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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Barmen Declaration And The American Church: A Warning And Guidance From History, Johnny Davis May 2021

The Barmen Declaration And The American Church: A Warning And Guidance From History, Johnny Davis

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The Barmen Declaration serves as a great example that the American Church should heed.[1] The American Church faces a hostile secular culture and a government that is increasingly statist and anti-Christian. The state has become an idol in an American culture that rejects truth and righteousness. A bold stance for truth and Christ is required by scripture and is the key to transforming the culture and saving the American Republic.


The Long Road Towards Racial Reconciliation, Lia Cueto Jerez May 2021

The Long Road Towards Racial Reconciliation, Lia Cueto Jerez

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The issue of race in the United States has been long contested among different social and political spheres. Over the course of the 20th and 21st century, Americans have been eyewitnesses to the long and evolving fight for racial justice and equality. Most recently, the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020 has proven to contest people’s attitudes over the issue. As political polarization grows, mistrust within communities of color deepens, further hindering participation in bipartisan work to overcome these differences.


Public Reason, Rawlsian Restraint, And The Judiciary: The Influence Of Political Philosophy On Legal Scholars And Judges In Relation To Religious Liberty, Marc A. Clauson May 2021

Public Reason, Rawlsian Restraint, And The Judiciary: The Influence Of Political Philosophy On Legal Scholars And Judges In Relation To Religious Liberty, Marc A. Clauson

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

This paper concerns the political theory of public reason in its application to religious freedom issues. Public reason, or its related idea, public justification, is in my estimation, just the latest extension of the problem of religious toleration in its particular relationship to the right of religious liberty. This latest expression of the toleration debate began, by most estimates, with John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice.[1] I will argue that in its Rawlsian form, public reason contains some serious flaws, which can be corrected by the work of political philosophers such as Gerald Gaus, Kevin Vallier and Michael Perry ...


Nothing New Under The Sun: Augustine And Cicero’S Visions Of How Human Nature Relates To Justice, Virtue, Biblical Wisdom, And The State, Faith Chudkowski May 2021

Nothing New Under The Sun: Augustine And Cicero’S Visions Of How Human Nature Relates To Justice, Virtue, Biblical Wisdom, And The State, Faith Chudkowski

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Social issues today stand at the forefront of civil discourse, global injustice abounds, and the average citizen seems to be more invested in molding a better future than ever before. In the 2020 presidential election, nearly two-thirds of America voted, a percentage that has not been reached since 1900.[1] In recent years, social media has become a primary avenue for rallying support and spreading ideas that range from domestic policy to new notions of justice. Yet, where passionate debate has erupted, levels of polarization and division have risen as well. Where one finds genuine concern for the state of ...


The New Space Policy Regime And Its Financial Foundation, Tamara Campbell May 2021

The New Space Policy Regime And Its Financial Foundation, Tamara Campbell

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Post the global financial crisis of 2008, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) sought to expand the space economy through a public policy of commercialization. This has brought major changes to the composition of space mission funding strategies, now repositioned as public private partnerships (P3s). Formed to fund space missions with private finance in lieu of public funding, P3s are investment and risk-sharing vehicles evaluated by financial intermediary institutions, insurers, and at times, the courts in the case where there is foreign direct investment (FDI) agreement. For this reason, it is arguable P3s have exceptional influence on the scope ...


The First Step Act Of 2018, Emily Brubaker May 2021

The First Step Act Of 2018, Emily Brubaker

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The Trump Administration signed into law the Formerly Incarcerated Reenter Society Transformed Safely Transitioning Every Person Act or the First Step Act (FSA) on December 21, 2018. The bill is the product of several years of congressional debate regarding what might be done to reduce the overall size of the federal prison population while implementing mechanisms to maintain the safety of the public (James, 2019).


Progressives, The Covid Pandemic, And The Laboratories Of Democracy: Is The Left Saying “Goodbye” To Cooperative Federalism?, William R. Bowen May 2021

Progressives, The Covid Pandemic, And The Laboratories Of Democracy: Is The Left Saying “Goodbye” To Cooperative Federalism?, William R. Bowen

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Events surrounding the COVID pandemic draw into question the progressive commitment to cooperative federalism. This is evidenced by their espousing the virtues of the tenth amendment, “states rights,” and ample use of the expression the “laboratories of democracy.” These references signal a possible move toward a view of federalism that champions state innovation and initiative irrespective of direction from Washington. This paper will explore the apparent retreat of progressives from their commitments to cooperative federalism, specifically, whether these references signal a tactical shift for short-term political gains or a more fundamental shift in progressive ideology.


The Problematic Nature Of Ad-Hominem Attacks In The Digital Age, Eleanor Brigitta Borinstein May 2021

The Problematic Nature Of Ad-Hominem Attacks In The Digital Age, Eleanor Brigitta Borinstein

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

Premature public perception stimulates the widespread shaming and job dismissal seen in the current social environment. Although people are increasingly learning to question the truth, information is manipulated and filtered for many different motivators. This often results in a misperception of events based on limited context and, oftentimes, job dismissal that is becoming more and more commonplace.


Transformative Solutions: Mitigating Basic Needs Insecurities At College Of Dupage, Samiha Syed, Zuhairullah Syed, Jaclyn Logan May 2021

Transformative Solutions: Mitigating Basic Needs Insecurities At College Of Dupage, Samiha Syed, Zuhairullah Syed, Jaclyn Logan

COD Library Student Research and Award Symposium

College of DuPage (COD) administration charged Phi Theta Kappa with the mission of mitigating basic needs insecurities (BNI) at COD. Students conducted research to propose the formation of a BNI Committee and additional BNI support. The study identifies COD students' most critical needs through: interviewing and surveying faculty, students and staff. The student researchers studied peer-reviewed research articles on BNI to develop a literature review and attended conferences to gather information about BNI initiatives world-wide. They conducted over 200 surveys and 40 interviews at COD. In addition to the proposal, the study suggested CRSSA funding allocations for administration to consider.


Income, Colleges, Universities And Political Engagement, Devin Oommen May 2021

Income, Colleges, Universities And Political Engagement, Devin Oommen

COD Library Student Research and Award Symposium

Political engagement is a cornerstone of America’s democracy. It is important to define and understand the factors that impact political engagement to increase its function. Political scientists have identified factors that influence voting habits globally and within individual countries. Understanding this idea and finding connections in voting patterns allows deeper understanding of the causes that lead to higher rates of political activity within populations. Political scientists have identified which factors are most frequently reported or found as motivators for citizens who are most politically active across the globe. A factor noted as creating younger voters who are politically active ...


Servant Leadership Development & Impact During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Samiha Syed May 2021

Servant Leadership Development & Impact During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Samiha Syed

COD Library Student Research and Award Symposium

Servant leaders are ethical leaders, who motivate others as per their values-driven philosophy of service to others [within the organization, as well as, communities broadly], while also having a transformational impact on communities as per ethical leadership. This project will examine servant leadership and how servant leaders managed the sudden pandemic crisis in 2020 within their organizations. Through qualitative interviews with individuals, the researcher used coding to identify themes and develop recommendations for preparing meaningful leadership learning experiences.

Faculty Sponsor: Stephanie Quirk


Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass May 2021

Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The purpose of this paper is to delve further into the topic of Culture & Crisis: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis through Liberty University’s Helms School of Government & Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy. The United States of America is currently under siege by the COVID-19 virus. This virus has steadily killed hundreds of individuals and consequently nearly shutdown the American socio-economic system. Through a constitutional government and federal principles, the executive functions have been able to address this time of crisis. However, there are different views referencing exactly how to address the needs of our nation during this time of crisis. This threat to public health is perceived differently by the Republican and Democratic parties. Democrats have been viewed as trying to present the severity of the situation, in terms of health, finances, and safety. The Republicans are viewed as presenting information that does not demonstrate such a severity of the situation; however, they do understand the perceived threats which have invoked several governmental functions (e.g., relief funds, unemployment insurance). These views can be skewed, as Republicans and Democrats, as they live in different counties which have been impacted differently by the COVID-19 virus. Tensions have been on the rise due to this phenomenon which can be handled efficiently through the execution of deliberative constitutionalism. These issues and more will be discussed further.


Effect Of Covid-19 On Elementary Students' Use Of Language Online, Emma Polen May 2021

Effect Of Covid-19 On Elementary Students' Use Of Language Online, Emma Polen

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

The COVID-19 pandemic ushered in an unprecedented period of online communication among children. This paper aims to exemplify how the reliance on digital communication platforms compelled by COVID-19 affected elementary students’ use of language. Within the study, children used primarily visual language on digital sites with friends. There were two main forms of primary research in this study. The first consisted of a survey of 16 parents of elementary school children in my school district. The second was an observation of Zoom chat room activity among three eight-year-olds. Both methods of conducting research build on the existing understanding that digital ...


Effects Of Mechanical Institutionalization On Veteran Post-Service Re-Entry, Deidra Hubay May 2021

Effects Of Mechanical Institutionalization On Veteran Post-Service Re-Entry, Deidra Hubay

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Channeling the concepts of Emile Durkheim, this research will seek to explore the causes of post-service veteran anomie, with a specific focus on suicide. This research will preliminarily explore an institutional identity reconstruction process that recruits undergo during basic military training; I will refer to as Mechanical Institutionalization. In Mechanical Institutionalization, a recruit’s individual prior-service identity is replaced with an institutionalized group identity that is maintained by mechanical solidarity. Because of this, the beliefs, values, norms, and ethos of the individual have been fundamentally altered to conform to those of the institutional group. As a result, many veterans often ...


School Choice Options Amid Coronavirus Pandemic In The United States, Austin Armentrout May 2021

School Choice Options Amid Coronavirus Pandemic In The United States, Austin Armentrout

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The Coronavirus has changed every aspect of life in the United States and around the world. Although the pandemic’s effects can easily be seen in the fields of healthcare and business, the lasting effects on the field of education are not as clearly visible. The Covid-19 pandemic restrictions have placed an enormous burden on both k-12 public and private educational establishments. The ability of the different types of schools to adapt to these restrictions has contributed to students transferring to private schools.


Assessing The Needs For Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation Upon Return To School After Covid-19, Emily Kurland May 2021

Assessing The Needs For Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation Upon Return To School After Covid-19, Emily Kurland

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

School-based mental health consultation recognizes and understands the importance of children’s emotional and behavioral needs in conjunction with educator/caregiver competencies. In early childhood classrooms, mental health consultation utilizes a problem-solving approach, creating collaborative relationships with educators to build their skills and expertise (Duran et al., 2009). Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) works to maximize the social-emotional skills of all children while minimizing the vulnerabilities of children experiencing behavioral difficulties (Low & Shepard, 2010). As emotional and behavioral challenges are increasing in early childhood settings, it is evident that mental health consultation is becoming increasingly necessary and beneficial (Green ...


The Relationship Between Focused Attention And Object Permanence In Infants With Motor Delays, Amber Delprince, Melanie Tommer, Claire Boe, Jessica Spirnak, Karl Jancart, Regina Harbourne Ph.D May 2021

The Relationship Between Focused Attention And Object Permanence In Infants With Motor Delays, Amber Delprince, Melanie Tommer, Claire Boe, Jessica Spirnak, Karl Jancart, Regina Harbourne Ph.D

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Background: Focused attention (uninterrupted attention to task) and understanding of object permanence (knowledge that objects exist when not seen) are two constructs in infancy that build future cognitive skills. The relationship between the two in infants with delays is poorly understood.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of early focused attention at the point of early sitting independence to object permanence skill one year later in infants with motor delays.

Methods: 15 infants (aged 8-16 months) with motor delays were scored on an analog scale of 1-5 (5 = greatest focus) to indicate their level of ...


Christianity And Covid: Conservative Authoritarianism, Brooke Kimet, Claire Shipley May 2021

Christianity And Covid: Conservative Authoritarianism, Brooke Kimet, Claire Shipley

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Since the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, the CDC has implemented guidelines to help reduce its spread. Despite efforts, people often do not follow these guidelines, leaving many questions about why so many deviate. The current research examines the connection between religious belief, observance, and the mistrust of scientific findings in relation to adherence to CDC COVID guidelines. We created a survey measuring peoples’ religious beliefs, trust and mistrust of sources, and COVID-19 practices in a population of Christians. Analyses examined correlations between religious variables and pandemic-related behavior. One hypothesis suggests that, generally speaking, higher Christian religiosity will predict ...


Timing Comparisons Across American Sign Language And English, Jillian Bartlett Apr 2021

Timing Comparisons Across American Sign Language And English, Jillian Bartlett

Thinking Matters Symposium

American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English differ in modalities, but prosody can be found in both. Previous studies show that the Closure Positive Shift (CPS) (an established component of an Event-Related Potential [ERP]) occurs in response to acoustic stimuli indicative of prosodic phrasing (Pannekamp et al., 2005; Steinhauer et al., 1999). Prosodic processing in relation to these two modalities was studied using EEG. Sixteen Deaf ASL speakers and 34 hearing English speakers participated in the study by watching video or listening to audio recordings of stimuli while a portable electroencephalogram, or EEG (a device that detects abnormalities in brain ...


The Effects Of Authentic Leadership On Creative Performance And Innovation In Modern-Day Entrepreneurship, Nicole Holbrook Apr 2021

The Effects Of Authentic Leadership On Creative Performance And Innovation In Modern-Day Entrepreneurship, Nicole Holbrook

Thinking Matters Symposium

Entrepreneurship is an opportunity to not only experience the influence of authentic leadership, but to also experience the freedom of expression that can lead to novel ideas. We have entered a turbulent time in our global environment which emphasizes the need for entrepreneurial spirit, therefore making creativity and innovativeness critical for success. As leaders, we must highlight the types of leadership that support the capacity for ingenuity and the entrepreneurial nature of the individual. This study examines the relationship and trends between authentic leadership and creative performance and innovation in modern-day entrepreneurship. The main findings of existing literature suggest that ...


Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder Apr 2021

Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder

Thinking Matters Symposium

In times of a crisis the intersectionality of sex, class, and ability creates a vulnerable population. Many available “resources'' are exhausted, due to high demand. Intersectionality signifies the impact of multiple intersecting identities in society as a direct correlation to the specific and unique barriers of marginalized groups. Resources are currently limited due to the lack of representative data. Although many studies have been conducted, many researchers have failed to capture the need of social services in rural areas.


Using Immersive Data Visualization To Highlight Changing Travel Patterns In Maine Due To Covid 19, Colleen Metcalf, Charlotte Aucoin Apr 2021

Using Immersive Data Visualization To Highlight Changing Travel Patterns In Maine Due To Covid 19, Colleen Metcalf, Charlotte Aucoin

Thinking Matters Symposium

The impacts of COVID 19 are of top concern to tourism policy makers and stakeholders across Maine, as tourism plays a vital role in the state’s economy. This project shows the value of the Storymap to present, in an accessible and visually appealing way, the continuing research on how volunteered geographic information from social media can track changes in tourist’s movement and spending in Maine. The metadata from Flickr photos was used to examine where visitors spent time in the summer of 2020, revealing new patterns of tourism activity due to Covid-19 travel restrictions. In addition, we incorporate ...


Empowering Action Against Femicide: A Case Study Of Turkey An Integrated Literature Review, Ashley Simon Apr 2021

Empowering Action Against Femicide: A Case Study Of Turkey An Integrated Literature Review, Ashley Simon

Thinking Matters Symposium

The primary purpose of this integrative literature review is to explore the relationship between culture and femicide within Turkey to empower action against femicide. Femicides within Turkey are on the rise, as a study done by Sage Journals in 2009 reported that 42% of Turkish women between the ages of 15 and 60 experienced some form of physical or sexual abuse from their husband or partner. Currently, there has been an onslaught of articles released that more and more women are being abused throughout the country during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research will explore cultural aspects that allow for women ...


Child Welfare Service Worker's Perspective Of The Juvenile Justice System, Valorie Antone, Kathryn Whitehead, Alexander Comeau, Zoe Donvan Apr 2021

Child Welfare Service Worker's Perspective Of The Juvenile Justice System, Valorie Antone, Kathryn Whitehead, Alexander Comeau, Zoe Donvan

Thinking Matters Symposium

Prior literature indicates youth who have had adverse childhood events or are diagnosed with a mental illness are more likely to become involved in the juvenile justice system (Chappard & Maggard, 2020). While research has been performed to involve juvenile justice workers and juveniles that have been involved in the system, there has been little involvement by the child welfare workers who have followed the trajectory of the youth from the beginning of involvement. This study investigates the perceptions of child welfare workers regarding youth involvement in the criminal justice system, addressing a current gap in the literature. In terms of ...


Indigenous Experiences Of Social Services, Oaklin Blaisdell, Haley West, Sammy Ellie Mackinnon, Brianna White Apr 2021

Indigenous Experiences Of Social Services, Oaklin Blaisdell, Haley West, Sammy Ellie Mackinnon, Brianna White

Thinking Matters Symposium

Native, Aboriginal, and First Nations individuals experience higher rates of homelessness, food insecurity, sexual violence, and other social inequalities than people of other races (Christensen et al., 2017; Shoemaker et al., 2020; Du Mont et al., 2017; Wahab & Olson, 2004; McCarron et al., 2018; Moullin et al., 2019; Myhra et al., 2015; Stevens et al., 2015; Cueva et al, 2020), and there is a distinct lack of resources for these individuals. However, when individuals do access available resources, they often experience anti-Native sentiment (Hoss & Blum, 2019; Pedersen et al, 2006). Thus, we hope to learn about Indigenous peoples’ perceptions of social services and how ...


Opioid Use And Harm Reduction, Elise Bourassa, David Lee, Jason Rogers, Christian Silverthorne Apr 2021

Opioid Use And Harm Reduction, Elise Bourassa, David Lee, Jason Rogers, Christian Silverthorne

Thinking Matters Symposium

Calls for various harm reduction approaches to the opioid epidemic are increasing in activist communities (Chapkis, 2020; Kennedy-Hendricks et al., 2019; Sederer & Marino, 2018). Given that harm reduction approaches, if implemented, will be provided by people in various helping professions, the current study investigates the relationship between choice of human service-focused college major and level of support for harm reduction interventions for people who use opioid drugs. A quantitative survey that aims to measure knowledge and perceptions of harm reduction strategies has been disseminated to students in social work, counseling, public health and nursing departments at the University of Southern ...


The Impacts Of Social Media Sites Such As Instagram And Facebook On Emerging Adult’S Perceptions Of Self-Esteem And Body Satisfaction, Wynne Cushing, Samantha Shandorf, Courtney Piccirillo, Abby Frazier Apr 2021

The Impacts Of Social Media Sites Such As Instagram And Facebook On Emerging Adult’S Perceptions Of Self-Esteem And Body Satisfaction, Wynne Cushing, Samantha Shandorf, Courtney Piccirillo, Abby Frazier

Thinking Matters Symposium

This study investigated the impacts of social media use, specifically Facebook and Instagram, on emerging adults’ perceptions of self-esteem and body satisfaction. Limited research exists regarding the influence of demographic variables, such as gender, race, and geographic location, on the relationship between social media use and negative outcome variables. The researchers utilized a cross-sectional survey design with a target population of University of Southern Maine students. Researchers hypothesize that emerging adults who spend more time on Facebook and Instagram are more likely to have lower self-esteem and body satisfaction than emerging adults who spend little to no time on Facebook ...


Perceptions About Expatriate Leaders In Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organizations: Elevating Local Voices, Seth Diemond Apr 2021

Perceptions About Expatriate Leaders In Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organizations: Elevating Local Voices, Seth Diemond

Thinking Matters Symposium

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to understand the perceptions that Tanzanian employees hold about white, expatriate leadership of non-governmental organizations working on children’s issues in Tanzania, East Africa. In Tanzania, foreign non-profit organizations, commonly referred to locally as NGOs, work to address various global issues. Many NGOs are led by white, expatriate leaders while staffed by local, black, Tanzanians. Through interviews with Tanzanian staff, this study helps determine whether the presence of white, expatriate leadership of NGOs in Tanzania is truly an effective approach to development as perceived by local staff. Interviews were conducted virtually with five ...


Black-Capped Chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) Food Preference, Isabelle Gilbert Apr 2021

Black-Capped Chickadee (Parus Atricapillus) Food Preference, Isabelle Gilbert

Thinking Matters Symposium

All animals must make decisions on where to find, select, capture, and eat food. These factors contribute to a species’ food preference, such as making decisions on what food to eat based on calories. Optimal foraging theory predicts how an animal behaves when searching for food, including optimization of food type, patch choice, time spent in patches, and movement. All animals also make decisions based on predation risk by avoiding predators and making trade-offs on time spent searching for, pursuing, and handling food. The objective of my study is to examine food preference of black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus). Birds may ...


Understanding How Nimby-Ism Shapes Portland, Maine’S Homeless Policies: A Qualitative Study, Eleanor Ginder Apr 2021

Understanding How Nimby-Ism Shapes Portland, Maine’S Homeless Policies: A Qualitative Study, Eleanor Ginder

Thinking Matters Symposium

On June 17, 2019, after a prolonged period of community concern, the Portland City Council voted to relocate the city’s homeless shelter from the rapidly gentrifying Bayside neighborhood to a wooded area at the city limits. As municipal shelters continue to move away from metropolitan areas, the impact of NIMBY-ism on local and state policies related to homelessness cannot go unnoted. By analyzing publicly available testimony that occurred in the months after the decision to relocate, a variation of NIMBY-ism begins to emerge. This phenomenon, which could be referred to as “neo-NIMBY-ism” is characterized by individuals with lived experience ...