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2007

Criminology

Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 95

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Thinking Critically About Rural Gender Relations: Toward A Rural Masculinity Crisis/Male Peer Support Model Of Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault, Kenneth Tunnell, Walter Dekeseredy, Joseph Donnermeyer, Martin Schwartz, Mandy Hall Nov 2007

Thinking Critically About Rural Gender Relations: Toward A Rural Masculinity Crisis/Male Peer Support Model Of Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault, Kenneth Tunnell, Walter Dekeseredy, Joseph Donnermeyer, Martin Schwartz, Mandy Hall

Kenneth Tunnell

After decades of neglect, a growing number of scholars have turned their attention to issues of crime and criminal justice in the rural context. Despite this improvement, rural crime research is underdeveloped theoretically, and is little informed by critical criminological perspectives. In this article, we introduce the broad tenets of a multi-level theory that links social and economic change to the reinforcement of rural patriarchy and male peer support, and in turn, how they are linked to separation/divorce sexual assault. We begin by addressing a series of misconceptions about what is rural, rural homogeneity and commonly held presumptions about ...


Rethinking The Definition Of Police Crime: The Relationship Of Sex, Drugs, Violence And/Or Greed To Virtually All Police Crime, Philip M. Stinson Nov 2007

Rethinking The Definition Of Police Crime: The Relationship Of Sex, Drugs, Violence And/Or Greed To Virtually All Police Crime, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Institutional-Anomie, Political Corruption, And Homicide Rates, Jerry K. Daday, Lisa M. Broidy, Dale Willits Nov 2007

Institutional-Anomie, Political Corruption, And Homicide Rates, Jerry K. Daday, Lisa M. Broidy, Dale Willits

Sociology Faculty Presentations

Messner and Rosenfeld’s institutional-anomie theory (IAT) has advanced our understanding of cross-national variation in homicide rates. Empirical tests of IAT have primarily examined how non-economic institutions alleviate or mitigate the mal-effects of economic inequality and economic deprivation. As economic institutions gain strength and dominance, non-economic institutions tend to weaken and are forced to accommodate the market. This creates an elevated state of institutional anomie that is conducive to higher violent crime rates. Most cross-national quantitative tests of IAT have examined the comparative strength of economic and social support institutions (especially social welfare) and find support for the theory. However ...


Just Turn The Darn Thing Off: Understanding Cyberbullying., Elizabeth K. Englander, Amy M. Muldowney Oct 2007

Just Turn The Darn Thing Off: Understanding Cyberbullying., Elizabeth K. Englander, Amy M. Muldowney

MARC Publications

The central role that the Internet now plays in the life of children has transformed everything about bullying between youth in the First World. Three features characterize cyberbullying: it evolves rapidly, adults differ fundamentally from children in their use of the Internet, and children are comfortable with technology but ignorant about the psychological impact of their online behaviors and the dangers to which they expose themselves and their families. This presentation will review the Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center’s innovative and aggressive approach to researching and addressing both bullying and cyberbullying.


State-Corporate Crime And The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Alan S. Bruce, Paul J. Becker Oct 2007

State-Corporate Crime And The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Alan S. Bruce, Paul J. Becker

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

While criminologists have for some time examined state and corporate crime as separate entities, the concept of state-corporate crime highlighting joint government and private corporate action causing criminal harm is a recent area of study with relatively few published case studies (Matthews and Kauzlarich, 2000). This paper focuses on state-corporate crime at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and contributes to the study of state-corporate crime in three ways: (1) it adds a new case study to a field in which there are few published accounts, (2) it assesses the utility of Kauzlarich and Kramer’s (1998 ...


The Functions Of The Social Bond, James J. Chriss Oct 2007

The Functions Of The Social Bond, James J. Chriss

Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications

Travis Hirschi's control or social bonding theory argues that those persons who have strong and abiding attachments to conventional society (in the form of attachments, involvement, investment, and belief) are less likely to deviate than persons who have weak or shallow bonds. Later, Gottfredson and Hirschi moved away from the social bond as the primary factor in deviance, and toward an emphasis on self-control. In short, low self-control is associated with higher levels of deviance and criminality irrespective of the strength or weakness of one's social bonds. In this article I argue that Talcott Parsons' AGIL schema easily ...


Evaluation Of A Psychoeducational Program Designed To Affect Attitudes Associated With Intimate Partner Violence In An Inmate Population, Melani Magee Wheeler Oct 2007

Evaluation Of A Psychoeducational Program Designed To Affect Attitudes Associated With Intimate Partner Violence In An Inmate Population, Melani Magee Wheeler

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group intervention designed to impact male attitudes associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence in a correctional setting. Specifically, the group intervention addressed gender role stereotypes and conflict, healthy and unhealthy entitlement attitudes, attitudes toward women, and effective communication and anger management. The group intervention also sought to increase positive attitudes toward seeking psychological assistance among participants. Results of the MANCOVA did not support the efficacy of the psychoeducational program in impacting attitudes among inmates. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Rita V. United States Leaves More Open Than It Answers, Stephanos Bibas Oct 2007

Rita V. United States Leaves More Open Than It Answers, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay surveys the sentencing issues left open by Rita v. United States and considers how the presumption of reasonableness is likely to operate in practice and how rebutable it is, the roles of safe harbors and individual judges' policy disagreements, and the importance of Justices Stevens and Ginsburg as the swing Justices in this area. This line of cases has drifted far from its roots in a Sixth Amendment concern for juries. Though the resulting sentencing policies may be substantively desirable, the Court cannot articulate how they are rooted in the Sixth Amendment's concern for juries.


Steekpartij Voor De Spiegel, Jenneke Christiaens Sep 2007

Steekpartij Voor De Spiegel, Jenneke Christiaens

Jenneke Christiaens

No abstract provided.


Incarceration And Unwed Fathers In Fragile Families, Charles E. Lewis Jr., Irwin Garfinkel, Qin Gao Sep 2007

Incarceration And Unwed Fathers In Fragile Families, Charles E. Lewis Jr., Irwin Garfinkel, Qin Gao

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Criminal justice policies have resulted in millions of Americans being incarcerated over the past three decades in systems that provide little or no rehabilitation. This study uses a new dataset-The Fragile Families Study-to document poor labor market outcomes that are associated with incarceration. We find that fathers who had been incarcerated earned 28 percent less annually thanfathers who were never incarceratedT hese previously incarceratedfa thers worked less weeks per year, less hours per week and were less likely to be working during the week prior to their interview. We also found that fathers who had been incarcerated were more likely ...


Modern-Day Comfort Women: The U.S Military, Transnational Crime, And The Trafficking Of Women, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Aug 2007

Modern-Day Comfort Women: The U.S Military, Transnational Crime, And The Trafficking Of Women, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

The trafficking of women has been a lucrative moneymaker for transnational organized crime networks, ranking third, behind drugs and arms, in criminal earnings. The U.S. military bases in South Korea were found to form a hub for the transnational trafficking of women from the Asia Pacific and Eurasia to South Korea and the United States. This study, conducted in 2002, examined three types of trafficking that were connected to U.S. military bases in South Korea: domestic trafficking of Korean women to clubs around the military bases in South Korea, transnational trafficking of women to clubs around military bases ...


Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 83, No. 2, Wku Student Affairs Aug 2007

Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 83, No. 2, Wku Student Affairs

WKU Archives Records

WKU campus newspaper reporting campus, athletic and Bowling Green, Kentucky news.


Who Survives On Death Row? An Individual And Contextual Analysis, David Jacobs, Jason T. Carmichael, Zhenchao Qian, Stephanie L. Kent Aug 2007

Who Survives On Death Row? An Individual And Contextual Analysis, David Jacobs, Jason T. Carmichael, Zhenchao Qian, Stephanie L. Kent

Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications

What are the relationships between death row offender attributes, social arrangements, and executions? Partly because public officials control executions, theorists view this sanction as intrinsically political. Although the literature has focused on offender attributes that lead to death sentences, the post-sentencing stage is at least as important. States differ sharply in their willingness to execute and less than 10 percent of those given a death sentence are executed. To correct the resulting problems with censored data, this study uses a discrete-time event history analysis to detect the individual and state-level contextual factors that shape execution probabilities. The findings show that ...


Vigilantism, Current Racial Threat, And Death Sentences, David Jacobs, Stephanie L. Kent, Jason T. Carmichael Aug 2007

Vigilantism, Current Racial Threat, And Death Sentences, David Jacobs, Stephanie L. Kent, Jason T. Carmichael

Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications

Capital punishment is the most severe punishment, yet little is known about the social conditions that lead to death sentences. Racial threat explanations imply that this sanction will be imposed more often in jurisdictions with larger minority populations, but some scholars suggest that a tradition of vigilante violence leads to increased death sentences. This study tests the combined explanatory power of both accounts by assessing statistical interactions between past lynchings and the recent percentage of African Americans after political conditions and other plausible effects are held constant. Findings from count models based on different samples, data, and estimators suggest that ...


Particularisation Of Child Abuse Offences: Common Problems When Questioning Child Witnesses, Martine B. Powell, Kim P. Roberts, Belinda Guadagno Jul 2007

Particularisation Of Child Abuse Offences: Common Problems When Questioning Child Witnesses, Martine B. Powell, Kim P. Roberts, Belinda Guadagno

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prosecuting child abusers is often difficult due to lack of particularising details. Two possible ways of addressing this difficulty are: (a) to change the justice system to better serve prosecution for repeated offences (i.e., allow generic testimony), and (b) to bolster children's testimony. As this article has illustrated, there is still considerable potential for increasing (b). Given the low prosecution rates of child abuse offences, the need for exceptional interviewer training programs coupled with resources for ongoing supervision is now critical. While there have been some major improvements in child witness investigative interviews over the past two decades ...


Evaluation Of A Sleep Hygiene Program To Improve Inmate Sleep Quality, Jennifer F. Hodges-Crowder Jul 2007

Evaluation Of A Sleep Hygiene Program To Improve Inmate Sleep Quality, Jennifer F. Hodges-Crowder

Doctoral Dissertations

Research investigating the effectiveness of treatments for inmates with poor sleep quality appears minimal. Some difficulties related to poor sleep quality can be addressed effectively with little time and expense. Studies show that psychoeducational interventions are effective in reducing sleep complaints and improving sleep quality in a variety of populations including college students and adults. However, the effect of sleep hygiene interventions on inmate sleep complaints is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a psychoeducational intervention program aimed at improving prison inmate sleep habits, length, and quality.

Participants of this study were inmates at a department ...


I'Ll Come Back And Stalk You, Lois Presser Jun 2007

I'Ll Come Back And Stalk You, Lois Presser

Lois Presser

In this article, I analyze conflicts between advocacy and research on offenders and specifically male offenders. The analysis is based on the contradictory investments I had as a female researcher and an advocate during Kevin's final months on death row until his execution. My activism on Kevin's behalf facilitated research access. The interviews provided Kevin with a rare forum for enacting a powerful masculine self, a demonstration that eventually positioned me as his victim. The assuredness of Kevin's execution allowed me to ignore his harassment and to continue data collection. As criminologists, we are likely to be ...


Ua12/8 Annual Report, Wku Police Jun 2007

Ua12/8 Annual Report, Wku Police

WKU Archives Records

Statistical report of crimes reported to and services rendered by the WKU Police Department during the fiscal year 2004-2007. Includes some five year comparisons.


Thereby Become A Monster: Complex Organizations And The Torture At Abu Ghraib, Janine A. Bower Jun 2007

Thereby Become A Monster: Complex Organizations And The Torture At Abu Ghraib, Janine A. Bower

Dissertations

Reasearch and theory on organizational crime and deviance suggest organizational offending includes aspects of the environment, organizational characteristics (such as tasks, structure, and processes), and cognition, and is systematically produced by the combination of these three. This research is an examination of the organization of the Abu Ghraib detention and interrogation facility in Iraq, the location of prison abuses now made infamous following their public disclosure in 2004. An ethnographic content analysis of documents was performed to probe organizational culture, structure and processes, and their intersection with individual biographies and contextual forces. While public questions focused on why seemingly ordinary ...


Murder Clearance Rates: Guest Editors' Introduction, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi May 2007

Murder Clearance Rates: Guest Editors' Introduction, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi

Sociology & Criminology Faculty Publications

The journal Homicide Studies has long been devoted to empirical studies addressing issues pertinent to the study of homicide and violence. Although a large variety of theoretical papers, research summaries, and public policy reviews of issues concerning homicide and violence have been explored in the journal over the past 10 years, at least one issue has garnered relatively little attention—the law enforcement response to homicide. This special issue attempts to begin filling this gap in the literature.


Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Felon Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell Apr 2007

Undermining Individual And Collective Citizenship: The Impact Of Felon Exclusion Laws On The African-American Community, S. David Mitchell

S. David Mitchell

Felon exclusion laws are jurisdiction-specific, post-conviction statutory restrictions that prohibit convicted felons from exercising a host of legal rights, most notably the right to vote. The professed intent of these laws is to punish convicted felons equally without regard for the demographic characteristics of each individual, including race, class, or gender. Felon exclusion laws, however, have a disproportionate impact on African-American males and, by extension, on the residential communities from which many convicted felons come. Thus, felon exclusion laws not only relegate African-American convicted felons to a position of second-class citizenship, but the laws also diminish the collective citizenship of ...


The Insanity Defense & Diminished Capacity: How Should We Judge Criminal Responsibility When An Offender's Mental State Is In Question?, Rachel Donahoe Apr 2007

The Insanity Defense & Diminished Capacity: How Should We Judge Criminal Responsibility When An Offender's Mental State Is In Question?, Rachel Donahoe

Sociology and Anthropology Undergraduate Theses

Currently there is a push toward standardization of mental defects or diseases that can be used to show diminished capacity in a court of law. Diminished capacity is an avenue by which an offender may claim that while he or she did commit a crime, he or she should not be held criminally responsible because his or her mental state was impaired at the time the crime was committed. Offenders often use diminished capacity to support a defense of insanity. Experts, lawmakers and attorneys are seeking to determine which disorders should be acceptable in the judicial proceedings, as being debilitating ...


The Effects Of Post-Secondary Education On State Troopers’ Job Performance, Stress Levels, And Authoritarian Attitudes, Carl J. Lafata Apr 2007

The Effects Of Post-Secondary Education On State Troopers’ Job Performance, Stress Levels, And Authoritarian Attitudes, Carl J. Lafata

Dissertations

This study was designed to determine the effects of post-secondary education on police officers' job performance, stress levels, and levels of authoritarianism as measured by Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale questionnaire. It involved the analysis of data voluntarily and anonymously submitted via an internet-based survey by 356 of the Michigan State Police's approximately 1,800 enlisted members (those members who are state-certified police officers), along with information collected from informal personal interviews held with a select group of seven of the department's senior leaders. Subsequent analysis of the collected quantitative data revealed no statistical support for the ...


Mapping Discursive Closings In The War On Drugs, Michelle Brown Mar 2007

Mapping Discursive Closings In The War On Drugs, Michelle Brown

Michelle Brown

This article maps the discursive closing of the most recent war on drugs through a series of case studies drawn from popular culture. This kind of work is performed in an effort to theorize the reflexive role of structure and agency in criminological representation. Each of the three selected cases demonstrates important shifts in conventions of representation that are historically contingent and recursively embedded in developing understandings of the relationship between drugs, individual actors and larger structural forces of sovereignty, inequality, and criminality. Each highlights the nature of a protracted crisis of representation in popular narratives of the war on ...


Dirty Cops: Patterns Of Offending In Sex Crimes By Sworn Law Enforcement Officers, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2007

Dirty Cops: Patterns Of Offending In Sex Crimes By Sworn Law Enforcement Officers, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Legend Tripping As Field Research: Investigating The Connection Of “Satanic Tourism” To Juvenile Delinquency, Gordon A. Crews, Virginia Adame, Rochelle Andrews, Kofi Boye-Doe, Juna Green, Shawn Kirby, Ori Onazi, Jill Schalansky, Cale Urban, Justin Zabokrtsky Mar 2007

Legend Tripping As Field Research: Investigating The Connection Of “Satanic Tourism” To Juvenile Delinquency, Gordon A. Crews, Virginia Adame, Rochelle Andrews, Kofi Boye-Doe, Juna Green, Shawn Kirby, Ori Onazi, Jill Schalansky, Cale Urban, Justin Zabokrtsky

Criminal Justice Faculty Research

Gary Alan Fine and Jeffrey Victor (1994) defined “legend trips” as inherently delinquent juvenile activities at geographic sites associated with some tragic event, rumored to be supernatural or related to the occult. “Satanic tourism” is a type of legend trip characterized by juvenile involvement in pseudo-Satanic/occult behavior, such as drawing pentagrams, writing epithets, and burning candles. A juvenile may visit a geographic location such as an abandoned church, historic graveyard, or reputedly “haunted” site, and engage in mischievous, destructive, or “ritualistic” behaviors as “rites of passage.” These activities, which often are relatively harmless and conducted primarily for juvenile thrills ...


Dangerous Games: Drugs In America, Minnesota State University - Mankato Jan 2007

Dangerous Games: Drugs In America, Minnesota State University - Mankato

Crime/Violence

Bibliography and photographs of a display of government documents from Minnesota State University, Mankato.


Exploring The Literature On Relationships Between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, And Organizational Benefits, Eileen Kwesiga, Myrtle P. Bell, Marshall Pattie, Angela M. Moe Jan 2007

Exploring The Literature On Relationships Between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, And Organizational Benefits, Eileen Kwesiga, Myrtle P. Bell, Marshall Pattie, Angela M. Moe

Sociology Faculty Publications

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS) positions because a growing number of women are employed within such jobs. We propose gender role theory can be used to explain occurrences of IPV among women in HWHS positions and their utilization of organizational benefits. We suggest those in ...


The Domestic Violence Experiences Of Women In Community Corrections, Rachel Bridges Whaley, Angela M. Moe, Mark Eddy, Jean Daugherty Jan 2007

The Domestic Violence Experiences Of Women In Community Corrections, Rachel Bridges Whaley, Angela M. Moe, Mark Eddy, Jean Daugherty

Sociology Faculty Publications

A variety of studies indicate high rates of domestic violence in the backgrounds of women offenders. We examine and extend this work through a qualitative study of women on probation or parole in a western U.S. county. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women who participated in a larger study in which only questionnaire data were collected. Participants completed a brief telephone interview about prior experiences of partner violence and then a face-to-face extensive in-person interview. In the analyses, several notable themes emerged regarding the women’s histories of child victimization, partner abuse, substance abuse, coercion into crime, and ...


The Predictive Utility Of The Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment Instrument In A Sample Of Successfully Released Texas Probationers, Howard M. Henderson Jan 2007

The Predictive Utility Of The Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment Instrument In A Sample Of Successfully Released Texas Probationers, Howard M. Henderson

Howard M Henderson

Predictive actuarial risk needs assessment research has focused on probation completion. This research examines the predictive utility of the Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment instrument as used with Texas probationers. The purpose of the research reported in this article is threefold: (1) to determine the rate of rearrest for successfully released probationers; (2) to examine the predictive utility of the Wisconsin Risk Needs Assessment instrument in a sample of successfully released probationers; and (3) to determine if the assessment tool correctly classifies probationers according to their risk of rearrest. The Wisconsin instrument predictive utility appears to be 12.5% better than ...