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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2007

Applied Behavior Analysis

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Moniker Maladies When Names Sabotage Success, Leif D. Nelson, Joseph P. Simmons Dec 2007

Moniker Maladies When Names Sabotage Success, Leif D. Nelson, Joseph P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

In five studies, we found that people like their names enough to unconsciously pursue consciously avoided outcomes that resemble their names. Baseball players avoid strikeouts, but players whose names begin with the strikeout-signifying letter K strike out more than others (Study 1). All students want As, but students whose names begin with letters associated with poorer performance (C and D) achieve lower grade point averages (GPAs) than do students whose names begin with A and B (Study 2), especially if they like their initials (Study 3). Because lower GPAs lead to lesser graduate schools, students whose names begin with the ...


New Product Diffusion With Two Interacting Segments Or Products, Nitin Bakshi, Kartik Hosanagar, Christophe Van Den Bulte Dec 2007

New Product Diffusion With Two Interacting Segments Or Products, Nitin Bakshi, Kartik Hosanagar, Christophe Van Den Bulte

Marketing Papers

We study the diffusion of a product in two customer segments where the acceptance level in one segment affects the diffusion rate not only in that same segment, but also in the other. The inter-segment influence can be positive or negative, i.e., the acceptance level of the product in one segment can reinforce or impede its diffusion in the other. The model set-up also applies to the diffusion of two products, with independent and market potential, in a single population. Since the diffusion system we study does not have a closed-form solution, we use phrase plane analysis to identify ...


Effects Of Subchronic Dietary Lead Exposure On Dmtp And Dnmtp Performance In Fisher 344 Rats, Joshua D. Vardigan Dec 2007

Effects Of Subchronic Dietary Lead Exposure On Dmtp And Dnmtp Performance In Fisher 344 Rats, Joshua D. Vardigan

Master's Theses

Recent attention has focused on the possibility that even low-level Pb exposure can produce subtle neurological impairments in the absence of overt signs of toxicity. Previous behavioral assessments of learning and memory using DMTS procedures have documented learning impairments in monkeys exposed to Pb during early postnatal development, and although a variety of operant behavioral assays have documented detrimental effects of dietary Pb treatment in rats, the DMTS procedure has not been examined in rats following short-term low levels of Pb through dietary exposure. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the degree of cognitive impairment produced by ...


Neuropsychopharmacological Investigations Of Mdma/Cocaine Combinations, John J. Panos Dec 2007

Neuropsychopharmacological Investigations Of Mdma/Cocaine Combinations, John J. Panos

Master's Theses

Despite the popularity of polydrug abuse among recreational MDMA users, relatively few controlled experimental studies have documented the neurobehavioral effects of MDMA in combination with other abused substances. In this study, the neurochemical and behavioral effects of MD MA/cocaine combinations were assessed using in vivo microdialysis with simultaneous measurement of locomotor activity (LMA). Rats were administered cocaine (10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, IP), MDMA (1.5 mg/kg or 3.0 mg/kg, IP) or combinations of cocaine and MDMA during microdialysis experiments. Microdialysis samples were collected every 30 min for three hours prior to drug injections ...


Functional Assessment Of Problem Behavior In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review Of 32 Cases, Jessa R. Love Jun 2007

Functional Assessment Of Problem Behavior In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review Of 32 Cases, Jessa R. Love

Master's Theses

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children aged 4 to 17 years is approximately 5.5 to 5.7 out of 1000 children (Centers for Disease Control, 2006). It is not uncommon for children with these disorders to display a wide range of problem behavior (e.g., Farrar-Schneider, 1992; Oswald et al., 1992). While a number of studies have reported aggregated data on the reinforcement functions of such problem behavior, none have reported the distribution of functions with a sample comprised solely of individuals on the autism spectrum. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine individual client ...


Behavioral Tolerance Under Variable Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement, Barry Eshkol Adelman Jun 2007

Behavioral Tolerance Under Variable Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement, Barry Eshkol Adelman

Dissertations

Previous studies (e.g., Hoffman, Branch, & Sizemore, 1987) have demonstrated that greater drug tolerance develops in responding under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement when the schedule parameter is small than when it is large; little research has been done on related schedules such as variable-ratio (VR). In Experiment 1, three pigeons responded under a multiple FR 5 FR 125 VR 5 VR 125. A range of prechronic doses of cocaine produced dose-dependent reductions in response rates under the component schedules. Following chronic dosing with daily administrations of 5.6 mg/kg, similar dose-response curves were derived by substitutions of the usual dose. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar but the chronic dose was adjusted to ensure reductions of response rate and reinforcers earned within the range of ...


Evaluation Of An Outpatient Training Service For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Their Families, Britt Winter Jun 2007

Evaluation Of An Outpatient Training Service For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Their Families, Britt Winter

Master's Theses

Autism spectrum disorders have a substantial impact on the lives of families and can result in a variety of enrichments to the family environment as well as certain specific stressors (Hecimovic & Gregory, 2005; Tidmarsh & Volkmar, 2003). One service that has proven effective for treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorders as well as improvement in family dynamics is parent training (Schreibman, 1988). The current study examined 46 individual client files from an outpatient parent training clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders. Parents were taught to implement interventions for skill acquisition with their children using a behavioral skills training model (BST). The ...


Expressive Writing And Divorce, Leonard J. Prazych May 2007

Expressive Writing And Divorce, Leonard J. Prazych

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

Anger, sorrow, depression, and feelings of failure are a few of the well-documented negative emotions experienced by many persons going through divorce. As such, a variety of techniques and interventions are needed to support those adjusting to their dramatically changing world and corresponding changes in identity. Research studies have shown that expressive writing has proven to be useful for people adjusting to a variety of physical and emotional upheavals. None, however, have specifically researched or addressed the effects of expressive writing or writing therapy intervention on persons coping with the negative emotions caused by divorce. This Master Thesis will address ...


Perceived Desirability Of Given Names: Identifying A Relationship Between Given Names And Associated Personality Traits, Ellen D. Parks Apr 2007

Perceived Desirability Of Given Names: Identifying A Relationship Between Given Names And Associated Personality Traits, Ellen D. Parks

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

This study was designed to determine whether participants would have better recall for names with phonetic properties that matched a paired personality trait. In other words, phonetically attractive names paired with positive traits and phonetically unattractive names paired with negative traits should have higher rates of recall than names whose phonetic properties did not match a paired personality trait, such as phonetically attractive names paired with negative traits or phonetically unattractive names paired with positive traits. Given names were deemed to be phonetically attractive or unattractive based on the number of sonorants (soft consonant sounds such as l, m, n ...


An Alternative Approach For Eliciting Willingness-To-Pay: A Randomized Internet Trial, Laura J. Damschroder, Peter A. Ubel, Jason Riis, Dylan M. Smith Apr 2007

An Alternative Approach For Eliciting Willingness-To-Pay: A Randomized Internet Trial, Laura J. Damschroder, Peter A. Ubel, Jason Riis, Dylan M. Smith

Marketing Papers

Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1) WTP in dollars; 2) WTP as a percentage of financial resource; 3) WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4) WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity of health ...


Clouds Make Nerds Look Good: Field Evidence Of The Impact Of Incidental Factors On Decision Making, Uri Simonsohn Apr 2007

Clouds Make Nerds Look Good: Field Evidence Of The Impact Of Incidental Factors On Decision Making, Uri Simonsohn

Marketing Papers

Abundant experimental research has documented that incidental primes and emotions are capable of influencing people's judgments and choices. This paper examines whether the influence of such incidental factors is large enough to be observable in the field, by analyzing 682 actual university admission decisions. As predicted, applicants' academic attributes are weighted more heavily on cloudier days and non‐academic attributes on sunnier days. The documented effects are of both statistical and practical significance: changes in cloud cover can increase a candidate's predicted probability of admission by an average of up to 11.9%. These results also shed light ...


Using Childhood Memory To Gain Insight Into Brand Meaning, Kathryn A. Braun-Latour, Michael S. Latour, George M. Zinkhan Apr 2007

Using Childhood Memory To Gain Insight Into Brand Meaning, Kathryn A. Braun-Latour, Michael S. Latour, George M. Zinkhan

Articles and Chapters

In this article, the authors introduce the concept that people's earliest and defining product memories can be used as a projective tool to help managers more fully understand consumers' relationships to their products. The authors use a study on three generations of automobile consumers to illustrate how these memories symbolize the consumer-brand relationship and how they can be used to gain insights into brand meaning. The findings indicate that people's earliest and defining experiences have an important influence on current and future preferences in predictable ways across the consumer life cycle. These memory experiences are symbolic to the ...


A Behavior Analytic Look At Contemporary Issues In The Assessment Of Child Sexual Abuse, W. Joseph Wyatt Jan 2007

A Behavior Analytic Look At Contemporary Issues In The Assessment Of Child Sexual Abuse, W. Joseph Wyatt

Psychology Faculty Research

The assessment of child sexual abuse has largely been ignored by behavior analysts, although behavior analytic theory and methodology, if applied, likely would advance the field. Three classic cases demonstrate historic errors that might have been avoided, had a behaviorally based approach been employed. Functional analytic interpretations are provided for phenomena that have been explored in a representative sample of studies that, though empirical, do not appear in the behavioral literature. Specific recommendations for practice, and a call for greater involvement of behavior analysis, are presented.


The Influence Of College Students’ Perception Of Parental (Or Primary Caregiver) Expectations On Coping Behavior And Adjustment In Early Adulthood, Jessica Smith Jan 2007

The Influence Of College Students’ Perception Of Parental (Or Primary Caregiver) Expectations On Coping Behavior And Adjustment In Early Adulthood, Jessica Smith

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

While some research has examined how parental expectations affect educational achievement, there is very little known about how parental expectations affect the development of coping skills and adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functions. Participants were asked to complete a measure of their abilities in academics, sports, leadership, honesty, responsibilities, among other things. Then, they completed a measure of what they perceived their parents’ expectations of those areas were. Lastly, they completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-College Self Report of Personality form as a measure of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. The goals of this study are to investigate 1) if participants ...


Does Verbal Communication Impairment Affect Quality Of Life In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients?, Jason Michael Duff Jan 2007

Does Verbal Communication Impairment Affect Quality Of Life In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients?, Jason Michael Duff

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the self-perceived QOL in ALS patients. Literature will be presented on the incidence, prevalence, prognosis, diagnosis and management of ALS, QOL studies for ALS, the role of the multidisciplinary team, the impairments and dysfunction that ALS patients experience, communication issues, and the development of ALS specific instruments to measure QOL. The "bulbar dysfunction" that ALS patients experience in salivation management, speech, and swallowing were examined in detail. The objectives of this research study were to investigate the following hypotheses: 1. QOL will differ among ALS patients with varying levels of speech, swallowing ...


Mood, Information Congruency, And Overload, Kathryn A. Braun-Latour, Nancy M. Puccinelli, Fred W. Mast Jan 2007

Mood, Information Congruency, And Overload, Kathryn A. Braun-Latour, Nancy M. Puccinelli, Fred W. Mast

Articles and Chapters

Marketers seek new ways of gaining attention in our age of information bombardment, and one popular way has been to utilize schema-incongruent language. The present article investigates how a common situational factor–consumer mood–influences consumers' ability to process incongruent information in an information overload environment. Two experiments find positive mood increases (and negative mood decreases) consumers' ability to respond to incongruent information. Both experiments utilize computer reaction tests on healthy adult consumers; the first uses the Stroop test, the second uses the IAT (Implicit Association Test). This article discusses the implications of the findings for marketers attempting to gain ...


The Effect Of Server Posture On The Tips Of Whites And Blacks, Gina Leodoro, Michael Lynn Jan 2007

The Effect Of Server Posture On The Tips Of Whites And Blacks, Gina Leodoro, Michael Lynn

Articles and Chapters

This study examined the effects on tips left by black and white restaurant patrons of having a white waitress sit down or lean over at the table during the service encounter. A significant server posture by patron race interaction was obtained. Sitting at the table significantly increased the tips left by white patrons and marginally significantly decreased the tips left by black patrons. Potential explanations for this interaction are discussed along with its practical implications.


Artists And Crooks: A Correlational Examination Of Creativity And Criminal Thinking, Luis Daniel GascóN Jan 2007

Artists And Crooks: A Correlational Examination Of Creativity And Criminal Thinking, Luis Daniel GascóN

Theses Digitization Project

This study explores some of the possible correlations between creativity and criminal thinking evident in the literature in an attempt to link the two forms of cognition. An understanding of the concept of Malevolent Creativity can serve the purpose of elucidating another component of the criminal personality.


The Power Of Touch During Communication Within Heterosexual Married Dyads, Joann C. Seeman Smith Jan 2007

The Power Of Touch During Communication Within Heterosexual Married Dyads, Joann C. Seeman Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The literature on sex differences in nonverbal behavior is mixed. Some studies find differences in intimate relationships whereas others do not. One reason may be that no study has examined different measurements of touch in intimate couples and examined sex differences based on who chose the topic. The present study was designed to fill this gap in the research in regards to the assessment of touching behavior within married dyads and their possible expression of power moves by measuring seven different measurement of touch (i.e., overall touches, power touches, supportive touches, hand touches, non-hand touches, touches while talking, touches ...


Attempting To Improve The Academic Performance Of Struggling College Students By Bolstering Their Self-Esteem: An Intervention That Backfired, Donelson R. Forsyth, Natalie K. Lawrence, Jeni L. Burnette, Roy F. Baumeister Jan 2007

Attempting To Improve The Academic Performance Of Struggling College Students By Bolstering Their Self-Esteem: An Intervention That Backfired, Donelson R. Forsyth, Natalie K. Lawrence, Jeni L. Burnette, Roy F. Baumeister

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Theory and prior research suggest that (a) a positive sense of self–worth and (b) perceived control over one’s outcomes facilitate constructive responses to negative outcomes. We therefore predicted that encouraging students to maintain their sense of self–worth and/or construe their academic outcomes as controllable would promote achievement. In a field experiment, low–performing students in a psychology class were randomly assigned to receive, each week, review questions, review questions plus self–esteem bolstering, or review questions plus exhortations to assume responsibility and control. Contrary to predictions, the D and F students got worse as a result ...


The Relationship Among Locus Of Control, Coping Style, Self-Esteem And Cultural Identification In Female Adolescents, Jennifer Butler-Sweeney Jan 2007

The Relationship Among Locus Of Control, Coping Style, Self-Esteem And Cultural Identification In Female Adolescents, Jennifer Butler-Sweeney

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

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