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Theses and Dissertations

University of South Carolina

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Internalized Homonegativity And Alcohol Use As Predictors Of Intimate Partner Violence Among Cisgender Sexual Minority Men, Andrew Thomas Schramm Jul 2019

Internalized Homonegativity And Alcohol Use As Predictors Of Intimate Partner Violence Among Cisgender Sexual Minority Men, Andrew Thomas Schramm

Theses and Dissertations

Prior research has found that sexual minorities (i.e., individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or who are attracted to or have had sexual experiences with members of the same sex) are at heightened risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) as compared to heterosexuals. Although understanding risk factors that place sexual minorities at risk is a crucial step in the prevention of IPV in this population, little is known about such factors. Some have proposed that internalized homonegativity, a component of minority stress, may place individuals at heightened risk for IPV perpetration. Internalized homonegativity is also associated with ...


Three Essays In The Economics Of Crime, Robert W. Pettis Jul 2019

Three Essays In The Economics Of Crime, Robert W. Pettis

Theses and Dissertations

I examine the effects of three different policies on crime related outcomes. First, I consider whether access to mental health care effects crime rates. In particular, I consider whether the effect on arrest rates of increasing access to mental health care for those that already have private insurance by exploiting the state and time variation in the adoption of mental health parity mandates. I find no evidence to suggest that even the most far-reaching of these mandates are effective at curbing crime. I also follow up on prior studies, applying this approach to determine the effect on suicide rates. I ...


Correlates Of Attitudes Toward Violence And Dating Violence Perpetration Among U.S. College Students, Jeongsuk Kim Jul 2019

Correlates Of Attitudes Toward Violence And Dating Violence Perpetration Among U.S. College Students, Jeongsuk Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem among college students. Research on dating violence has pinpointed early exposure to violence as a strong predictor of violence perpetration in later life. However, little is known about the particular correlates or mechanisms that facilitate college students’ attitudes supporting violence and dating violence perpetration after early exposure to violence. The goals of this three-manuscript dissertation were (1) Chapter 2: to examine the relationship between three forms of violent socialization during childhood and attitudes supporting interpersonal violence; (2) Chapter 3: to examine the moderating effect of pro-violence messages in the relationship between ...


Essays On The Political Economy Of International Trade And Coups, William Akoto Jul 2019

Essays On The Political Economy Of International Trade And Coups, William Akoto

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I shed light on the nexus between coups and trade. I address three key questions. First, I examine whether all coup attempts, regardless of outcome, have the same effect on international trade. I demonstrate that while failed coups and increased coup risk negatively impact bilateral trade, the effect of successful coups is mixed. Disaggregating trade along its intensive and extensive margins, I also show that coups and increased coup risk largely influence bilateral trade through their impact on the extensive margin of trade.

Second, I examine how the changing composition of international trade affects coup propensity. I ...


¡Tú No Eres Fácil!: Styling Black Hair And Language In A Dominican Beauty Salon, Amber Teresa Domingue Jul 2019

¡Tú No Eres Fácil!: Styling Black Hair And Language In A Dominican Beauty Salon, Amber Teresa Domingue

Theses and Dissertations

Women of the African diaspora living in the United States undergo a process of racialization that is informed by both their physical attributes and linguistic decisions. Fieldwork conducted in a Dominican beauty salon in Atlanta, GA during the summer of 2018 provided the data that is analyzed to explore the relationship between Dominican and Black women through the lens of hair care. Dominican stylists who spoke predominantly Spanish were able to provide services to Black women who spoke predominantly English using a combination of verbal and non-verbal communication. While previous scholarship on Dominicans in the United States has been overwhelmingly ...


Don't Rock The Boat: An Analysis Of Boat Mitigation Prior To Hurricane Landfall, Jessica M. Brugh Jul 2019

Don't Rock The Boat: An Analysis Of Boat Mitigation Prior To Hurricane Landfall, Jessica M. Brugh

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical cyclones are one of the most destructive and costly natural hazards in the United States. Boat owners and marinas are uniquely impacted by these devastating events. Boats pose a substantial monetary loss to owners unable to evacuate or mitigate damage prior to hurricane landfall, and the time it takes to secure them may impact a household’s ability to evacuate in a timely manner. The purpose of this study is to examine the physical and social variables that influence an owner’s decision, as well as how this decision affects the household’s ability to evacuate and the timing ...


Co-Occurrence And Non-Overlap Among Behavioral And Health-Related Problems In Preschool Children, Chandni Patel Jul 2019

Co-Occurrence And Non-Overlap Among Behavioral And Health-Related Problems In Preschool Children, Chandni Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Integrating mental health and healthcare services increases the reach of healthcare while reducing costs and stigma associated with seeking mental health services. To provide such services for preschool aged children we must first understand how behaviors related to healthy lifestyle and mental/behavioral health overlap. This study examined the relationship between behavior problems, sleep duration, screen time, and eating patterns and assessed the frequency of co-occurring problems in these areas. Because of the importance of parenting across these domains, the association between parent disciplinary strategies and the co-occurrence of behaviors in the different problem areas was assessed. MANOVAs revealed that ...


A Mixed Methods Psychometric Validation Of The Microaggression Experiences Among University Women Of Color Scale, Kinjal Pandya Jul 2019

A Mixed Methods Psychometric Validation Of The Microaggression Experiences Among University Women Of Color Scale, Kinjal Pandya

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to develop a measure of gender and racial microaggressions among university women of color (WOC). Microaggressions are conceptualized as verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights that can be intentional or unintentional, but communicate derogatory messages towards a group of marginalized people. Despite many qualitative, legal, and narrative reports of microaggressions against university WOC, there are no validated measures specific to the experiences of WOC in academic settings. This study attempts to fill that gap by creating and testing the factor structure of a measure of microaggressions experienced by university WOC. Phase I of ...


Longitudinal Effects Of Social Norms, Social Support For Physical Activity, Neighborhood Satisfaction, And Self-Efficacy On Light And Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity In African American Adults, Lauren Huffman Law Jul 2019

Longitudinal Effects Of Social Norms, Social Support For Physical Activity, Neighborhood Satisfaction, And Self-Efficacy On Light And Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity In African American Adults, Lauren Huffman Law

Theses and Dissertations

Few adults meet physical activity (PA) guidelines, and low rates of PA have been linked to negative physical and mental health outcomes including overweight status, chronic disease, cancer risk, depression, and decreased cognitive functioning. Both light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) have been linked to health outcomes, yet few studies have examined LPA associations in underserved and overweight populations. The neighborhood social environment, which includes social norms for PA, social support for PA, and neighborhood satisfaction, has been cited as an important factor of influence on PA behaviors. The current study aimed to integrate social cognitive theory and bioecological ...


Media Influence On College Students' Perceptions Of The Police, Matilda Foster Jul 2019

Media Influence On College Students' Perceptions Of The Police, Matilda Foster

Theses and Dissertations

The first of Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles of law enforcement (1829) tells us that the police exist to prevent crime. However, the next six principles address the police’s need to develop a relationship with the public and maintain the publics’ approval, favor, respect, and voluntary cooperation. Although these principles were written in 1829, they still apply to police organizations today. This paper addresses the struggles policing organizations in the United States of America had over the years in maintaining these principles of law enforcement, the strategies the police have used to increase public approval, and factors associated ...


Problem Chain Recognition Effect And Csr Communication: Examining The Impact Of Issue Salience And Proximity On Environmental Communication Behaviors, Nandini Bhalla Jul 2019

Problem Chain Recognition Effect And Csr Communication: Examining The Impact Of Issue Salience And Proximity On Environmental Communication Behaviors, Nandini Bhalla

Theses and Dissertations

This study applied the STOPS theory and tested the mechanism of problem chain recognition effect in the realm of environmental corporate communication. Using environmental issue salience and issue proximity as two manipulated variables, this study conducted an experiment to examine the mechanism of the problem chain recognition (PCR) effect, which suggested that the perception of a more salient issue (climate change) will be transferred to related less salient issues (air pollution/land degradation). Thus, through a 2 (issue salience: salient vs. non-salient) × 2 (issue proximity: local vs. global) experimental design, this study suggested that if individuals have high motivation for ...


Trends In The Prevalence Of Arrest For Intimate Partner Violence Using The National Crime Victimization Survey, Tara E. Martin Jul 2019

Trends In The Prevalence Of Arrest For Intimate Partner Violence Using The National Crime Victimization Survey, Tara E. Martin

Theses and Dissertations

Average annual reporting and arrest victimization rates, or the probability that an intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is reported or ends in arrest, are estimated to be 56% and 23%, respectively, according to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS; Reaves, 2017). These estimates are based on the number of victimizations that occur annually, but certain repetitive reporting or arrest patterns for a household may mask an offender’s individual probability of being reported or arrested. To address this problem, the current study examines prevalence rates, which examine the number of unique victims who report an offender or experience an incident ...


Urban Greenway Vegetative Communities And Environmental Drivers In The Southeastern United States, Erika Y. Chin Jul 2019

Urban Greenway Vegetative Communities And Environmental Drivers In The Southeastern United States, Erika Y. Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Greenways serve as parks or non-motorized transportation routes for urban residents, but as greenspaces they also have the potential to enhance habitat quality and availability. This dissertation examined two aspects of urban greenways: the motivations for establishing greenways and the structure of vegetative communities found within them. Analysis of greenways plans revealed that the provision of natural resources and societal benefits are not promoted equally. In general, social and recreational functions are prioritized in greenway designs, while environmental benefits and services are expected to be inherently and equally possessed by all greenspaces and greenways. Consequently, specific conservation actions (e.g ...


The Survey Of Attitudes Toward Homeless People: The Validation Of A New Instrument Assessing Negative Attitudes Toward Homeless People, Nyssa L. Snow-Hill Jul 2019

The Survey Of Attitudes Toward Homeless People: The Validation Of A New Instrument Assessing Negative Attitudes Toward Homeless People, Nyssa L. Snow-Hill

Theses and Dissertations

Homeless individuals are often the targets of negative stereotypes and significant stigmatization, which can contribute to restrictive and punitive approaches to ending homelessness. Many researchers and policymakers have sought to understand and change attitudes toward the homeless to allow for consideration of a broader range of responses to addressing homelessness. Despite attention paid to understanding attitudes, a lack of reliable and valid measurement creates methodological barriers to assessing people’s attitudes and comparing those attitudes across studies and populations.

Attitudes toward homeless persons have been demonstrated to be quite complex, which has likely impeded the development of valid and reliable ...


What Black College Students Say About Race: An Exploration Of Peer Racial Socialization, Alexandrea R. Golden Jul 2019

What Black College Students Say About Race: An Exploration Of Peer Racial Socialization, Alexandrea R. Golden

Theses and Dissertations

In addition to the normative tasks of emerging adulthood and stressors of transitioning into the college environment, Black undergraduate students must also contend with race-related stressors (i.e., racial discrimination, racial stereotypes). Studies suggest that parent-child communications preparing youth for encounters of racism and instilling pride about their race (i.e., parent racial socialization) protect youth from the ramifications of racial discrimination (Harris-Britt, Valrie, Kurtz-Costes, & Rowley, 2007). Although peers have been identified as another important resource in the racial socialization process (Lesane-Brown, Brown, Caldwell, & Sellers, 2005) as well as youth’s ability to cope with discrimination (Datnow & Cooper, 1997; Butler-Barnes, Chavous, Hurd, & Varner, 2013), the positive impacts of peers in the lives of Black youth have gone largely understudied. As such, additional study is needed to understand peer-specific race socialization practices among college students and their relation to Black college students’ discrimination experiences and subsequent outcomes.

Using a multi-method qualitative approach, the current study sought to fill this gap by highlighting the contributions of peer racial socialization in the development of Black adolescents. Specific research questions are as follows: (1A) What is the process (i.e., thematic content, frequency, circumstances) of peer racial socialization messages between Black college students and their peers; (2) What is the concordance between peer racial socialization content and modalities and current conceptualizations of parent racial socialization; (3) How do peer racial socialization messages differ between males and females. Participants ...


The Influence Of Adhd Symptoms And Social Functioning On Anxiety And Depression Symptoms In College Students, Danielle Willis Jul 2019

The Influence Of Adhd Symptoms And Social Functioning On Anxiety And Depression Symptoms In College Students, Danielle Willis

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with impaired social functioning in children and adolescents. ADHD and poor social functioning have been shown to be separately associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms as well. However, little research has examined these associations among college students. College is a transitional period of increased stress and exposure to new social situations for all students, but may be even more challenging for those with ADHD, who are already at risk for increased internalizing problems and impairment in social functioning. The current study aimed to examine the influence of ADHD ...


Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce Jul 2019

Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce

Theses and Dissertations

Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the finding that responses to previously attended locations are slower than those to previously unattended locations. Despite over 30 years of research on IOR, there is still no consensus in the field regarding what the underlying mechanism of this effect is. Although IOR is traditionally studied within spatial cueing paradigms, this effect is thought to reflect a mechanism that facilitates efficient visual search. The following studies explored the hypothesis that multiple processes contribute to the IOR effect in visual search and examined whether these are the same processes that result in IOR in cueing ...


Exploring Construct Validity And Measurement Invariance Of The Cyberbullying Experiences Survey, Kendall Moore Jul 2019

Exploring Construct Validity And Measurement Invariance Of The Cyberbullying Experiences Survey, Kendall Moore

Theses and Dissertations

Given recent calls for advancing valid instrumentation in the field of cyberaggression, the present study evaluated construct validity and measurement invariance for the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey (CES) in a high school and college student sample. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), reliability analyses, and a nomological net evaluation were conducted to address these aims. The data did not provide support for the hypothesized four-factor model for cyberaggression or cybervictimization (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation). Upon implementing suggested and theoretically supported modification indices, support for a four-factor solution for both cyberaggression and cybervictimization was provided.

To ...


The Dynamics Of Vote Buying In Developing Democracies: Party Attachment And Party Competition In Southeast Asia, Matthew Louis Wagner Jul 2019

The Dynamics Of Vote Buying In Developing Democracies: Party Attachment And Party Competition In Southeast Asia, Matthew Louis Wagner

Theses and Dissertations

Broadly defined, what factors explain changes in party competition in developing democracies? The dominant theoretical paradigm used to explain changes in party competition in established democracies does not offer much leverage in emerging ones. The literature argues that linkages between voting blocs and parties erode and cleavages shift, allowing for new voter blocs or even new parties. However, if social groups, parties, and party systems are different in emerging democracies than in established ones, does this mean the dynamics of party competition are also different? Also, what does is the role of voters in these systems? My dissertation outlines a ...


Longitudinal Prediction Of Delinquent Behavior In Early Adolescence, Kathleen Watson Macdonell Jul 2019

Longitudinal Prediction Of Delinquent Behavior In Early Adolescence, Kathleen Watson Macdonell

Theses and Dissertations

Childhood behavioral problems have consistently been reported as an antecedent for later problem behavior, including delinquency in adolescence and into adulthood. Parenting behaviors are an important influence on the potentially negative behavioral trajectory from childhood behavior problems to delinquency in early adolescence. The current study sought to provide further understanding of the relationship between teacher-reported third grade childhood behavior problems and two outcomes: ninth grade teacher-reported and ninth grade self-reported delinquency. Additionally, the moderating impact of parental monitoring and parental school involvement, assessed in fifth grade, was explored. Using a longitudinal sample of 556 participants, hypotheses were assessed separately for ...


Leveraging Geotagged Social Media To Monitor Spatial Behavior During Population Movements Triggered By Hurricanes, Yago Martín González Jul 2019

Leveraging Geotagged Social Media To Monitor Spatial Behavior During Population Movements Triggered By Hurricanes, Yago Martín González

Theses and Dissertations

In a world of increased mobility and interconnectedness, the study of spatial behavior becomes more relevant than ever. However, multiple researchers have highlighted that the understanding of these dynamic processes has reached a bottleneck derived from the rigidity of traditional spatial behavior inquiry methods and the unavailability of trustworthy and relevant information. These difficulties are even more prominent during emergencies and disasters as these events often create scenarios where spatial behavior does not follow regular and logical patterns and where conventional mobility datasets are often skewed or not existent. Thus, many scholars working within the spatial behavior sub-discipline are pursuing ...


The Effects Of Autism Symptom Severity And Social Anxiety On Pragmatic Language In Young Adult Males With Fragile X Syndrome, Sara Mcgrath Matherly Jul 2019

The Effects Of Autism Symptom Severity And Social Anxiety On Pragmatic Language In Young Adult Males With Fragile X Syndrome, Sara Mcgrath Matherly

Theses and Dissertations

Pragmatic, or social, language skills play a pivotal role in abilities that facilitate interpersonal relationships and independence, particularly in adulthood. Pragmatic language deficits are considered a core trait of males with fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, mechanisms that influence these abilities are not well known. This research is also limited by a lack of valid assessments that adequately capture pragmatic language skills. The present dissertation is the first to examine pragmatic language skills and mechanisms that influence these abilities using a novel, dynamic language assessment, the Yale in vivo Pragmatic Protocol (YiPP) in young adult males with FXS. Results revealed ...


Appropriation Of The ‘Witch’ Stigma As White Women's Self-Empowerment, Anna S. Rogers Jul 2019

Appropriation Of The ‘Witch’ Stigma As White Women's Self-Empowerment, Anna S. Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation uses a grounded theory perspective to uncover the process of white women who find self-empowerment in the appropriation of historically stigmatized identities and rhetoric surrounding a self-described witch identity. The sample in this study included 13 white women who self-identified as witches across varying socioeconomic and geographical lines. The four main research questions that guide this research study are: 1) what sociologically relevant factors lead women choosing to self-identify as a witch?; 2) what components does the process of choosing to identify as a witch entail?; 3) what meanings do self-identified witches attach to their and others’ depictions ...


Association Between Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms In Persons With Alzheimer's Disease And Depression In Caregivers From Low Income Families, Weizhou Tang Jul 2019

Association Between Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms In Persons With Alzheimer's Disease And Depression In Caregivers From Low Income Families, Weizhou Tang

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is a leading cause of dementia. Behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in persons with Alzheimer’s disease (PwAD), and they are often associated with negative outcomes for AD caregivers. Evidence indicates differences in caregivers’ mental health across race/ethnic groups. However, there is a lack of research that compares racial differences in the association between BPS in PwAD and caregiver depression. The aims of this dissertation, which are grounded in the Stress Process Model, include: 1) To compare racial ...


Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy Jul 2019

Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy

Theses and Dissertations

The attempt to maintain a consistently positive public image is known as self-presentation; however, the structure of self-presentation has not been adequately explored. This paper aimed to identify a theory-based model for self-presentation by examining the relationship between personality traits and utilization of self-presentational behaviors. A review of the literature suggested self-presentation would be best modeled with a second order two-factor model with second order factors of Evaluation and Response. The second order factor of Evaluation is expected to explain the first order factors Perceived Anonymity, Sociability, and Communality while the second order factor of response is expected to explain ...


Risk And Resistance Factors For Depression And Anxiety Among Youth With Sickle Cell Disease, Laura Reinman Jul 2019

Risk And Resistance Factors For Depression And Anxiety Among Youth With Sickle Cell Disease, Laura Reinman

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Depression and anxiety are common problems for adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is important to understand both risk and resiliency factors contributing to psychological outcomes among youth with SCD in order to prevent and effectively treat such problems. To better elucidate contributing factors to depression and anxiety among youth with SCD selected risk and resiliency factors from the risk-and-resistance model adapted for SCD were examined (Barakat, Lash, Lutz, & Nicolaou, 2006). The risk factor of fatigue and resistance/resiliency factors of cognitive appraisal of stress and self-concept are of focus because they have been understudied, and their temporal ...


The Terror Pandemic: The International Diffusion Of Terrorism, Stephen Michael Chicoine Jul 2019

The Terror Pandemic: The International Diffusion Of Terrorism, Stephen Michael Chicoine

Theses and Dissertations

The online recruitment efforts of ISIS have raised questions about the new role of the internet in the spread of terrorism. However, the use of the mass media by terrorist groups to recruit and spread is not unique to ISIS or the digital age and has been an aspect of terrorism since its modern conception. To explain the spread of terrorism historically and understand the unique dimensions of terrorism and the internet, a cultural explanation is proposed to explain the process through terrorism spreads as well as the content that inspires violence. This study includes two major parts: a virtual ...


Evaluating The Efficacy Of Sand Fences On Dunes Impacted By Hurricanes, Michelle Harris Jul 2019

Evaluating The Efficacy Of Sand Fences On Dunes Impacted By Hurricanes, Michelle Harris

Theses and Dissertations

Erosion is present in over 90% of the world’s coastlines and poses a threat to infrastructure and natural systems. While the coastal zone is a morphologically dynamic environment, a range of engineering practices have evolved to stabilize it. Because the natural dune system serves as the first line of defense against storm activity and rising sea levels, it is often incorporated into restorative engineering practices. One popular and economical option is the utilization of sand fences. This option is readily available to homeowners and managers, with simple installation requirements. Typically measured for their ability to induce short-term dune growth ...


Women In The Governor's Mansion: Breaking The Barrier To Competition, Helen Adair King Jul 2019

Women In The Governor's Mansion: Breaking The Barrier To Competition, Helen Adair King

Theses and Dissertations

Women are underrepresented in public office. One of the lowest percentages belongs to women serving as governor. Only nine women currently hold the office. Research has shown that when women run, they win. They are just as competitive as men. And yet, one particular question remains. Why don’t more women run? That is why I have chosen to focus this dissertation on the influences on the presence of a female candidate as opposed to the influences on the presence of a female governor. I argue that it is important to begin with candidacy instead of working backward. If the ...


Essays On Asymmetric Contests And Urbanization In India, Pulkit K. Nigam Jul 2019

Essays On Asymmetric Contests And Urbanization In India, Pulkit K. Nigam

Theses and Dissertations

I study asymmetric all-pay auction contests where the prize has the same value for all players, but players might have different cost functions. I allow for the cost functions to be discontinuous as long as they are right-continuous. In that setting, I determine sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of the conventional mixed-strategy equilibrium. Employing this framework, I discuss the implementation of a soft cap on bids and the effect that has on the conventional mixed-strategy equilibrium and players’ bidding behavior, especially with respect to a situation where there is no cap on bids. I also determine the total cost ...