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2002

Psychology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 631

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Case Study To Evaluate Effectiveness Of A Treatment Approach For Comorbid Anxiety And Depression, Maria Brent Dec 2002

Case Study To Evaluate Effectiveness Of A Treatment Approach For Comorbid Anxiety And Depression, Maria Brent

Theses and Dissertations

This case study evaluates the effectiveness of supportive-expressive therapy combined with aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of an adult female who has breast cancer and is diagnosed with comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. The subject had many psychosocial stressors. The subject voluntarily participated in outpatient individual psychotherapy received in a private counseling facility based on the twelve-step model of Alcoholics Anonymous. She completed various formal assessments of anxiety and depression periodically during the course of treatment, as well as a satisfaction survey following the termination of treatment. The literature review, which explored empirically supported treatments ...


Trends. The Paradise Hotel Bombing: Trouble In Judicial Paradise, Ibpp Editor Dec 2002

Trends. The Paradise Hotel Bombing: Trouble In Judicial Paradise, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discussed the bombing of the Kenyan Hotel Paradise in November 2002, and the detention of suspects.


Eeg Patterns Of Tbi Patients With Attention Deficits During Cognitive Tasks And Second Resting Baseline, Stamatina Stathopoulou Dec 2002

Eeg Patterns Of Tbi Patients With Attention Deficits During Cognitive Tasks And Second Resting Baseline, Stamatina Stathopoulou

Doctoral Dissertations

According to previous research, different regions of the brain are activated when a person is required to use different types of attention like selective, alternating, focused, sustained and divided attention. The frontal, prefrontal and parietal areas especially in the right hemisphere, seem to be the most frequently activated areas. Little research has addressed differences in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, with different types of attentional deficits because of their injury, and normal population. This study focuses on differences in magnitude in five brain regions between TBI patients and normal population, during recording of one cognitive task ...


The Use Of Psychological State Terms By Late Talkers At Age 3, Eliza Carlson Lee, Leslie Rescorla Dec 2002

The Use Of Psychological State Terms By Late Talkers At Age 3, Eliza Carlson Lee, Leslie Rescorla

Psychology Faculty Research and Scholarship

The use of psychological state words during mother-child play sessions at age 3 was examined in 31 children diagnosed with delayed expressive language at 24-31 months and 21 age-matched typically developing comparison children. Children and mothers in the late talker group made more references to physiological states and fewer references to cognitive states than the children and mothers in the typically developing comparison group. The children's use of cognitive terms correlated significantly with measures of language ability, including mean length of utterance, Index of Productive Syntax score, and use of propositional complements, as well as with their mothers' use ...


Peak Alpha Frequency: An Electroencephalographic Measure Of Cognitive Preparedness, Efthymios Angelakis Dec 2002

Peak Alpha Frequency: An Electroencephalographic Measure Of Cognitive Preparedness, Efthymios Angelakis

Doctoral Dissertations

Background.

Electroencephalographic (EEG) peak alpha frequency (PAF) has been shown to correlate with a variety of phenomena, including age, memory performance in healthy and demented individuals, different emotional states, schizophrenia, anxiety, recovery from stroke, cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity, brain oxygenation, as well as acute administration of stimulant and nootropic substances. These studies have shown that PAF varies between healthy and clinical individuals, with the latter consistently having lower PAF. Moreover, PAF varies between healthy individuals, reflecting cognitive performance, with better performance being associated with increased PAF. Finally, PAF varies within individuals both between developmental stages and between different cognitive ...


Predicting The Readability Of Transparent Text, Lauren F. V. Scharff, Albert J. Ahumada Jr. Dec 2002

Predicting The Readability Of Transparent Text, Lauren F. V. Scharff, Albert J. Ahumada Jr.

Faculty Publications

Will a simple global masking model based on image detection be successful at predicting the readability of transparent text? Text readability was measured for two types of transparent text: additive (as occurs in head-up displays) and multiplicative (which occurs in see-through liquid crystal display virtual reality displays). Text contrast and background texture were manipulated. Data from two previous experiments were also included (one using very low contrasts on plain backgrounds, and the other using higher-contrast opaque text on both plain and textured backgrounds). All variables influenced readability in at least an interactive manner. When there were background textures, the global ...


Attachment Styles, View Of Self And Negative Affect, Amy Van Buren, Eileen L. Cooley Dec 2002

Attachment Styles, View Of Self And Negative Affect, Amy Van Buren, Eileen L. Cooley

Psychology Faculty Publications

We investigated the relationship between attachment styles and negative affect using Bartholomew and Horowitz’s (1991) model of attachment. Attachment styles with a negative self view (i.e., preoccupied and fearful) were expected to be associated with more distress, especially the fearful style which involves negative views of both self and others. Measures of attachment, depression, depression proneness, and social anxiety were administered to 293 undergraduates. As predicted, participants with “negative self” attachment styles reported more symptoms of depression, proneness to depression, and social anxiety, but, contrary to prediction, those with a fearful style did not report more symptoms of ...


Fears And The Presence Of Imaginary Companions And Personified Objects In Preschool Children, Jill R. Ramet Dec 2002

Fears And The Presence Of Imaginary Companions And Personified Objects In Preschool Children, Jill R. Ramet

Student Work

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between a pre-school child’s fears and the child’s use of an imaginary companion or personified object. Preschool-aged children (36 To 74 months) were interviewed using a revised version o f the FSSC-R fear scale, and an imaginary companion questionnaire. Parents were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire. Data analyses revealed that children who did not have an imaginary companion or a personified object had an absolute higher total fear score than children who had this type o f figure, although this difference was not significant. Children with the ...


Testing The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Therapy In The Treatment Of Acute Unipolar Depression, Jenifer M. Cullen Dec 2002

Testing The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Therapy In The Treatment Of Acute Unipolar Depression, Jenifer M. Cullen

Dissertations

The present study sought to investigate the clinical effectiveness of Behavioral Activation (BA) Therapy, the behavioral activation component of Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). Seventeen adults seeking mental health services for Unipolar Depression were recruited from the Kalamazoo and Southwestern Michigan regions. All participants were randomly assigned to either (a) an Immediate Treatment Group, or (b) a waitlist control group, while both received 10 weeks o f BA therapy. Depressive symptomatology for both conditions were assessed at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, Ball, & Ranieri, 1996), the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-Non-Patient Version (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997), and the Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (RHRSD; Warren, 1996). It was hypothesized that at the completion of treatment, participants in both the immediate treatment and waitlist conditions would be significantly less depressed both on a self-report measure and on clinician ratings of severity of depression. It was further hypothesized that the waitlist participants would show no significant change during the waitlist period.


Economic Development And Social Diversity: The Origin And Composition Of A Systemic Growth Regime In Louisville, Kentucky, 1897-1933, John W. Mctighe Dec 2002

Economic Development And Social Diversity: The Origin And Composition Of A Systemic Growth Regime In Louisville, Kentucky, 1897-1933, John W. Mctighe

Dissertations

Between the years 1897 and 1933, a systemic growth regime controlled the urban development of Louisville, Kentucky. The city’s growth regime was created in response to changing national patterns of production resulting from industrialization, and was dedicated to both urban economic expansion, as well as internal political and social control. The growth regime functioned in an informal manner through the formal organizations of the city by co-opting selective representatives from the various economic, ethnic, and racial leadership pools of the city. As an informal entity, the growth regime achieved a high degree of urban hegemony and was a structural ...


Teaching My Son To Be A Father: The Plight Of Unmarried Adolescent African American Fathers, Michael George Till Dec 2002

Teaching My Son To Be A Father: The Plight Of Unmarried Adolescent African American Fathers, Michael George Till

Dissertations

A quantitative research design was utilized to examine and understand the perceptions of fatherhood and manhood held by unmarried African American adolescent fathers. In face-to-face 60-90 minute interviews using a semistructured interview guide developed by the researcher, participants were asked open-ended questions to provide these young men with a voice and an opportunity to express their needs, support, neglect, understanding, and perception of how society views them and its impact on the functioning of the family unit. Using purposeful sampling, 10 unmarried African American adolescent fathers, located in the southwestern area of Michigan, were interviewed for data collection.

Interviews were ...


The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: Treating Comorbid Depression On A Specialized Inpatient Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Unit For Combat Veterans, Theodore P. Wright Dec 2002

The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: Treating Comorbid Depression On A Specialized Inpatient Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Unit For Combat Veterans, Theodore P. Wright

Dissertations

The comorbidity of depression and PTSD has been shown to be relatively prevalent. Researchers have found a 70% lifetime prevalence o f comorbid PTSD and depression among combat veterans. This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral activation (BA) group treatment when administered to combat veterans with comorbid depression and PTSD in the residential treatment program at the Battle Creek Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Forty-five veterans participated in the study. Twenty-four veterans participated in a BA treatment group while in the treatment program. Twenty-one veterans attended the treatment program, but did not participate in the BA treatment group and served ...


A Comparison Of One-To-One And Small Group Instruction For Young Children With Autism: Focus On Effective Teaching And Behavior Management, Kathy Marie Bertsch Dec 2002

A Comparison Of One-To-One And Small Group Instruction For Young Children With Autism: Focus On Effective Teaching And Behavior Management, Kathy Marie Bertsch

Dissertations

Over the past two decades, research has focused on identifying successful instructional methods and appropriate programming for young children with autism. Much of this early research focused on the effectiveness of intensive one-to-one behavioral programs. Support for intensive one-to-one instruction for children with autism began a long-term debate over the effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of one-to-one instructional strategies for young children with autism. In response, researchers and educators began considering and studying small group instruction, a less restrictive alternative to intensive one-to-one instruction. While support is mounting for the use of small group instructional strategies, there continues to be limited ...


The Effects Of Group Size On Incentive Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis, Angelica C. Grindle Dec 2002

The Effects Of Group Size On Incentive Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis, Angelica C. Grindle

Dissertations

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of group size on incentive effectiveness using data obtained from incentive systems implemented in 13 companies. Other predictor variables included the organizational level targeted for improvement, long/short-term profitability type, company number, and length of exposure to the incentive system. The main dependent variable was the monthly score for each measure of performance. Three types of meaningful comparisons were defined for these data: (1) Between-Group - Within-Company comparisons in which a performance measure was in place in two or more units of an organization; (2) Between-Group - Across-Company comparisons in which a performance measure ...


An Examination Of Death Salience: A Component In The Death Anxiety Model, Rachel A. Mason Dec 2002

An Examination Of Death Salience: A Component In The Death Anxiety Model, Rachel A. Mason

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Reviews of the literature have identified few consistent theoretical approaches in the assessment of death anxiety and death attitudes for patients diagnosed with a potentially life threatening illness, such as cancer. This illness experience forces patients to contemplate their mortality. The present study employed a portion of the Death Anxiety Model to examine the relationships between death salience, beliefs about the self, beliefs about the world, death meaning, and death anxiety. Three groups (N = 121) who differed on death salience were examined: cancer survivors (intrapersonal - high salience), spouses of cancer survivors (interpersonal - moderate salience), and healthy patients with no previous ...


The Need For Control In Interpersonal Relationships And Courtship Violence., Marcella Horn Dunaway Dec 2002

The Need For Control In Interpersonal Relationships And Courtship Violence., Marcella Horn Dunaway

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study explored an individual's need for control and the level of violence within a dating relationship.

This was a self-report study. Subjects consisted of 175 students from a university in the southern Appalachian region of the U.S. Questionnaires were combined with a scenario depicting violent behavior. Subjects were asked to rate their level of control on the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Inventory (FIRO-B), to complete the Conflict Tactics Scale - revised (CTS-2), and to rate the acceptability of the scenario. Data were analyzed using an ANOVA.

Results did not support the main hypothesis. No relationship was found between control ...


Artificial Tanning Salon Behaviors, Intentions, And Attitudes In Terms Of Sensuousness And Sensation Seeking., Christopher Jonathan Armes Dec 2002

Artificial Tanning Salon Behaviors, Intentions, And Attitudes In Terms Of Sensuousness And Sensation Seeking., Christopher Jonathan Armes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the Theory of Alternative Behavior (Jaccard, 1981), we examined the relationship of warmth sensuousness, physical sensuousness, and sensation seeking to individuals' tanning salon behaviors, intentions, and attitudes among undergraduates at a Southeastern university.

Females, high sensation seekers, those high in warmth sensuousness, and those with darker skin types were more likely to tan. Females were more likely to intend to tan in the next year. Those higher in warmth sensuousness were more likely to intend to tan more than 10 times in the next year. Females and subjects higher in warmth sensuousness had more positive attitudes toward tanning. Significant ...


Ossetian: Revisiting Inflectional Morphology, Bela G. Hettich Dec 2002

Ossetian: Revisiting Inflectional Morphology, Bela G. Hettich

Theses and Dissertations

Ossetian, a language of the Northeastern group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European stock of languages, has not received as much linguistic attention as it deserves. A few major studies on Ossetian were written in the 19th and 20th centuries, most of them in Russian. While these works are a solid foundation in the study of Ossetian, its description is not complete.

The present work, written in English, offers Ossetian to a wider international audience. Relying on new developments in linguistic theory, it reexamines phenomena in the inflectional morphology of Ossetian.

The preliminary chapter on phonology provides an overview ...


Valence Change And Oroko Verb Morphology (Mbonge Dialect), Lisa Friesen Dec 2002

Valence Change And Oroko Verb Morphology (Mbonge Dialect), Lisa Friesen

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the valence changing processes that are indicated by Mbonge verbal morphology. Mbonge (Mborjge) is a dialect of Oroko (Oroko), an agglutinative Bantu A language of Cameroon with very rich morphology. After a brief overview of the structure of Mbonge verbs, attention is concentrated on the verbal suffixes which affect valence. Five suffixes—passive, slative, reflexive, reciprocal, and anticausative—are used to decrease valence. Five other suffixes—causative, indirect agent causative, indirect effector causative, applicative, and instrumental—are used to increase valence, as is the syntactic combination of bola ‘do/make' plus another verb.

Suffixes which do not ...


Survey Of Aviation Maintenance Technical Manuals, Phase 3 Report: Final Report And Recommendations, Alex Chaparro, Loren S. Groff Dec 2002

Survey Of Aviation Maintenance Technical Manuals, Phase 3 Report: Final Report And Recommendations, Alex Chaparro, Loren S. Groff

Publications

This report contains the results from the final phase of a three-phase research effort. Phase 1 of this research effort surveyed the procedures used by five aircraft manufacturers to develop maintenance documentation. Several potential human factors issues were identified in the processes used by these manufacturers to develop their maintenance manuals. The issues included the reactive rather than proactive use of user evaluations, the limited use of user input and procedure validation, no systematic attempts to track errors, and the lack of standards for measuring document quality. In Phase 2, a written survey was used to solicit information about user ...


Practical Evaluation Of Psychotropic Medication, Lynne E. Turner Dec 2002

Practical Evaluation Of Psychotropic Medication, Lynne E. Turner

Master's Theses

Surveys indicate that 25-40% of students with mental retardation or other developmental disabilities receive one or more psychotropic medications, however, almost nothing is known concerning how the effects of the medications are monitored. Parents/guardians and teachers were interviewed to ascertain information regarding current monitoring procedures in the home and in the school setting. Additionally information was gathered to ascertain their knowledge regarding: 1) the reason for which their students were prescribed psychotropic medications; 2) the behavioral domains that those medications are intended to affect, 3) the current status of those behavioral domains, and 4) consumers' satisfaction with the pharmacological ...


Non-Prescriptive Behavior Therapy: Effectiveness Of A Self-Help Book In Teaching Parents How To Manage Their Child’S “Picky Eating” Behavior, Sean T. Smitham Dec 2002

Non-Prescriptive Behavior Therapy: Effectiveness Of A Self-Help Book In Teaching Parents How To Manage Their Child’S “Picky Eating” Behavior, Sean T. Smitham

Master's Theses

The term "nonprescription" behavior therapies was first used by Rosen (1979) to describe behavioral interventions that could be totally self-administered without professional consultation. In his article, Rosen warned that empirical validation of self-help programs was needed. The present study examines the effectiveness of one such self-help program intended to help parents manage a minor pediatric feeding problem - "picky eating". "Picky Eating" (i.e., mild selectivity or selective eating) appears to be a common and relatively persistent feeding concern of otherwise typically developing children. Mild selectivity is usually regarded as a sub-clinical feeding problem. In the present study, five families with ...


Examining The Effects Of Conducting Beavior-Based Safety Observations, Joseph R. Sasson Dec 2002

Examining The Effects Of Conducting Beavior-Based Safety Observations, Joseph R. Sasson

Master's Theses

Eleven computer terminal operators participated in a series of interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback, and approximately one half of the participants conducted observations for safe behavior. Conducting observations of safety-related behavior is a critical component of the Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) process, yet few researchers have studied the effects of conducting observations on the behavior of the observer. This study sought to examine the effects of conducting BBS observations on the safe performance of the observer in an applied setting. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to assess the ...


Examining The Effects Of Individualized Computer Work Station Adjustments And Performance Management On Safe Behavior, Kathryn Culig Dec 2002

Examining The Effects Of Individualized Computer Work Station Adjustments And Performance Management On Safe Behavior, Kathryn Culig

Master's Theses

The first purpose of this study was to examine the effects of office ergonomic assessments and resulting computer workstation adjustments on safe behavior. The adjustments were designed to reduce or eliminate barriers to performing safely, thus creating an environment that would allow participants to assume safe behaviors. The second purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a performance management (PM) package, including ergonomic information, graphic feedback, and praise, which targeted those behaviors that did not substantially change as a result of the workstation adjustments. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess the effects of ...


Evaluation Of The Picture Exchange Communication System, Anne Rena Cummings Dec 2002

Evaluation Of The Picture Exchange Communication System, Anne Rena Cummings

Master's Theses

The Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) is a picture-based augmentative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized across children with a variety of disabilities. Despite its extensive dissemination, there is a dearth of empirically based support to document the effectiveness of PECS. The current study is the first to experimentally evaluate the effects of training during each of the 6 phases of PECS. Results indicated that with all 7 participants, the level of PECS responses consistently increased only after training was completed in Phases 1 through 4. In addition, all of the participants showed an increase in PECS responses ...


Brain Potentials Elicited By Prose-Embedded Linguistic Anomalies, Mark D. Allen, Kayo Inoue, Judith Mclaughlin, Lee Osterhout Dec 2002

Brain Potentials Elicited By Prose-Embedded Linguistic Anomalies, Mark D. Allen, Kayo Inoue, Judith Mclaughlin, Lee Osterhout

Faculty Publications

Linguistic theories distinguish between syntax (sentence form) and semantics (sentence meaning). Correspondingly, recent studies have shown that syntactic and semantic anomalies elicit distinct changes in the event-related brain potential (ERP). However, these results have been obtained with highly artificial methodologies and have not yet been generalized to more natural reading conditions. Here, we recorded ERPs while subjects read a naturalistic prose passage. The subjects either read for comprehension with no other task being assigned or read for comprehension and made acceptability judgments after each sentence. Consistent with prior work and regardless of the subjects’ assigned task, syntactic anomalies elicited a ...


Substance Or Style? An Investigation Of The Neo-Pi-R Validity Scales, Leslie C. Morey, Brian D. Quigley, Charles A. Sanislow, Andrew E. Skodol, Thomas H. Mcglashan, M. Tracie Shea, Robert L. Stout, Mary C. Zanarini, John G. Gunderson Nov 2002

Substance Or Style? An Investigation Of The Neo-Pi-R Validity Scales, Leslie C. Morey, Brian D. Quigley, Charles A. Sanislow, Andrew E. Skodol, Thomas H. Mcglashan, M. Tracie Shea, Robert L. Stout, Mary C. Zanarini, John G. Gunderson

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992b) has been criticized for the absence of validity scales designed to detect response distortion. Recently, validity scales were developed from the items of the NEO-PI-R (Schinka, Kinder, & Kremer, 1997) and several studies have used a variety of methods to test their use. However, it is controversial whether these scales are measuring something that is substantive (such as psychopathology or its absence) or stylistic (which might be effortful distortion or less conscious processes such as lack of insight). In this study, we used a multimethod-multitrait approach to examine the validity of these ...


Public Diplomacy And International Broadcasting As Antiterrorism Weapons: Philosophical Dilemmas, Ibpp Editor Nov 2002

Public Diplomacy And International Broadcasting As Antiterrorism Weapons: Philosophical Dilemmas, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes problematic assumptions in differentiating public diplomacy from international broadcasting as weapons against terrorism with global reach.


Context And Demonizing The I.R.A., Ibpp Editor Nov 2002

Context And Demonizing The I.R.A., Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article questions a consensus that the I.R.A. is largely responsible for the recent suspension of Northern Ireland’s home-rule government by the United Kingdom.


Trends. Disclosure Of Post-9-11 Arrestees And Maslow’S Hierarchy Of Needs, Ibpp Editor Nov 2002

Trends. Disclosure Of Post-9-11 Arrestees And Maslow’S Hierarchy Of Needs, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses the Maslowian hierarchy of needs in the context of 9-11 terrorist attacks and the relationship between executive and judicial branches of American government.