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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Human Touch, Russell Gasser, Terry Thomas Jun 2000

The Human Touch, Russell Gasser, Terry Thomas

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Biting insects, inaccessible terrain, impenetrable bamboo thickets and thorn bushes. Mine clearance in Cambodia is a hot, sweaty business at the best of times. Because tripwires hidden in the undergrowth could trigger explosions, the vegetation has to be cleared by hand before mine detection can start. It is a tedious matter and can occupy two-thirds of a mine clearer's working day.


Mgm (Menschen Gegen Minen), Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Mgm (Menschen Gegen Minen), Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Founded in Germany in January 1996, by Directors Hendrik Ehlers and Hans Georg Kruessen, MgM, translated to "The Charity of People Against Land mines," has generated much discussion as one of the leading international demining organizations.


The U.S. Approach: Deminer Personal Protective Equipment Development, George Zahaczewsky Jun 2000

The U.S. Approach: Deminer Personal Protective Equipment Development, George Zahaczewsky

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The deminer and his partner began work at 0730. By 0850, they had cleared 50 square meters. Both men wore frag-jackets, helmets and visors. The victim was clearing by using his prodder. He was called to help his section leader remove grass from a large pothole in the road. As he returned at 0850, he stepped on a mine he had previously missed. (Extracted from the Database of Demining Incident Victims, 1999, Incident #53.)


Reducing Accidents In Demining: Achievements In Afghanistan, James Trevelyan Jun 2000

Reducing Accidents In Demining: Achievements In Afghanistan, James Trevelyan

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

An expatriate military adviser in Bosnia inspired me to write this paper when he explained his opinion that demining accidents were "a statistical certainty." I had just arrived in Bosnia after visiting Pakistan where I had conducted extensive interviews with deminers and their advisers to learn how they had managed to reduce demining accidents. I realized that some of the techniques that the Afghan deminers had devised for themselves were widely applicable.


Personal Protective Equipment: The Never-Ending Story, Lance J. Malin Jun 2000

Personal Protective Equipment: The Never-Ending Story, Lance J. Malin

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Now, as always, there is a huge debate about what protection is required and what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be provided for personnel engaged in demining operations. Current opinion varies drastically between individual demining organizations, countries in which they operate and between governing bodies, which are coordinating the demining efforts.


International Standards For Personal Protective Equipment, Alastair Mcaslan, Keith Feigenbaum Jun 2000

International Standards For Personal Protective Equipment, Alastair Mcaslan, Keith Feigenbaum

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

International Standards for Mine Action are being revised by the United Nations. As part of the revision process, a working group on personal protective equipment (WGPPE) has been established to examine the subject of safety in mine clearance operations, and to make recommendations on standards and guidelines for PPE. This paper is based on the WGPPE's report.


The Journal Of Mine Action Issue 4.2 (2000), Cisr Journal Jun 2000

The Journal Of Mine Action Issue 4.2 (2000), Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Deminers, Manual Demining & Their Personal Protection


Manual Demining In Afghanistan, Kefayatullah Eblagh Jun 2000

Manual Demining In Afghanistan, Kefayatullah Eblagh

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC) is the oldest, largest non-profit and NGO for humanitarian mine clearance in Afghanistan. The present director, Kefayatullah Eblagh, established it in October 1989. ATC started demining operations in early 1990, with an initial staff of 35. Since then, it has undergone significant change and expansion. ATC has developed into a highly organized and effective NGO, employing about 1,300 personnel. ATC operates under the auspices of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA) and removes ordnance from both mined areas and former battlefields. ATC also promotes mine awareness for the ...


The Spider Boot: An Effective Foot Protection System Against Anti-Personnel Mine Blasts, S. Islam, Aris Makris, Denis Bergeron Jun 2000

The Spider Boot: An Effective Foot Protection System Against Anti-Personnel Mine Blasts, S. Islam, Aris Makris, Denis Bergeron

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

It is estimated that about 70 million AP landmines are deployed worldwide, slowing down the economic recovery of war torn countries and causing indiscriminate injuries to returning civilian populations long after the end of a conflict. Several military and non-military organizations are currently engaged in mine clearance, either in support of peacekeeping operations or for humanitarian demining.


A Full-Scale Evaluation Of Lightweight Personal Protective Ensembles For Demining In Providing Protection Against Blast-Type Anti-Personnel Mines, Aris Makris, J. Nerenberg Jun 2000

A Full-Scale Evaluation Of Lightweight Personal Protective Ensembles For Demining In Providing Protection Against Blast-Type Anti-Personnel Mines, Aris Makris, J. Nerenberg

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

A wide range of equipment, in the form of helmets, vests, aprons and trousers, is currently in use around the world to protect deminers against the effects of AP mines. Significant variations exist in terms of the level of protection afforded, operational usefulness, quality of manufacturing and cost of each of these components. To date, there have been limited studies undertaken to systematically and quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the different protective components applied to both the civilian and military demining theaters. This study summarizes the efforts of numerous full-scale test series carried out in 1999, with particular emphasis on ...


The Effectiveness Of Different Personal Protective Ensembles In Preventing Injury To The Thorax From Blast-Type Anti-Personnel Mines, J. Nerenberg, Aris Makris, H. Kleine Jun 2000

The Effectiveness Of Different Personal Protective Ensembles In Preventing Injury To The Thorax From Blast-Type Anti-Personnel Mines, J. Nerenberg, Aris Makris, H. Kleine

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

It is well established from numerous documented cases of bomb blasts that, under certain conditions (determined by the amount and proximity of explosive), the transmitted shock wave and associated overpressure generated by the detonation of an explosive device can cause critical and fatal injuries to the thorax, e.g., “blast lung.” As such injuries tend to be internal and thus difficult to detect, there has been considerable debate in recent years on the significance of the blast overpressure injury in the context of demining/mine clearance compared to more visible injuries, such as, amputation of extremities, fragmentation wounds and blindness ...


The Facts On Protection Needs In Humanitarian Demining, Andy Smith Jun 2000

The Facts On Protection Needs In Humanitarian Demining, Andy Smith

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

When assessing protection needs, my approach has been to determine what the risks are, what injuries result and then decide how to minimize these risks and protect against any residual danger. I also bear in mind that there is no point in prescribing an action or a garment that will not be used.


Deminers, Manual Demining And Their Protective Equipment, Norman Stewart Jun 2000

Deminers, Manual Demining And Their Protective Equipment, Norman Stewart

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In Cambodia, a deminer was working in the prone position and set off an anti-personnel type 72 Chinese tilt mine. The resulting blast went over his head and did not damage his exposed hands. The blast over-pressure sucked air and dirt into his helmet visor and punctured his eye, which recovered fully. This over-pressure problem was caused by an air gap between the helmet visor and his protective jacket. Within seven days a new visor was dispatched from the manufacturer to my specifications, tested and found to remove the air gap problem. As part of the daily safety checks carried ...


Countering The Global Landmine Epidemic Through Basic Scientific Research, Mark S. Rountree, Robert M. Harris Jun 2000

Countering The Global Landmine Epidemic Through Basic Scientific Research, Mark S. Rountree, Robert M. Harris

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Since their first use during the U.S. Civil War (Croll 1998), blast landmines have played a role in almost every armed conflict from the World Wars to the most recent limited skirmishes. Landmines are the epitome of the consummate soldier: always ready, never tiring. Mines are simple devices that can be fabricated with little effort and from readily available materials. In Sri Lanka, numerous news releases covering the conflict mention a "Johnny mine" (Botsford 1997), which is a local term for an improvised explosive device. Manufactured mines can be inexpensive, costing as little as two dollars apiece. If mine ...


Quality Standards For Demining, James Trevelyan Jun 2000

Quality Standards For Demining, James Trevelyan

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the last two years, several authors have commented critically on the 99.6 percent standard for humanitarian mine clearance adopted by the United Nations and its agencies. These standards are being redrafted, yet from the literature and recent comments, it is clear that there is little intellectual foundation on which to build a new standard. There are three issues that need to be addressed. First, what is an acceptable quality standard for humanitarian demining? Second, how can one measure the quality levels actually achieved in humanitarian demining? Third, how can one implement a cost-effective training and monitoring process to ...


Conquering The Insurmountable, Stephanie Schlosser, Virginia Saulnier Jun 2000

Conquering The Insurmountable, Stephanie Schlosser, Virginia Saulnier

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Canadian Center for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT) is a partnership of resources from the Department of National Defense and Industry Canada. The Center is co-located with the Defense Research Establishment Suffield (ORES) at Canadian Force Base Suffield in Alberta.


We Didn't Think It Could Happen To Us, Chris North Jun 2000

We Didn't Think It Could Happen To Us, Chris North

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

"We Didn't Think it Could Happen to Us" by Chris North


Hobby Deminers In Quang Tri Province, Douglas Patt Jun 2000

Hobby Deminers In Quang Tri Province, Douglas Patt

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the old days, anybody driving Highway 1 through the Vietnam central coastal regions could see neat stacks of unexploded ordnance (UXO) displayed everywhere beside the road. All the dangerous debris of past wars lay there like alien goods in storefront windows, each cairn marking the location of a scrap metal dealer. About four years ago, the Vietnamese government determined such displays inappropriate for a country moving to re-establish itself as a presence in the world community. The UXOs disappeared from view. The scrap metal dealers either removed their inventories to caches in the countryside or moved them behind screens.


Poetry From The Mine Field, Chris North Jun 2000

Poetry From The Mine Field, Chris North

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Poetry from the Mine Field


Ronco Executives Talk About Demining Integration And The Imas Contract, Margaret S. Busé Jun 2000

Ronco Executives Talk About Demining Integration And The Imas Contract, Margaret S. Busé

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

An Interview with Lawrence Crandall, Stephen Edelmann and A. David Lundberg


Mozambique: A Country Ravaged By Civil War And Nature, Stephanie Schlosser, Virginia Saulnier Jun 2000

Mozambique: A Country Ravaged By Civil War And Nature, Stephanie Schlosser, Virginia Saulnier

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mozambique, a nation fraught with the aftermath of civil war and, more recently, torrential downpours devastating the countryside, has attained sufficient stability to attempt the mammoth task of reconstructing its social and economic foundation. After suffering through 16-20 years of civil war, which eventually subsided in 1992, Mozambique's demining efforts were progressing when the nation was struck by Cyclone Eline in late February 2000 and Cyclone Hudah in mid-April 2000, complicating the demining mission. Initial reports indicated that mine fields that had been previously mapped for clearance had suddenly vanished, as the violent storms swept the mines to unknown ...


Wwii Ordnance Still Haunts Europe And The Asia-Pacific Rim, Margaret S. Busé Jun 2000

Wwii Ordnance Still Haunts Europe And The Asia-Pacific Rim, Margaret S. Busé

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Explosives and mines from WWI and WWII still turn up on European and Asian construction sites, backyard gardens, beaches, wildlife preserves and former military training ground. For most countries, these discoveries are not isolated incidents but are the result of hastily cleared ammunition dumps, training ground, bombings and mine fields from these wars. In the United Kingdom, over 20 percent of the entire landmass has, at one time, been used for military training. This military training has resulted in uncovered ordnance that dates from cannon and musket balls to modern weapons. Many of the older U.K. ranges can contain ...


Central America Landmine Survivors: The Need For Action In Nicaragua, William Boyce Jun 2000

Central America Landmine Survivors: The Need For Action In Nicaragua, William Boyce

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Landmines are indiscriminate weapons, wounding and killing not only soldiers but women and children as well. Although hostilities may cease, landmines continue to maim and kill 500 victims a week, the equivalent of 26,000 additional disabled persons each year. There are at least 250,000 landmine-disabled people in the world, and the number continues to grow.


The Halo Trust, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

The Halo Trust, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

HALO in Cambodia operates the demining system of One-Man One Lane (OMOL). Traditional mine clearance has operated with three individuals performing detection, probing and trip wire detection/deactivation. With the use of improved German mine detectors, HALO has safely combined all tasks to a single man, doubling productivity and halving personnel costs.


Mines Advisory Group, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Mines Advisory Group, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Mines Advisory Group (MAG), U.K. Registered Charity No.1 020441, started in 1992. MAG's programs integrate mine/UXO survey, demarcation and clearance with awareness-raising activities to reduce landmine risks to affected populations. MAG's integrated approach prides itself on working with conflict-affected communities to identify and address their most pressing needs.


Afghan Technical Consultants, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Afghan Technical Consultants, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

ATC operates under the auspices of the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA) and removes ordnance from both mined areas and former battlefields. ATC also promotes mine awareness for the people living near contaminated areas and those who are exposed to the greatest risk.


Mechem, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Mechem, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Mechem division of Denel (Pty.) ltd., South Africa, has a history going back to the late 1960s, when it was a unit of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Specializing in landmine detection, demining and UXO disposal, Mechem also offers contract research and development, well-equipped laboratories and an explosive test range, which is used for the development and evaluation of equipment and augments workshops.


Ronco, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Ronco, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

RONCO Consulting Corporation is an international services firm specializing in demining and humanitarian assistance, agri-business, procurement services and private enterprise development. RONCO's involvement in demining evolves from 20 years experience with worldwide development and assistance contracts. RONCO has been operational in Mozambique, Afghanistan, Thailand, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Cuba, Angola, Rwanda, Bosnia and Croatia. RONCO is the only firm in the U.S. that has developed and is successfully using "free running" dogs for mine detection.


Mines Clearance International, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Mines Clearance International, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mines Clearance International (MCI) is an established humanitarian demining agency and a registered charity in the U.K. A fairly new organization, MCI was established, in April 1996, to respond to the problem landmines and unexploded ordnance posed to civilians, particularly in the underdeveloped nations of the Southern Hemisphere. MCI staff, though newly on board, includes well-qualified technical and aid personnel with experience in humanitarian responses to the landmine issue.


Gerbera Gmbh, Cisr Journal Jun 2000

Gerbera Gmbh, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Comprised of a staff comprehensively trained in international operations involving project management and mine clearance, GERBERA Gmbh strives to offer a range of services to mine-affected countries.