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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Visual And Verbal Working Memory And Its Relationship To Subcortical Regions In Statistically-Determined Mild Cognitive Impairment, Sheina Emrani May 2020

Visual And Verbal Working Memory And Its Relationship To Subcortical Regions In Statistically-Determined Mild Cognitive Impairment, Sheina Emrani

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Fuster (2008) observed that temporal organization modulate executive control mechanisms by generating (1) attention towards test parameters (working memory), (2) the capacity to execute a task (preparatory set), and (3) the ability to inhibit external/internal stimuli (inhibitory control). We investigated Fuster's model (2008) using response latency on visual and verbal working memory tasks in patients with suspected mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: An iPad-version of the Backward Digit Span Test (BDT) and Symbolic Working Memory Test (SWM) were used. Outcome variables were latency for each correct serial position and volumetric subcortical regions using NeuroQuant® software. Results: Mixed-model ...


What Are Stakeholders' Perceptions Of Rural School District Needs To Effectively Educate Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kari Lyn Pugh May 2020

What Are Stakeholders' Perceptions Of Rural School District Needs To Effectively Educate Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kari Lyn Pugh

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has continued to rise each year. This fact has significance in the area of education. The rise in prevalence of autism means an increase of students with autism in schools. Educators have the need to be prepared to provide an appropriate education for these students but may not have training or resources to be effective. Rural communities may have even more concerns about education for students with ASD due to geographic isolation and the lack of available educators in their area trained to support the specific needs of these students. To determine the ...


The Impact Of Social Media On The Social Lives Of People With Visual Impairment (Facebook Groups As A Case Study), Itto Outini May 2020

The Impact Of Social Media On The Social Lives Of People With Visual Impairment (Facebook Groups As A Case Study), Itto Outini

Theses and Dissertations

This present research seeks to provide a more comprehensive understanding of why people with visual impairment use social media. I investigate this question using uses and gratification (U&G) Theory, which was developed by Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch (1974). The theory explains what people do with media and why. The purpose of this study is twofold: it seeks to document reasons people with visual impairment use Facebook and it endeavors to reveal which variables can influence users’ decisions to use one social media platform instead of another. In particular, I am interested in determining factors motivating users with visual impairment to use certain platforms and the gratifications that they receive. Accordingly, this study attempts to investigate the impact of social media on the daily lives of blind and visually impaired people and to examine the extent to which social media has allowed them to enrich their daily lives by building and participating in online communities.

The targeted population is represented by a sample of one hundred sixty-eight Facebook users, all of whom are active members of Facebook groups. Data were gathered through an online survey that consisted of three main parts: (1) the reasons that visually impaired people use social media; (2) their perceptions of social networking sites; and (3) the impact of social media on blind and visually impaired users. The data gathered through the survey were analyzed using Excel.


Journalism Vs. Activism: How The Social Impact Of Journalism Has Evolved, Kathryn Serrano May 2020

Journalism Vs. Activism: How The Social Impact Of Journalism Has Evolved, Kathryn Serrano

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was to question the objectivity norm that arose in journalism in the 20th century, and analyze what objectivity means today in the context of investigative journalism. This study examined the mission statements and objectives of the investigative nonprofits The Marshall Project and Injustice Watch, which are two publications with specific mission statements that cover the United States criminal justice system. The examination of these nonprofits helps explore a question of where the line is drawn between journalism and activism. The researcher interviewed 25 journalists from mainstream media outlets, the nonprofits discussed above, and other investigative ...


How Does Disproportionality In Discipline Manifest In Rural Schools In Southeast Arkansas?, Julie Workman May 2020

How Does Disproportionality In Discipline Manifest In Rural Schools In Southeast Arkansas?, Julie Workman

Theses and Dissertations

African American students are disciplined in schools at disproportionately higher rates than White students. This trend was first reported in 1975 in a report by the Children’s Defense Fund and since that time, has been highly studied. However, most research has been conducted in urban or suburban schools, with less known about disproportionate discipline in rural schools. This study utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach to explore disproportionate discipline between African American and White students in five rural schools located in Southeast Arkansas. The research questions were as follows: (1) How is discipline disproportionality perceived in specific rural ...


Who Is Riding The Bus And How Does It Impact Student Sleep, Attendance, Discipline, Mental Health, And Achievement?, Curtis Neil Hicks May 2020

Who Is Riding The Bus And How Does It Impact Student Sleep, Attendance, Discipline, Mental Health, And Achievement?, Curtis Neil Hicks

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to determine the relationship between morning transportation mode choice, sleep, and factors that impact achievement for students in grades 9-12 at Sleepy Valley High School. The study also examined the relationship between race and/or socioeconomic status and morning transportation mode choice to determine to what extent, if any, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and minority populations are disproportionally affected by the district’s pupil transportation system.

Data related to morning transportation mode choice, factors that impact mode choice, student sleep, and mental health were collected through a 12 question Student Transportation Survey ...


Evidence-Based Social-Emotional Learning And Its Influence On Teachers’ Perception Of Student Behavior: An Analysis Of Ruler And The Anchors Of Emotional Intelligence, Brent B. Harrington May 2020

Evidence-Based Social-Emotional Learning And Its Influence On Teachers’ Perception Of Student Behavior: An Analysis Of Ruler And The Anchors Of Emotional Intelligence, Brent B. Harrington

Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to assess the extent by which an evidence-based Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program influenced teachers’ perception of students’ behavior in a small and diverse PK – 8 school district in Westchester County, NY. Specifically, the researcher evaluated the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence and the RULER framework to determine its impact on school climate as viewed from the perspective of staff in the district. Prior to commencing the study, the researcher recognized the negative staff narrative around student behavior in the district as a significant problem of practice that was observable, actionable and high leverage.

This mixed-methods study utilized ...


An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell May 2020

An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Emotion regulation and sleep have been identified as mechanisms that may be involved in the development and maintenance of many mental health disorders. However, there has been little research into the relation between sleep and emotion regulation. To address this gap in knowledge, a novel study was conducted. We hypothesized that sleep deprived individuals would demonstrate less approach behavior toward a negatively valenced stimulus, as well as increased self-reported avoidance, compared to a control group. To test this, a randomized controlled experiment using a behavioral measure of approach and a self-report measure of avoidance was conducted. Fifty-two healthy individuals ages ...


Calling Out The Trolls: Responses To Witnessing Use Of The “Troll” Label As A Defense In An Online Group Context, Dene E. M. Wamsley May 2020

Calling Out The Trolls: Responses To Witnessing Use Of The “Troll” Label As A Defense In An Online Group Context, Dene E. M. Wamsley

Theses and Dissertations

Although the term “troll” has existed since the 1980s, its meaning has shifted in recent years as social media use has increased. People provide contrasting and imprecise definitions for what constitutes “trolling,” and often apply the term subjectively to describe online discussants who are uncivil, who are deviant, and who and present counter-attitudinal opinions. Exposure to deviance, counter-attitudinal information, and incivility often leads to unwanted psychological effects. In theory, labeling an uncivil, counter-attitudinal deviant as a “troll” proposes that their intention is to disrupt the conversation and upset other discussants, which provides a reason for why incivility is used, and ...


Cardiovascular Recovery From Emotional Stress: An Operationalization Of Equanamity Following Mindfulness-Based Emotional Stress, Emma Mcbride Apr 2020

Cardiovascular Recovery From Emotional Stress: An Operationalization Of Equanamity Following Mindfulness-Based Emotional Stress, Emma Mcbride

Theses and Dissertations

Theoretical models of mindfulness suggest that meditation may improve health, in part, by regulating stress physiology, including faster recovery of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (SBP/DBP) after emotional stress. Furthermore, improved cardiovascular recovery (CR) may be a marker of equanimity, defined as increased acceptance of and reduced reactivity to stress. No studies have tested this hypothesis, partly because methodology for assessing CR remains controversial. Using a novel operationalization of equanimity and several methods of measuring CR, this project investigated whether (1) equanimity is associated with improved CR, (2) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is associated with improved CR, and ...


Spherical Objects Among The Fremont, Emily Crump Apr 2020

Spherical Objects Among The Fremont, Emily Crump

Theses and Dissertations

Rounded objects, such as spheroids, are frequently found throughout the Fremont region. Because little information is known about these spheroids, this comprehensive analysis of spheroids contributes to definitions of and variation among Fremont spherical objects. I analyzed over 400 Fremont spheroids recording the size, weight, stone type, and other quantifiable aspects for each spheroid. The provenience of spheroids highlights some of the patterns and variability within the Fremont world. I also compare ethnographic accounts of purposes of spheroids in hopes to develop a better understanding of the function of these objects.


Exploring Love In Family Relationships, Joe Meshach Chelladurai Apr 2020

Exploring Love In Family Relationships, Joe Meshach Chelladurai

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to qualitatively investigate love in religious family relationships. Participants were from the American Families of Faith Project, a qualitative study on religion and family life with participants from 198 Christian, Jewish, and Muslim families (N = 478) across the United States. The primary research questions of present study were (a) what does love mean for families? (b) why do individuals and couples in families love? (c) how is love experienced? (d) what are the related processes of love? (e) how does religion influence love in religious families? and (f) what are the reported outcomes of ...


Priviledge And Place: An Exploratory Study About Healthcare Bypass Behavior, Jorden Elizabeth Jackson Apr 2020

Priviledge And Place: An Exploratory Study About Healthcare Bypass Behavior, Jorden Elizabeth Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Bypass, or utilizing healthcare outside of one’s community rather than local healthcare, can have serious consequences on rural healthcare availability, quality, and outcomes. Previous studies of the likelihood of healthcare bypass used various individual and community characteristics. This study includes measures for individuals and communities, as well as place-based characteristics. We introduce the social vulnerability of place index (SoVI)—a well-established measure in disaster literature—into healthcare studies to further explain the impact of place on healthcare selection behavior. Additionally, with the use of qualitative data, this study explains why people choose to bypass. By including each of these ...


The Effects Of Telehealth Training On Parents Of Children With Autism In Albania, Freskida Griffiths Apr 2020

The Effects Of Telehealth Training On Parents Of Children With Autism In Albania, Freskida Griffiths

Theses and Dissertations

The present study evaluated telehealth training with parents on techniques for working with their children with autism spectrum disorder in Southeastern Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of telehealth training on the parents and the increase of mands on the children. The participants of this study included three mothers and three children, which totaled six participants. Parents were trained on how to increase functional communication in their child. Telehealth training was based on an effective training package called Behavior Skills Training (BST). BST consist of instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The resources needed for the ...


Forecasting Attrition By Afsc For The United States Air Force, Trey S. Pujats Mar 2020

Forecasting Attrition By Afsc For The United States Air Force, Trey S. Pujats

Theses and Dissertations

Retention and personnel management is a challenge for every organization, particularly the military due to its hierarchical structure and barriers to entry. Talent must be developed and retained to become leaders, beginning at the lowest level in the Air Force. The Air Force faces a retention problem unlike most organizations that requires a unique perspective and tailored solution to each Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC). There exists previous efforts to predict attrition rates in the Air Force based on economic factors. This study expands upon the economic factors and tailors the predictor variables of attrition based on the AFSC. The ...


College Counseling Center Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison Of Student Athletes And General Population Students, Mariah M. Bullock Mar 2020

College Counseling Center Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison Of Student Athletes And General Population Students, Mariah M. Bullock

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Several college students experience psychological distress and access college counseling center services every year. A subgroup of this population, collegiate student-athletes, experience unique stressors and protective factors but are less likely to engage in those same services. Mental health research on this subpopulation is still sparse and yields mixed findings, particularly treatment outcome research. Objective: This study aimed to compare the treatment outcomes of student-athletes and general population students. Method: Participants were 10,566 college students (ages 18-26) from 139 universities in the United States that obtained routine psychological treatment at their college counseling center. Approximately 55% of the ...


Digital Forensics Tools Integration, Alexander D. Kim Mar 2020

Digital Forensics Tools Integration, Alexander D. Kim

Theses and Dissertations

As technology has become pervasive in our lives we record our daily activities both intentionally and unintentionally. Because of this, the amount of potential evidence found on digital media is staggering. Investigators have had to adapt and change their methods of conducting investigations to address the data volume. Digital forensics examiners current process consists of performing string searches to identify potential evidentiary items. Items of interest must then go through association, target comparison, and event reconstruction processes. These are manual and time consuming tasks for an examiner. This thesis presents a user interface that combines both the string searching capabilities ...


A Longitudinal Study Of The Influence Of A Stem Career Planning Course And Perceived Stress On Career Search Self-Efficacy And Retention In Engineering Undergraduate Students, Autumn Randell Jan 2020

A Longitudinal Study Of The Influence Of A Stem Career Planning Course And Perceived Stress On Career Search Self-Efficacy And Retention In Engineering Undergraduate Students, Autumn Randell

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a) the influence of a STEM career planning course on undergraduate engineering students’ career search self-efficacy, b) the influence of perceived stress on building students’ career search self-efficacy, and c) the relationship career search self-efficacy had in predicting students’ odds of persistence in an engineering major. The researcher analyzed students’ week 1, week 6, and week 14 scores of career search self-efficacy and perceived stress. Data were collected from the Spring 2019 and Fall 2019 cohorts of a STEM career planning. As a result, the analysis included (N = 286) undergraduate engineering students. Repeated measures multilevel models and ...


Understanding The Contributions Of Discrepant Parent-Adolescent Views Of Parenting Practices And Peer Deviance To Adolescent Problem Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Polynomial Regression Approach, Mallory Stephenson Jan 2020

Understanding The Contributions Of Discrepant Parent-Adolescent Views Of Parenting Practices And Peer Deviance To Adolescent Problem Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Polynomial Regression Approach, Mallory Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

The present study used autoregressive cross-lagged models to examine the processes through which peer deviance and discrepant parent-adolescent views of monitoring-related communication, involvement, and positive parenting influence one another and contribute to physical and relational aggression, substance use, and delinquency. Participants included 535 adolescents (64% male) who were identified as prone to aggression and socially influential by their sixth-grade teachers during the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 school years; participants self-identified as African American (69%), Hispanic (14%), White (9%), Multiracial (5%), or another race (3%). Contrary to expectations, parent-adolescent reporting discrepancies were not related to peer deviance, physical aggression, substance use, and ...


Work Hope And Work Volition: Exploring The Influence Of Community College Students’ Rurality And Socioeconomic Status, Jesse A. Wingate Jan 2020

Work Hope And Work Volition: Exploring The Influence Of Community College Students’ Rurality And Socioeconomic Status, Jesse A. Wingate

Theses and Dissertations

Data from a sample of community college students (N = 478) in Virginia were used to examine relations among rurality, socioeconomic status, work hope, and work volition. Socioeconomic status, work hope, and work volition were positively associated. However, rurality, measured both as a continuous and categorical variable, was not correlated with work hope or work volition. Additional analyses showed convergence between measures of work hope and work volition confirming construct similarity. Results, limitations, implications, and recommendations for future study are included.


Expanded Testing Of An Integrated Qpcr Mixture Screening Assay Using High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis And Support Vector Machine Modeling, Andrea L. Williams Jan 2020

Expanded Testing Of An Integrated Qpcr Mixture Screening Assay Using High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis And Support Vector Machine Modeling, Andrea L. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

In the conventional forensic DNA workflow, the number of contributors in a sample is unknown until the final step of STR analysis. We propose a high-resolution melt curve (HRM) mixture screening assay, which uses support vector machine (SVM) modeling of melt morphologies of D5S818 and D18S51 amplicons integrated into a common qPCR-based human DNA quantification kit, to differentiate between single-source samples (and their genotypes) and mixtures at an earlier stage in the DNA workflow (quantification). Previously, using data generated from whole melt curves, 87.5% of single-source samples and 100% of 1:1 mixture samples (2 contributors) classified accurately.

In ...


Relationships Among Parkinson’S Disease Symptoms, Stigma, And Mental Health: A Strengths-Based Perspective, Richard S. Henry Jan 2020

Relationships Among Parkinson’S Disease Symptoms, Stigma, And Mental Health: A Strengths-Based Perspective, Richard S. Henry

Theses and Dissertations

As rates of Parkinson’s disease (PD) increase, so does the need to examine some of the negative social consequences experienced by people with PD. Symptoms of PD have been linked to greater experiences of stigma, and the more visible symptoms of PD increase an individual’s likelihood for experiencing stigmatization and social rejection. Individuals who experience high levels of stigma generally have poorer mental health outcomes. While these relationships are well documented, little is known about whether stigma mediates the relationship between PD symptoms and mental health outcomes. Additionally, some past research suggests that the personal strengths of social ...


A Randomized Trial Of Cbt4cbt For Women In Residential Treatment For Substance Use Disorders, Sydney S. Kelpin Jan 2020

A Randomized Trial Of Cbt4cbt For Women In Residential Treatment For Substance Use Disorders, Sydney S. Kelpin

Theses and Dissertations

Women with substance use disorders (SUD) face unique barriers to substance use treatment, and as a result, are less likely than their male counterparts to seek treatment for the disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment known to reduce relapse rates by teaching clients to recognize and respond to their cues for substance use. Recent research suggests CBT may be particularly of benefit to women. Despite the effectiveness of CBT, its dissemination in clinical practice is limited due to a range of barriers (e.g., time, cost). Computer-based training for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) offers an opportunity to ...


Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. Mckee Jan 2020

Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. Mckee

Theses and Dissertations

Within-person data can exhibit a virtually limitless variety of statistical patterns, but it can be difficult to distinguish meaningful features from statistical artifacts. Studies of complex traits have previously used genetic signals like twin-based heritability to distinguish between the two. This dissertation is a collection of studies applying state-space modeling to conceptualize and estimate novel phenotypic constructs for use in psychiatric research and further biometrical genetic analysis. The aims are to: (1) relate control theoretic concepts to health-related phenotypes; (2) design statistical models that formally define those phenotypes; (3) estimate individual phenotypic values from time series data; (4) consider hierarchical ...


Predictors Of Mental Health Need And Treatment In Safety Net Primary Care, Kristen O'Loughlin Jan 2020

Predictors Of Mental Health Need And Treatment In Safety Net Primary Care, Kristen O'Loughlin

Theses and Dissertations

Many mental health (MH) needs go unidentified in primary care, and certain patients appear to be at higher risk of needs going unidentified and subsequently untreated. Little is known about patterns of detection and treatment in clinics with integrated mental health services. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of MH needs and evaluate patient characteristics as predictors of both the presence of a MH need and type of MH services received. Subjects were patients receiving care at two safety net primary care clinics with integrated mental health services (N=816; 52.7% Latinx, 15.9% African ...


Cyberbullying: School Administrators' Perceptions Of Law And Prevalence, And Their Roles In Prevention, Intervention And Discipline, Suzan Gragg Denby Jan 2020

Cyberbullying: School Administrators' Perceptions Of Law And Prevalence, And Their Roles In Prevention, Intervention And Discipline, Suzan Gragg Denby

Theses and Dissertations

This study was aimed at investigating secondary school administrators’ experiences with and their perceptions of cyberbullying, as well as their intervention and prevention procedures. As technology has become ubiquitous in our society, students’ use has increased and impacted the school environment. Given the potential for cyberbullying and the negative effects of such, schools harbor the responsibility to prevent and intervene in such occurrences. This can be a tricky process.

This study included 12 administrators of secondary schools across eight school divisions in Virginia. Through an interview process, administrators spoke of their experiences with technology and cyberbullying incidents, and how they ...


Caffeine Use And Associations With Sleep In Adolescents With And Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Caroline N. Cusick Jan 2020

Caffeine Use And Associations With Sleep In Adolescents With And Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Caroline N. Cusick

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to compare caffeine consumption in the morning, afternoon, and evening in adolescents with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and examine associations with sleep functioning. Participants were 302 adolescents (ages 12-14) with (n=140) and without (n=162) ADHD. Adolescents wore actigraph watches to assess total sleep time and wake after sleep onset and reported on their sleep-wake problems and the number of caffeinated beverages consumed per day in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Parents reported on adolescents’ difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. Chi-square analyses, odds ratios, and path analyses were conducted. Analyses ...


Economically Empowering Women As Foreign Policy: A Phenomenological Study On Building Peace In Northern Uganda Through Social Enterprise, Lisa Liberatore Maracine Jan 2020

Economically Empowering Women As Foreign Policy: A Phenomenological Study On Building Peace In Northern Uganda Through Social Enterprise, Lisa Liberatore Maracine

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation advocates for the role of social enterprise in building sustainable peace by giving women agency and power in their communities. It examines this phenomenon through the lens of a social enterprise non-governmental organization, 31 Bits, that offers a valuable case study in the post-conflict Northern Uganda town of Gulu where over 100 women have been employed in the last ten years in a five-year training program that equips them to become fully self-sustainable through the creation of jewelry handmade from recycled paper. The holistic approach moves beyond the nonprofit model of charity and survival to giving their beneficiaries ...


Bidirectional Associations Between Passive And Active Technology Use And Sleep: A Longitudinal Examination In Young Adolescents With And Without Adhd, Elizaveta Bourchtein Jan 2020

Bidirectional Associations Between Passive And Active Technology Use And Sleep: A Longitudinal Examination In Young Adolescents With And Without Adhd, Elizaveta Bourchtein

Theses and Dissertations

Many adolescents do not receive recommended amounts of sleep, and prevalence rates of sleep problems are particularly high among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One factor that may contribute to these sleep difficulties is technology use, and there is some evidence that the association between technology use and sleep may be bi-directional. Further, type of technology use (i.e., passive versus active) may be differentially associated with sleep. To date, most studies have evaluated these associations cross-sectionally and relied upon global and subjective ratings of technology use and sleep, which masks important day-to-day variability. The present study evaluated bi-directional ...


Empathic Anger And Personal Anger In Response To Fairness Violations: Relations To Self And Other-Oriented Motivation And Behavior, Athena H. Cairo Jan 2020

Empathic Anger And Personal Anger In Response To Fairness Violations: Relations To Self And Other-Oriented Motivation And Behavior, Athena H. Cairo

Theses and Dissertations

Prosocial behavior research has shown that empathy-elicited compassionate concern often motivates actions performed with an ultimate goal of helping others even at cost to oneself, whereas empathic distress motivates low-cost help with an ultimate goal of helping oneself. Less is known about the motivational outcomes of empathic anger felt when witnessing injustice or harm to others. Though empathic anger predicts third-party compensation and punishment, it is unclear whether this motivation is ultimately self or other-oriented. Three experimental studies examined the empathic anger-altruism hypothesis, that empathic anger evoked when witnessing another being treated unjustly would evoke altruistic motivation to help the ...