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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Confronting The Internet's Dark Side: Moral And Social Responsibility On The Free Highway, Raphael Cohen-Almagor Jul 2015

Confronting The Internet's Dark Side: Moral And Social Responsibility On The Free Highway, Raphael Cohen-Almagor

raphael cohen-almagor

This book focuses on the tension between Free Speech fundamentalism and Social Responsibility at the individual, corporate, and nation-state level. It brings an international perspective to the central topics (child pornography, hate speech, suicidal and homicidal enablers, cybercrime and terrorism). The central philosophical argument of this book is the Promotional Approach, which the author sees as a kind of Golden Mean between Ronald Dworkin and Joseph Raz. The book utilizes the Aristotelian doctrine of the mean to endorse the kind of practical wisdom required to make choices between freedom and security, unlimited license and moral responsibility. It argues that this ...


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez Jun 2015

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


Reflections From The Wearable Computing Conference In Toronto, Canada, Nick Rheinberger, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Reflections From The Wearable Computing Conference In Toronto, Canada, Nick Rheinberger, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

Could sports men and women who are monitored using wearable computers actually be playing to a global theatre to ensure the upkeep of their performance benchmarks instead of consciously watching and reacting to what is happening in the game they are playing? What are the social implications of heart rate monitors and GPS units now embedded into player clothing? What were some of the reflections from the IEEE ISTAS13 meeting on Wearable Computers in Every Day Life? What were some of the main messages that you walked away with from that conference? What made the greatest impression on us was ...


Checklists And Worker Behaviour: A Field Experiment, C. Kirabo Jackson, Henry Schneider Dec 2014

Checklists And Worker Behaviour: A Field Experiment, C. Kirabo Jackson, Henry Schneider

C. Kirabo Jackson

We analyze data from a field experiment in which an auto-repair firm provided checklists to mechanics and monitored their use. Revenue was 20 percent higher during the experiment, and the effect is equivalent to that of a 1.6 percentage point (10 percent) commission increase. Checklists appear to boost productivity by serving both as a memory aid and a monitoring technology. Despite the large benefits to the firm, mechanics did not use checklists without the firm directly monitoring their use. We show that a moral hazard can explain why mechanics do not otherwise adopt checklists.


Agency And Compensation: Evidence From The Hotel Industry, Matthew Freedman, Renata Kosova Feb 2014

Agency And Compensation: Evidence From The Hotel Industry, Matthew Freedman, Renata Kosova

Matthew Freedman

We examine how agency problems in the workplace interact with compensation policies by taking advantage of the structure of the hotel industry, in which many chains have both company managed and franchised properties. As residual claimants on their properties’ profits, franchisees have stronger incentives to monitor employees than managers in company managed hotels. Exploiting this variation and using rich, longitudinal data on the hotel industry, we estimate differences in wages and human resource practices across company managed and franchised hotels within chains as well as within individual hotels as they change organizational form. Our results suggest that the timing of ...


People Do Not Just Snap: Watching The Electronic Trails Of Potential Murderers, Raphael Cohen-Almagor Jan 2014

People Do Not Just Snap: Watching The Electronic Trails Of Potential Murderers, Raphael Cohen-Almagor

raphael cohen-almagor

The author argues that the international community should continue working together to devise rules for monitoring specific Internet sites, as human lives are at stake. Preemptive measures could prevent the translation of murderous thoughts into murderous actions. Designated monitoring mechanisms for certain websites that promote violence and seek adherents for the actualization of murderous thoughts could potentially prevent such unfortunate events. The intention is to draw the attention of the international community' multi agents (law-enforcement agencies, governments, the business sector, including Internet Service Providers, websites administrators and owners, civil society groups) to the urgent need of developing monitoring schemes for ...


The Role Of Family Ties In Mitigating Moral Hazard: Firm-Level Evidence From Tamil Nadu, India, Goldie Chow Nov 2013

The Role Of Family Ties In Mitigating Moral Hazard: Firm-Level Evidence From Tamil Nadu, India, Goldie Chow

Goldie Chow

Drawing on firm-level data from the district of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India, this study explores the role of family ties as a means to counteract potential moral hazard concerns. It is shown that firms will be more likely to employ family relations when faced with a higher hidden context for moral hazard. Specifically, the analysis finds that the presence of family members within the firm is higher when the firm provides general training and that firms that are more likely to do external business with family relations when it is believed that the legal system is not effective. Additionally ...


Social Implications Of Wearable Computing And Augmediated Reality In Every Day Life (Ieee Symposium On Technology And Society, Istas13), Katina Michael Jun 2013

Social Implications Of Wearable Computing And Augmediated Reality In Every Day Life (Ieee Symposium On Technology And Society, Istas13), Katina Michael

Associate Professor Katina Michael

It was in July 2012 that Steve Mann and I corresponded on the possibility of hosting a conference on wearable computing in Toronto, Canada. Steve had just returned home from a family holiday to France and publicly blogged about an unfortunate incident that had happened to him while away. On 17th July 2012 he posted: “Physical assault by McDonald’s for wearing Digital Eye Glass”. We both knew the timing was right for such an event that was not just a technical engineering or applied orientation on the theme of smart worlds, but an event that would grapple with the ...


Strategies To Address Iodine Deficiency In Australia Require Ongoing Monitoring And Surveillance, Heather Yeatman, Karen E. Charlton Apr 2013

Strategies To Address Iodine Deficiency In Australia Require Ongoing Monitoring And Surveillance, Heather Yeatman, Karen E. Charlton

Karen E. Charlton

No abstract provided.


Bryophyte Species Composition Over Moisture Gradients In The Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: Development Of A Baseline For Monitoring Climate Change Impacts, J Wasley, S A. Robinson, J D. Turnbull, D H. King, W Wanek, M Popp Feb 2013

Bryophyte Species Composition Over Moisture Gradients In The Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: Development Of A Baseline For Monitoring Climate Change Impacts, J Wasley, S A. Robinson, J D. Turnbull, D H. King, W Wanek, M Popp

Sharon Robinson

Extreme environmental conditions prevail on the Antarctic continent and limit plant diversity to cryptogamic communities, dominated by bryophytes and lichens. Even small abiotic shifts, associated with climate change, are likely to have pronounced impacts on these communities that currently exist at their physiological limit of survival. Changes to moisture availability, due to precipitation shifts or alterations to permanent snow reserves, will most likely cause greatest impact. In order to establish a baseline for determining the effect of climate change on continental Antarctic terrestrial communities and to better understand bryophyte species distributions in relation to moisture in a floristically important Antarctic ...


Location And Tracking Of Mobile Devices: Überveillance Stalks The Streets, Katina Michael, Roger Clarke Dec 2012

Location And Tracking Of Mobile Devices: Überveillance Stalks The Streets, Katina Michael, Roger Clarke

Professor Katina Michael

During the last decade, location-tracking and monitoring applications have proliferated, in mobile cellular and wireless data networks, and through self-reporting by applications running in smartphones that are equipped with onboard global positioning system (GPS) chipsets. It is now possible to locate a smartphone-user's location not merely to a cell, but to a small area within it. Innovators have been quick to capitalise on these location-based technologies for commercial purposes, and have gained access to a great deal of sensitive personal data in the process. In addition, law enforcement utilise these technologies, can do so inexpensively and hence can track ...


An Indoor Localisation And Motion Monitoring System To Determine Behavioural Activity In Dementia Afflicted Patients In Aged Care, Matthew D'Souza, Montserrat Ros, Mohanraj Karunanithi Dec 2012

An Indoor Localisation And Motion Monitoring System To Determine Behavioural Activity In Dementia Afflicted Patients In Aged Care, Matthew D'Souza, Montserrat Ros, Mohanraj Karunanithi

Dr Montserrat Ros

Dementia is highly prevalent among the older population. Most patients with dementia are admitted to an aged care facility due to wandering behaviour which tends to result in dangerous scenarios such as straying away from the facility and being seriously injured. Due to the decreasing availability of carers in aged care, there is a need to prioritise monitoring of patients that have a severe case of wondering. The challenge is to allow carers to monitor the status of such patients in terms of position localisation and motion behavioural status, in real-time. The long term behavioural analysis of such patients would ...


Glogging Your Every Move, Lisa Wachsmuth, Katina Michael Nov 2012

Glogging Your Every Move, Lisa Wachsmuth, Katina Michael

Professor Katina Michael

"It is one thing to lug technologies around, another thing to wear them, and even more intrusive to bear them... But that's the direction in which we're headed."

"I think we're entering an era of person-view systems which will show things on ground level and will be increasingly relayed to others via social media.

"We've got people wearing recording devices on their fingers, in their caps or sunglasses - there are huge legal and ethical implications here."


Environmental (Re)Education And Local Environmental Knowledge: Statutory Ground-Based Monitoring And Pastoral Culture In Central Australia, Nicholas J. Gill Jun 2012

Environmental (Re)Education And Local Environmental Knowledge: Statutory Ground-Based Monitoring And Pastoral Culture In Central Australia, Nicholas J. Gill

Nicholas J Gill

Ground-based monitoring of rangeland condition is common in Australian pastoral administration systems. In the Northern Territory, such monitoring is officially seen as a key plank of sustainable pastoral land use. In the NT and elsewhere, these monitoring schemes have sought to increase participation by pastoralists. Involvement of pastoralists in monitoring is theoretically an educative process that will cause pastoralists to more critically examine their management practices. Critical perspectives on the relationship between rangelands science/extension and pastoralist knowledge systems and concerns, however, suggest that pastoralists’ reception of such monitoring schemes will be influenced by a range of social contexts, including ...


Ngo Monitoring And The Legitimacy Of International Cooperation: A Strategic Analysis, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen Feb 2012

Ngo Monitoring And The Legitimacy Of International Cooperation: A Strategic Analysis, Christopher Pallas, Johannes Urpelainen

Christopher L. Pallas

States often invite NGOs to monitor international cooperation. Under what circumstances are states likely to take this step? We argue that NGO monitoring allows states to provide domestic publics with credible evidence regarding successful cooperation, but that this credibility carries a cost: if states fail to cooperate, a participating NGO will expose this failure and thus delegitimize the cooperation effort. Our formal analysis indicates that states obtain a dual benefit from NGO participation: in addition to enhanced legitimacy, NGO scrutiny helps states credibly commit to high cooperation levels vis-á-vis each other. The increased costs of failure, however, may deter state ...


Location Privacy Under Dire Threat As Uberveillance Stalks The Streets, Katina Michael, Roger Clarke Jan 2012

Location Privacy Under Dire Threat As Uberveillance Stalks The Streets, Katina Michael, Roger Clarke

Associate Professor Katina Michael

Location tracking and monitoring applications have proliferated with the arrival of smart phones that are equipped with onboard global positioning system (GPS) chipsets. It is now possible to locate a smart phone user down to 10 metres of accuracy on average. Innovators have been quick to capitalise on this emerging market by introducing novel pedestrian tracking technologies which can denote the geographic path of a mobile user. At the same time there is contention by law enforcement personnel over the need for a warrant process to track an individual in a public space. This paper considers the future of location ...


Coöperaties In België. Profielschets 2005-2010, Wim Van Opstal Jan 2012

Coöperaties In België. Profielschets 2005-2010, Wim Van Opstal

Wim Van Opstal

Coöperaties kennen de jongste jaren een groeiende aandacht binnen de academische wereld, het bedrijfsleven, het maatschappelijke middenveld en het beleid. Coöperaties worden tijdens een groeiend aantal studiedagen gewikt en gewogen als mogelijk instrument voor diverse uitdagingen die we vandaag kennen op economisch, sociaal en ecologisch vlak. Cijfers over coöperaties in ons land zijn echter schaars. In deze publicatie presenteren we een profielschets van de coöperatieve vennootschappen in België met daarin enkele kerngegevens die de lezer wegwijs maken in het Belgische coöperatieve landschap. We bestrijken daarmee de periode 2005-2010 en baseren ons hiervoor op administratieve gegevens, afkomstig uit de Balanscentrale van ...


Information Projection: Model And Applications, Kristof Madarasz Dec 2011

Information Projection: Model And Applications, Kristof Madarasz

Kristof Madarasz

People exaggerate the extent to which their information is shared with others. This paper introduces the concept of such information projection and provides a simple but widely applicable model. The key application describes a novel agency conflict in a frictionless learning environment. When monitoring with ex post information, biased evaluators exaggerate how much experts could have known ex ante and underestimate experts on average. Experts, to defend their reputations, are too eager to base predictions on ex ante information that substitutes for the information jurors independently learn ex post and too reluctant to base predictions on ex ante information that ...


The Social And Behavioral Implications Of Location-Based Services, Katina Michael, M.G. Michael Nov 2011

The Social And Behavioral Implications Of Location-Based Services, Katina Michael, M.G. Michael

Associate Professor Katina Michael

The social and behavioral implications of location-based services (LBS) are only now beginning to come to light in advanced markets where the services have been adopted by just a little over half the market (Microsoft 2011). Depending on one’s definition of what constitutes location-based services, statistics on the level of adoption differ considerably. While it is helpful to provide as broad a list of applications as possible in what constitutes LBS (e.g. everything from in-vehicle navigation systems to downloading a map using a computer), it can also cloud the real picture forming behind this emerging technology. Emerging not ...


The Logic Of Evaluation And Not-For-Profit Arts Organizations: The Perspective Of An Evaluation Consultant, Brandon Youker Dec 2009

The Logic Of Evaluation And Not-For-Profit Arts Organizations: The Perspective Of An Evaluation Consultant, Brandon Youker

Brandon W. Youker Ph.D

This article defines evaluation, describes the logic of evaluation and discusses evaluation as it pertains to not-for-profit arts organizations. The purpose is to explain to not-for-profit arts organizations how an evaluation consultant conceptualizes the task of program evaluation. The article is based on the perspective and experiences of a consultant who was contracted to assist in building the program monitoring and internal evaluation capacities of arts organizations. Understanding the basics of systematic evaluation will assist arts organizations in developing sound program monitoring and evaluation strategies and practices.


Drinking Water Optimum Supply System (Dwoss) Through The Application Of Advanced Technologies, Praveen Jha Dr Oct 2009

Drinking Water Optimum Supply System (Dwoss) Through The Application Of Advanced Technologies, Praveen Jha Dr

Praveen Jha Dr

Paradigm shift in the approach for planning regarding supply of drinking water is mandatory since the current DPRs are unscientific and expensive. Planning for an optimum Drinking Water Supply System (ODWSS) that includes - optimization of Water Source Point (WSP), Water Treatment System (WTS), Water Storage Systems (WSSs), Water Distribution Points (WDP) and Water Supply Network (WSN); scientific estimation of long term demand of drinking water; minimization of physical and financial resources required for the plan implementation; water conservation and sanitation – could be done by applying several state-of-art geo-spatial programs developed by the author. Three programs - Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data ...


Solid Waste Management Through The Application Of Advanced Technologies, Praveen Jha Dr Feb 2009

Solid Waste Management Through The Application Of Advanced Technologies, Praveen Jha Dr

Praveen Jha Dr

State-of-art long term plan for Solid Waste Management (SWM) including collection, transportation and disposal of Solid Waste (SW), as well as for monitoring of SWM, by generating integrated solution could be generated through the application of advanced technologies so that the policy interventions may prove to be highly successful and cost-effective. Currently, SWM plans are either non-existent or are riddled with serious problems and limitations. SWM plans are extremely expensive. Long term planning could be done for collection, transportation and disposal of SW in such a manner that Waste Collection Points, transportation routes, schedules regarding transportation, loading, unloading, stoppage etc ...


The Emerging Ethics Of Humancentric Gps Tracking And Monitoring, Katina Michael, Andrew Mcnamee, M G. Michael May 2008

The Emerging Ethics Of Humancentric Gps Tracking And Monitoring, Katina Michael, Andrew Mcnamee, M G. Michael

Professor Katina Michael

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is increasingly being adopted by private and public enterprise to track and monitor humans for location-based services (LBS). Some of these applications include personal locators for children, the elderly or those suffering from Alzheimer’s or memory loss, and the monitoring of parolees for law enforcement, security or personal protection purposes. The continual miniaturization of the GPS chipset means that receivers can take the form of wristwatches, mini mobiles and bracelets, with the ability to pinpoint the longitude and latitude of a subject 24/7/365. This paper employs usability context analyses to draw out ...


Location-Based Intelligence – Modeling Behavior In Humans Using Gps, Katina Michael, Andrew Mcnamee, M G. Michael, Holly Tootell May 2008

Location-Based Intelligence – Modeling Behavior In Humans Using Gps, Katina Michael, Andrew Mcnamee, M G. Michael, Holly Tootell

Professor Katina Michael

This paper introduces the notion of location-based intelligence by tracking the spatial properties and behavior of a single civilian participant over a two-week study period using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, and displaying them on a geographic information system (GIS). The paper clearly shows the power of combining speed (S), distance (D), time (T) and elevation (E) data with the exact longitude and latitude position of the user. The issues drawn from the observation and the civilian’s personal diary are useful in understanding the social implications of tracking and monitoring objects and subjects using GPS. The findings show ...


Endogenous Monitoring And Enforcement Of Transferable Emission Permit System, Kathy K. Dhanda, John Stranlund Dec 1998

Endogenous Monitoring And Enforcement Of Transferable Emission Permit System, Kathy K. Dhanda, John Stranlund

Kathy K Dhanda

No abstract provided.