ...


Scholarly Art: The Writing Experiences Of Student Affairs Professionals, Wanda L.E. Viento Apr 2007

Scholarly Art: The Writing Experiences Of Student Affairs Professionals, Wanda L.E. Viento

Dissertations

Special issues of the major student affairs journals recently have reflected on the scholarship of the profession (Blimling, 2001; Roper, 2002). The focus of these recent reflections, as well as prior publications on student affairs scholarship (e.g., Davis & Liddell, 1997; Engstrom, 1999; Hunter, 1986; Hunter & Kuh, 1987), largely has been on mentoring research, describing scholarship trends, critiquing existing patterns, and/or envisioning the shape of future scholarship. While the profession of student affairs acknowledges the critical need to promote scholarship and the dissemination of information, little has actually been done to help people get there. Only a few articles have focused ...


The Impact Of Violence Exposure On Sexually Abusive Behavior In Types Of Adolescent Sex Offenders, Emily Sarah Edlynn Jan 2007

The Impact Of Violence Exposure On Sexually Abusive Behavior In Types Of Adolescent Sex Offenders, Emily Sarah Edlynn

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Empathy And Cognitive Flexibility As Correlates Of Forgiveness, Rebecca Bennett Katovsich Jan 2007

Empathy And Cognitive Flexibility As Correlates Of Forgiveness, Rebecca Bennett Katovsich

Dissertations

Problem. For the past three decades, there has been a growing body of literature related to the topic of forgiveness. The idea that empathy, consisting of both emotional and cognitive aspects, plays an integral role in the process of forgiveness is widely supported in the literature, although there is limited empirical evidence for this claim. Beyond interest in examining the relationship between forgiveness and empathy, this research also aimed to explore the role of cognitive flexibility in the forgivenessprocess, considering both the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cognitive flexibility.

Method. The Enright Forgiveness Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the NEO ...


Codependency In Master's-Level Counseling Students, Terri Lynne Pardee Jan 2007

Codependency In Master's-Level Counseling Students, Terri Lynne Pardee

Dissertations

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to examine codependency in master’s-level counseling students, to determine if there was a significant difference between incoming and exiting students, and to investigate codependency as related to age, gender, and religious preference.

Method

The Codependency Assessment Tool was administered to 275 Spring Arbor University master’s-level counseling students to measure codependency in five core areas: Other Focus/Self-Neglect, Low Self-Worth, Hiding Self, Medical Problems, and Family of Origin Issues.

Results

Respondents’ CODAT mean score showed a minimal level of codependency. There were no significant differences between incoming and exiting ...


The Use Of Play Therapy With Adult Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Mary J. Roehrig Jan 2007

The Use Of Play Therapy With Adult Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Mary J. Roehrig

Dissertations

Problem. A growing trend among therapists is the use of play therapy interventions with adult clients to facilitate resolution of early childhood trauma and to promote emotional and spiritual growth. The purpose of this study was to explore the use and effectiveness of play therapy techniques with adult survivors of childhood abuse.

Method. In an exploratory approach, therapists were invited to participate in an online survey. Of the participating therapists, 21 agreed to a subsequent in-depth interview. The Theme Analysis for Word-Rich Data was used to identify themes from the interviews.

Results. Play therapy with adult survivors of childhood abuse ...


The Effectiveness Of Rating Scales And Semi-Structured Interview In Diagnosing Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Carolyn Mae Cofrancesco Jan 2007

The Effectiveness Of Rating Scales And Semi-Structured Interview In Diagnosing Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Carolyn Mae Cofrancesco

Dissertations

Problem and purpose. There are few standardized tools for diagnosing ADHD in adults. The purpose of this study was to compare a standardized rating scale (CAARS) used by different observers, with a comprehensive diagnostic interview (CAADID) with respect to their ability to diagnose subtypes of ADHD.

Method. Subjects for this study came from baseline data of 98 patients (18 to 60 years ofage) participating in a drug trial for adult ADHD. The CAADID interview results in a yes-no decision as to whether the patient meets DSM-IV criteria for the subtypes ADHD. A t -test was used to compare the CAADID-diagnosed ...


Organizational Orientations Of K-12 School Leaders In The Columbia Union Conference Of Seventh-Day Adventists, Rosalee Tooley Gamblin Jan 2007

Organizational Orientations Of K-12 School Leaders In The Columbia Union Conference Of Seventh-Day Adventists, Rosalee Tooley Gamblin

Dissertations

Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to examine the organizational orientations--structure ,human resource , political , and symbolic --of the K-12 school leaders in the Columbia Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, and the relationship, if any, to their personal variables of age, gender, experience, and their professional variables of grade levels served, educational attainment, enrollment, support, feelings of success, and job satisfaction.

Method. A self-administered Organizational Orientations survey instrument, based on the multiple orientation framework of Bolman and Deal, was used to gather information about the school leaders. The population surveyed provided 56 usable responses, which were ...