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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2007

Dissertations

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Structural Changes And Neighborhood Homicide Trends In St. Louis, Missouri, 1980 - 2000: A Multi-Level And Spatial Analysis, Robert Jason Fornango Dec 2007

Structural Changes And Neighborhood Homicide Trends In St. Louis, Missouri, 1980 - 2000: A Multi-Level And Spatial Analysis, Robert Jason Fornango

Dissertations

Social scientists have long observed strong correlations between social structure and violent crime rates at the neighborhood level. Yet little is known about the relationship between changes in social structure and violent crime trends. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of crime trends has received little attention in the literature. The dissertation explores the trajectories and spatial dynamics of neighborhood homicide rates and social structure in St. Louis, Missouri between 1980 and 2000. Multilevel growth curve models are used to describe the nature of, and variation in, census tract homicide trajectories as functions of structural characteristics and changes in those features. Exploratory ...


Fiscal Impact Of American Indian Gaming On Non-Indian Local Governments, Courtney A. Andrews Dec 2007

Fiscal Impact Of American Indian Gaming On Non-Indian Local Governments, Courtney A. Andrews

Dissertations

Intense growth in American Indian gaming over the past two and a half decades has resulted in suggestions of impact on non-Indian communities with a resulting growth in tribal-local government interaction. Although there is mounting evidence of both positive and negative socio-economic impacts on non-Indian communities as a result of Indian gaming operations, to date, there has been very little exploration of the actual fiscal impact on non-Indian governments as a result of these operations. This thesis serves to examine this impact. This study uses a combination of an extensive literature review, tribal-local government survey, GIS techniques and a quantitative ...


Effects Of Job Stereotype, Applicant Gender, And Powerful And Powerless Speech Styles On Telephone Interview Outcomes, Heather Deanna Palmer Mcfarland Dec 2007

Effects Of Job Stereotype, Applicant Gender, And Powerful And Powerless Speech Styles On Telephone Interview Outcomes, Heather Deanna Palmer Mcfarland

Dissertations

By examining the effects of powerful and powerless speech styles, gender stereotyped jobs, and gendered voices during the employment interviewing process, this study sought to further the research of Parton (1996); Parton, Siltanen, Hosman, and Langenderfer (2002); and Juodvalkis, Grefe, Hogue, Svyantek, and DeLamarter (2003). This study was designed to further explore the possibility of longitudinal changes within acceptable communicative expectations during telephone job interviewing. Participants (undergraduate and professional) listened to two audio taped interviews manipulated by speech style, stereotyped job title, and interviewee gender. Variables were evaluated on semantic differential scales following the previous work of Parton (1996). Similar ...


A Study Of Intake And Assessment In Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Christopher J. Richmond Dec 2007

A Study Of Intake And Assessment In Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Christopher J. Richmond

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare clients' assessment of two different counseling intake procedures used by clinicians. This study compared a Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) intake intervention with an intake intervention constructed from the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). The SCID-I is one of the most widely used diagnostic interviews and reflects a "gold standard" in formulating accurate diagnoses. The SFBTintake intervention developed for this study stands in stark contrast to the SCID-I and its primary objective, evaluation of the problem. SFBT is a strength-based model that maintains a positive and future-oriented focus ...


A Qualitative Exploration Of First-Generation Asian Indian Women In Cross-Cultural Marriages, Monica Thiagarajan Dec 2007

A Qualitative Exploration Of First-Generation Asian Indian Women In Cross-Cultural Marriages, Monica Thiagarajan

Dissertations

The literature on Asian Indian women has not adequately addressed the experiences that first generation Asian Indian women face while going through the process of making the decision to marry cross-culturally. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify, describe, and understand the struggles, challenges, and conflict experienced by Asian Indian women who decide to marry cross-culturally and to understand the consequences of the decision on the lives of these women and their interpersonal relationships.

Initial and follow-up phone interviews were conducted with eight Asian Indian women who had experienced cultural and familial challenges regarding their decision to marry ...


Essays On Intrahousehold Allocation And The Family: Fertility, Child Education, And Nutrition, Alemayehu Azeze Ambel Dec 2007

Essays On Intrahousehold Allocation And The Family: Fertility, Child Education, And Nutrition, Alemayehu Azeze Ambel

Dissertations

Understanding the constraints that households face when making decisions on fertility, education, and health is beneficial for effective interventions aimed at enhancing investments in human capital, promoting gender equity, and reducing poverty. This dissertation consists of four essays that analyze the nature, performance, and determinants of fertility, child education, and nutritional status in a developing economy.

The first essay identifies peculiar constraints, including gender preference and income uncertainty that households face when making fertility and schooling choices. The underlying assumption in the theoretical analysis is that in the absence of formal risk and capital markets, households may revert to informal ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness And Benefit-Cost Of Michigan Background Check Program Using Crime Opportunity Theory, Judith Brown Clarke Dec 2007

Evaluating The Effectiveness And Benefit-Cost Of Michigan Background Check Program Using Crime Opportunity Theory, Judith Brown Clarke

Dissertations

Elderly persons in long-term care settings are exceptionally vulnerable to abuse, neglect, and exploitation necessitating special protective measures by criminal justice, social services, and health care agencies. In 2006, 28.6% of Michigan households with a family member in long-term care reported that person having experienced one or more forms of abuse including physical, caretaking, verbal, emotional, neglect, sexual, and exploitation (Post, 2006). Criminal justice agencies were scrambling to identify programs aimed at reducing elder abuse in long-term care. Michigan was selected as one of seven states designated as a federal pilot test site. As a result, the Michigan Background ...


Treatment Of Co-Morbid Methamphetamine Substance Abuse And Borderline Personality Disorder Features Using Modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Jessica R. Schultz Fischer Dec 2007

Treatment Of Co-Morbid Methamphetamine Substance Abuse And Borderline Personality Disorder Features Using Modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Jessica R. Schultz Fischer

Dissertations

The study investigated the effectiveness of a time-limited, skills-based treatment in a population of female substance abusers. This project implemented a pilot clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-session modified Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) protocol among a small sample of women, with co-morbid borderline personality disorder features, receiving concurrent outpatient treatment for methamphetamine abuse. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used. In addition to on-going assessment conducted during baseline and weekly over the course of treatment, a comprehensive assessment battery was administered pre-, and post-treatment as well as at 1 and 3 months following treatment. Findings suggest that ...


Perceived Organizational Support And Ethical Work Climates As Predictors Of Turnover Intention Of Licensed Nurses In Skilled Nursing Facilities, Anna A. Filipova Dec 2007

Perceived Organizational Support And Ethical Work Climates As Predictors Of Turnover Intention Of Licensed Nurses In Skilled Nursing Facilities, Anna A. Filipova

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to replicate Victor and Cullen's (1987; 1988) studies to confirm whether ethical climates (ECs) arise in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and whether organizations and groups within organizations have identifiable ECs; and (2) to test a model that examines the effects of ECs and perceived organizational support (POS) on licensed nurses' turnover intention (TOI) through job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC).

A cross-sectional survey design was implemented. Three hundred and fifty nine freestanding SNFs were selected in a midwestern state. While a total of 110 facilities (31%) agreed to participate, responses ...


Therapists' Handling Of Secrets Between Partners In Couple Therapy, Michael Alan Jansen Dec 2007

Therapists' Handling Of Secrets Between Partners In Couple Therapy, Michael Alan Jansen

Dissertations

This study examines couple therapists' policies, procedures, and perspectives regarding secrets between partners in couple therapy. Handling secrets appropriately is necessary to avoid legal, ethical and therapeutic problems, especially when the secret involves contentious or potentially dangerous material such as infidelity, divorce, paternity, and HIV/AIDS infection. One hundred sixty randomly selected Clinical Members of the AAMFT participated in a 38-question researcher-generated mail survey. Data provided descriptive statistics and allowed for between-groups comparisons to explore for differences between therapists with regard to experience and several specific practices related to handling secrets. The study also examined whether courses in HIV/AIDS ...


An Investigation Of Relationship Characteristics, Exercise And Physical Activity, Couple And Life Satisfaction, Mark W. St. Martin Dec 2007

An Investigation Of Relationship Characteristics, Exercise And Physical Activity, Couple And Life Satisfaction, Mark W. St. Martin

Dissertations

Exercise has been shown to be positively related to many different variables including sexual satisfaction, mental health, and physical health. These variables, in turn, have been linked to increased life satisfaction and couple satisfaction. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between exercise and couple satisfaction as well as exercise and life satisfaction. A secondary purpose was to replicate previous findings on the relationships between communication, love, sexual satisfaction, self-esteem, and physical health and couple satisfaction.

A total of 229 undergraduate and graduate students from a large Midwestern university in the United States participated in this ...


Economic Impacts Of Casino Gambling On Rural Michigan Communities, Mark Steven Reece Dec 2007

Economic Impacts Of Casino Gambling On Rural Michigan Communities, Mark Steven Reece

Dissertations

When considering future casino development, it is important to know whether the magnitude of a casino's economic impact.

A way to understand the impact of adding a casino to a rural Michigan community is to study the economic changes during the 6 years surrounding casino's opening. If significant changes occur in population, employment, and commercial, industrial, and residential property values, it may be possible to attribute this change to the introduction of a casino.

Township level data is used for an index of annual percentage change, preceding and following an opening. This study tests for movement in the ...


Estimating The Impact, Transmission Mechanism And Reaction Function Of Monetary Policy: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (Favar) Approach, Dawit Legesse Senbet Dec 2007

Estimating The Impact, Transmission Mechanism And Reaction Function Of Monetary Policy: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (Favar) Approach, Dawit Legesse Senbet

Dissertations

This dissertation employs factor-augmented vector autoregressive (FAVAR) models to investigate the impact, transmission mechanism and reaction function of monetary policy. The recent development of augmenting dynamic factor analysis with the vector autoregressive (VAR) models, pioneered by Bernanke et al. (2005), has led to advances in monetary policy analysis. The new approach bases measurements of monetary policy on large data sets that approximate the true information set of policymakers. This is in contrast to low dimensional VAR models. The FAVAR model summarizes information from large data set by a few factors that are incorporated into VAR models.

The first essay investigates ...


Three Essays On The Impacts Of Risk And Uncertainty On Foreign Direct Investment (Fdi) And Remittances Flows Into Developing Countries, Blen Solomon Dec 2007

Three Essays On The Impacts Of Risk And Uncertainty On Foreign Direct Investment (Fdi) And Remittances Flows Into Developing Countries, Blen Solomon

Dissertations

This three-essay dissertation focuses on the two most important and most stable sources of finance to developing countries, namely Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and remittances. The first essay examines the roles of exchange rate uncertainty and political risk in determining FDI inflows into African economies. The past few decades have witnessed a surge of FDI inflows to developing regions. However, FDI inflows to Africa still remain relatively small and investor surveys show political risk and macroeconomic uncertainty to be strong deterrents of FDI inflows into Africa. In this essay, I use a sample of 12 African countries and employ Fixed ...


The Effects Of Acute Nicotine Abstinence On Vigilance And Verbal Memory In Non-Diagnosed Smokers, David W. Ayer Dec 2007

The Effects Of Acute Nicotine Abstinence On Vigilance And Verbal Memory In Non-Diagnosed Smokers, David W. Ayer

Dissertations

Research has shown a differential prevalence of smoking in the schizophrenic population compared to other psychiatric and non-diagnosed populations. The three most commonly investigated reasons for this differential prevalence in schizophrenics are: the self-medication hypothesis, side effects hypothesis, and sociological hypothesis. The self-medication hypothesis which proposes that schizophrenics smoke at a higher rate to ameliorate cognitive deficits is the most substantiated by the research. Of current interest is the possible role of nicotine in improving performance on vigilance and verbal memory, the two areas shown to be most related to impaired social functioning in schizophrenics. It is difficult to make ...


Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli Dec 2007

Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli

Dissertations

Discrepancies between males and females in access to schooling, school completion rates, and participation in employment opportunities are still more the norm in some regions of the world than others. Limited access to education plagues women in Nigeria as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disparity in access to educational opportunity is a pressing gender equity issue in Nigeria (World Bank, 2003).

Relatively few studies have focused on obtaining the viewpoints of women who experience this phenomenon. To hear the voices of these women regarding how they gained or were denied access to education in the Nigerian context, a cross-section of ...


Behavioral, Attitudinal, And Decision-Altering Effects Of Aggressive Video Games On Young Adults, Kent Smallwood Dec 2007

Behavioral, Attitudinal, And Decision-Altering Effects Of Aggressive Video Games On Young Adults, Kent Smallwood

Dissertations

Each year, interactive video game technology becomes more and more advanced, offering more lifelike environments, immersive experiences, and realistic situations in which the player must decide how to act. As a result of these technological advancements, the violent content in video games has become increasingly realistic and graphic. Unlike the passive viewing experience of television, video game players adopt roles in which they initiate actions and direct the progression of video game experience. In these active roles, they may engage in and be rewarded for violent acts against fictitious video game characters or other online players. Furthermore, the videogame industry ...


A March Of Moral Panic?: An Examination Of Reaction To Crime In Ireland In March 2006, Robin Maginn Oct 2007

A March Of Moral Panic?: An Examination Of Reaction To Crime In Ireland In March 2006, Robin Maginn

Dissertations

Moral Panic is a concept that examines disproportionate reaction towards an event or persons. In March of 2006, several events occurred which provoked strong reactions from the media and from politicians. This thesis explores and examines those reactions, and will try to determine if a moral panic could be said to have occurred. This is accomplished through a qualitative reading of the reactions, by identifying themes running through the discourse on crime of the time in question, and by applying indicators of moral panic to the data. The study finds that though the reactions may not necessarily indicate moral panic ...


Nurturing Peace: United Nations Peacebuilding Operations In The Aftermath Of Intrastate Conflicts, 1945-2002, Duk Hyang Kim Sep 2007

Nurturing Peace: United Nations Peacebuilding Operations In The Aftermath Of Intrastate Conflicts, 1945-2002, Duk Hyang Kim

Dissertations

After World War II, intrastate conflicts rapidly replaced interstate conflicts as the dominant threat to international peace and security, a trend that has become all the more evident in the post-Cold War era. Given the prevalence of civil wars, there is increasing awareness of the need for post-conflict settlement procedures, development of local capacity for conflict resolution, and long-term peacebuilding efforts. In his 1992 An Agenda for Peace, former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali encouraged the international community to take responsibility for the full range of post-conflict management roles by introducing ?post-conflict peace-building.? Even though the term ?peacebuilding? did not ...


Structural Models Of Comorbid Anxiety And Depression In A Primary-Care Older Adult Sample: Effect Of Medical Illness Severity, Threat, Chronicity, And Progressiveness On Model Fit, William Michael Palmer Sep 2007

Structural Models Of Comorbid Anxiety And Depression In A Primary-Care Older Adult Sample: Effect Of Medical Illness Severity, Threat, Chronicity, And Progressiveness On Model Fit, William Michael Palmer

Dissertations

Recent research suggests that anxiety disorders may be more common in later life than previously thought. Among other factors, the presence of comorbid mood disorders and medical illness confounds accurate assessment and diagnosis of these conditions in the elderly. There have been few studies, however, examining the structural relationships between anxiety and depression with older-adult samples, and even fewer have considered the effect of medical illness on these relationships. This study examined three established structural models of anxiety and depression, using a clinical sample of older adults seeking treatment in a primary-care setting (N = 2,163). It was hypothesized that ...


The Role Of Communication Channel, Feedback Valence And Cultural Differences In Performance Appraisal Outcomes, James C. Matchen Sep 2007

The Role Of Communication Channel, Feedback Valence And Cultural Differences In Performance Appraisal Outcomes, James C. Matchen

Dissertations

The effects of feedback valence (positive or negative) across culture (Individualistic or Collectivistic) for both the verbal and nonverbal communication channels on performance appraisal outcomes were investigated. It was hypothesized that participants would react differently to the performance appraisal they received based on (1) their own cultural values and on (2) the valence of the verbal feedback and nonverbal feedback provided by the manager. Main effects of both verbal feedback valence and nonverbal feedback valence were predicted and found. Participants reported more positive reactions to both the performance appraisal process and to the manager after receiving positive feedback than after ...


Private Narratives In Public Places: The Experiences Of Predominantly White Gay Male Undergraduates On Lgb Classroom Panels, James Patrick Dolan Jr. Aug 2007

Private Narratives In Public Places: The Experiences Of Predominantly White Gay Male Undergraduates On Lgb Classroom Panels, James Patrick Dolan Jr.

Dissertations

The scholarly literature addresses the common practice and effectiveness of using classroom panel presentations by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) speakers to increase awareness of LGB experiences and to change attitudes. However, little is known about the experiences of the speakers themselves or how the experience may affect the speaker's sense of self or identity. From an identity as narrative perspective, the goal of this study was to learn what effect the repeated telling of a coming out story in a public setting may have on the teller's identity, the story they tell, and the meanings and feelings ...


Cognitive Vs. Supportive Therapy For Distressed Collegians, Jean Clore Aug 2007

Cognitive Vs. Supportive Therapy For Distressed Collegians, Jean Clore

Dissertations

Rates of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and low self-esteem appear to be growing on college campuses. Determining how best to help distressed collegians is an important public health concern, as these individuals appear to be at significant risk for further deterioration, disrupted quality of life, and impaired ability to succeed in college. This study compared the effects of (a) six sessions of cognitive therapy (CT; training in two cognitive modification strategies—building positive self-thoughts and disputing negative self-thoughts) to (b) six sessions of non-directive, supportive therapy (ST). Fifty-three students from a large mid-western university reporting low self-esteem and significant levels ...


Coordination, Collaboration, And Culture: Local Economic Development In A Time Of Networks, Gregg G. Guetschow Aug 2007

Coordination, Collaboration, And Culture: Local Economic Development In A Time Of Networks, Gregg G. Guetschow

Dissertations

Social coordination takes form in accordance with three pure types: markets, hierarchies, and networks. The research that is the subject of this dissertation explored coordination through interorganizational networks involved in policy implementation. Of specific interest was the decision on the part of network participants to cooperate with other network participants to undertake implementation tasks. Conventional models of decision-making do not account for the interdependent and strategic nature of these interactions. To address this gap in understanding, a model of decision-making was developed. Central to this model are the influences of political, organizational, and professional culture and focal effects directing network ...


A Phenomenological Study Assessing African American Women’S Perspectives On Successful Heterosexual Relationships, Shamika Yolanda Latrell Hall Aug 2007

A Phenomenological Study Assessing African American Women’S Perspectives On Successful Heterosexual Relationships, Shamika Yolanda Latrell Hall

Dissertations

This study seeks to understand successful African American relationships from the perspective of African American females. Recognizing the impact of structural factors on African Americans, as well as the limits of imposing Eurocentric definitions of successful relationships, this study seeks to understand how African American women themselves describe successful relationships and to identify factors that have influenced their ideas about what is required for them to have healthy, happy, long-lasting, nurturing relationships. Design of the present study is informed by findings from Stephens-Williams' (1992) study of successful African American relationships, as well as a broader review of structural, sociological, and ...


Citation Analysis And Journal Impact In School Psychology: 1995-2004, Rebecca Lanai Jennings-Knotts Aug 2007

Citation Analysis And Journal Impact In School Psychology: 1995-2004, Rebecca Lanai Jennings-Knotts

Dissertations

The present study is a citation analysis of the school psychology literature from 1995-2004. Data from six major journals over a 10-year period were analyzed to determine the disciplines, books, and authors who most heavily impacted school psychology. Findings suggest that school psychology is characterized by high levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, and that the school psychology literature maintains relatively low self-citation and cross-citation rates when compared to other domains of psychology. As in previous investigations, the field of education was found to be less influential than the field of special education. The impact of behavior analysis varied significantly by school ...


Effect Of Extinction Across Multiple Contexts On Renewal Of Responses Within A Functional Response Class, Jennifer L. Sobie Aug 2007

Effect Of Extinction Across Multiple Contexts On Renewal Of Responses Within A Functional Response Class, Jennifer L. Sobie

Dissertations

Resistance to extinction in applied settings is a common problem seen in behavior excess scenarios including those that deal with dangerous responding such as high-intensity aggressive responding, or drug dependence--where relapse is discouragingly high and is acknowledged as the most significant challenge in treatment--or eating disorders, or those that include simple reduction of common but undesired behavior in adults, children, and even pets. Behavior reappearance (i.e., the untargeted return of a learned response following extinction) implicates the physical context in which learning occurs as having a critical influence on what is learned and how, when and where this learning ...


Evaluating The Immediate Impact And Short-Term Therapeutic Effects Of The “Internalized-Other” Interviewing With Couples, Shai M. Brosh Aug 2007

Evaluating The Immediate Impact And Short-Term Therapeutic Effects Of The “Internalized-Other” Interviewing With Couples, Shai M. Brosh

Dissertations

The present study examined empirically the immediate and short-term therapeutic effects of the internalized-other interview (Tomm, 1996) with couples during a single session and compared it with the standard method of interviewing couples (i.e., treatment as usual). Thirty-two married couples (N = 64 participants) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions (internalized-other versus standard interviewing). Couples attended an initial interview session and two follow-ups (one and four-weeks respectively). Self-reported measures of session impact were taken immediately after the session, while self-reported measures of marital satisfaction, intimacy, closeness and empathy were taken at baseline (before the session) and during follow-up ...


Empirical Essays On Inflation And Economic Growth, Lezheng Liu Aug 2007

Empirical Essays On Inflation And Economic Growth, Lezheng Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation collects three empirical essays on inflation and economic growth. The first essay examines the impact of inflation uncertainty on the level of inflation. Uncertainty is measured by the conditional variance of inflation, and inflation is modeled as a GARCH-in-mean process with a two-regime Markov-switching coefficient on uncertainty. Using a Bayesian estimator with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we find that the impacts of uncertainty on inflation are statistically significant and have different signs in different regimes for the U.S. postwar data. The regime switching nature of the inflation process can explain the contradictory theoretical predictions and ...


Public Administration Theory And Views Of The Human Person, Gerald L. Zandstra Aug 2007

Public Administration Theory And Views Of The Human Person, Gerald L. Zandstra

Dissertations

Public administrative theory, despite its reach into American life, lacks broad agreement about its field of inquiry, its underlying presuppositions, and its purpose. Theorists such as Herbert Storing, Stephen Bailey, Richard Stillman, David Hart, Vincent Ostrom, William Dunn, Bahman Fozouni, Mark Rutgers, Michael Harmon and others have observed and lamented these shortcomings. Without well-developed theory, the objectives of public administration are a moving target.

This project does not attempt to resolve this deficiency. Instead, it is intended to address a primary question pertaining to public administration's core principles: what is the nature of the human person? The line of ...