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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Employee Benefits And Policies: Do They Make A Difference For Work/Family Conflict?, Dina Banerjee, Carolyn Cummings Perrucci Sep 2012

Employee Benefits And Policies: Do They Make A Difference For Work/Family Conflict?, Dina Banerjee, Carolyn Cummings Perrucci

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines both the prevalence of employee benefits and whether the existence of any of numerous work/family policies is related to reduced perceived work/family conflict among a 2002 national sample of U.S. employees. We compare the impact of relatively standard employee benefits with more "controversial" work/family policies regarding flexible work time and child care. We determine whether the impact still remains when typical individual employee characteristics, human capital variables, workplace culture variables, and workplace support variables are controlled statistically in multiple regressions. We find that it is the relatively conventional benefits that are most available ...


Protecting Older Workers: The Failure Of The Age Discrimination In Employment Act Of 1967, Jessica Z. Rothenberg, Daniel S. Gardner Mar 2011

Protecting Older Workers: The Failure Of The Age Discrimination In Employment Act Of 1967, Jessica Z. Rothenberg, Daniel S. Gardner

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A growing number of older adults are finding that retirement is no longer affordable and they must work well into their later years. Unfortunately, over 42 years after passage of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967, age discrimination in the workplace continues to present serious impediments to employment in later life. Using a critical gerontology perspective, this paper reviews the history of work-related age discrimination and analyzes the ADEA and its limited effectiveness at protecting the civil and economic rights of older workers. The authors discuss implications and suggest policy alternatives that would support the employment and ...


The Development Of An Unequal Social Safety Net: A Case Study Of The Employer-Based Health Insurance (Non) System, H. Luke Shaefer, Elizabeth D. Sammons Sep 2009

The Development Of An Unequal Social Safety Net: A Case Study Of The Employer-Based Health Insurance (Non) System, H. Luke Shaefer, Elizabeth D. Sammons

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The U.S. social safety net exacerbates labor market inequalities rather than ameliorating them. This paper traces this theme within an important historical case study: the emergence of the employer-based health insurance system. Employers became the dominant and tax-preferred provider of health insurance in the United States without any federal legislative action. Understanding how this happened may inform current reform efforts. This case study highlights two important factors. The first is path dependency, discussed by Skocpol (1992) and Pierson (2000). They argue that the ambiguous divisions of power and a pluralistic governance framework favor incremental processes of social policy formation ...


The Research Practices And Needs Of Non-Profit Organizations In An Urban Center, Randy Stoecker Dec 2007

The Research Practices And Needs Of Non-Profit Organizations In An Urban Center, Randy Stoecker

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

How do nonprofit organizations use data and research? What challenges do they face in conducting research and managing data? In spring of 2004, 80 nonprofit organizations in Toledo, Ohio returned a survey on their research and data needs and practices. The survey found that nonprofits collect data on a wide variety of topics, but do not use much of the data that they collect, and do not collect much data that could be useful for other groups, particularly neighborhood organizations. The average nonprofit in the survey has five employees and four volunteers who, together, spend 56 hours per week collecting ...


Is Inter-Organizational Collaboration Always A Good Thing?, Richard A. Longoria Sep 2005

Is Inter-Organizational Collaboration Always A Good Thing?, Richard A. Longoria

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The human service literature suggests that the concept and outcomes of inter-organizational collaboration are not well understood. Nonetheless, inter-organizational collaboration has emerged as a statement of direction for social welfare policy and professional practice. In light of an unclear understanding of collaboration, this analysis suggests the concept has powerful symbolic qualities, which perpetuates its continued use. While the general notion of collaboration is promising, human service administrators and stakeholders must couple critical thinking and action to clarify the meaning, intent, application, and outcomes of inter-organizational collaboration. This article raises the question as to whether the popularity of inter-organization collaboration is ...


Making Tanf Work: Organizational Restructuring, Staff Buy-In, And Performance Monitoring In Local Implementation, Frank Ridzi Jun 2004

Making Tanf Work: Organizational Restructuring, Staff Buy-In, And Performance Monitoring In Local Implementation, Frank Ridzi

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

While research suggests that staff resistance to change and intentional subversion have hampered prior welfare reform efforts, this does not appear to be the case for the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). This paper draws on data from a study of East County, New York to explicate the mechanisms that have enabled the unprecedented transformation in local implementation practice in this case. Interviews, participant observation, and textual analysis of legislative and program documents identify new program creation, staff buy-in, and the environment created by stern performance measures as instrumental in bringing about the PRWORA's successful ...


Voices From The Middle: How Performance Funding Impacts Workforce Organizations, Professionals And Customers, Roberta Rehner Iversen Jun 2004

Voices From The Middle: How Performance Funding Impacts Workforce Organizations, Professionals And Customers, Roberta Rehner Iversen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Under recent policy reforms, the landscape of authority relations in welfare and workforce development organizations has radically changed from one that privileged internal professional autonomy to one that privileges external authorities. Performance, rather than input funding is the medium for this change. Longitudinal ethnographic research reveals that performance requirements in workforce development both contribute to and challenge organizational structure and program design, professional practices, and job seeker outcomes. As such, when the "voices" of job-seeking customers, directly and through their affiliated workforce organizations, professionals, and employers, are added to the "voices" of funders under performance funding, polyvocality may result in ...


Work-Based Welfare As A Ritual: Understanding Marginalization In Post-Independence Lithuania, Arunas Juska, Richard Pozzuto Jun 2004

Work-Based Welfare As A Ritual: Understanding Marginalization In Post-Independence Lithuania, Arunas Juska, Richard Pozzuto

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The paper analyzes the functioning of the newly created labor exchange in post-Soviet Lithuania. It is argued that the labor exchange in post-Soviet Lithuania operates under the conditions of a structural contradiction: welfare services are designed to reintegrate unemployed into the labor force under the conditions of (a) increasing competitiveness of the labor markets and (b) a rapid decline of employment within the Lithuanian economy. As a result, labor redundancy is produced which consists predominantly of low skill/education individuals. Because the economy is unable to generate employment, job searches for this segment of the population are transformed into a ...


Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski Dec 2003

Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the organizationalf actors that contribute to workers' frustration with their work situation. The sample included 141 service professionals who attended workshops on burnout in 2001. The purpose of the workshops was to increase awareness regarding the organizational factors that could contribute to burnout. Findings indicate that factors most directly affecting clients were predictive of frustration, rather than factors that may indirectly support service quality or factors impacting workers' professional autonomy. A sense of powerlessness and isolation was also predictive of frustration, suggesting that participants viewed workplace problems as a private rather than an organizational concern. To address ...


Work And Economic Outcomes After Welfare, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara Jun 2000

Work And Economic Outcomes After Welfare, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Using data from the 1969 to 1993 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this article examines a number of models to determine the characteristics of AFDC recipients who fare well economically after they initially leave the welfare system. The study includes analyses of income levels, time spent employed and not employed, and time spent below the poverty line. Hypotheses regarding state welfare payments, area economic conditions, human capital and time spent receiving welfare are examined. The findings indicate that area employment conditions and the ability to quickly find work greatly affect the likelihood of faring well economically after welfare. We found ...


Contested Workplace: The Case Of The Strike Of The United Food And Commercial Workers Union Versus Meijer, Barbara Thomas Coventry, Marietta Morrissey May 1998

Contested Workplace: The Case Of The Strike Of The United Food And Commercial Workers Union Versus Meijer, Barbara Thomas Coventry, Marietta Morrissey

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines the struggle between labor and management at four, newly-opened supermarket/discount stores, culminating in a strike. It considers workplace control as an issue in the strike and its resolution. Edwards' typology of workplace control is reviewed, along with other indirect forms of control explored in recent literature. Workers complained most stridently about direct control mechanisms. Workers' objections to technical and bureaucratic control played only a minor part in workers' decision to strike and the work stoppage's outcome. Indirect controls, including customer and gender-specific control mechanisms, were seldom questioned or acknowledged by workers. On the other hand ...


A Man Without A Job Is A Dead Man: The Meaning Of Work And Welfare In The Lives Of Young Men, Kathleen A. Kost Sep 1997

A Man Without A Job Is A Dead Man: The Meaning Of Work And Welfare In The Lives Of Young Men, Kathleen A. Kost

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Little is known about the use of welfare by young men as most research and debate have concentrated on the use of welfare by families headed by single women. This research includes young men in this debate by examining the personal characteristics, events that precipitated their use, why they exited, and the barriers they faced in obtaining employment. Data are from qualitative interviews of 20 young men who resided in Madison, Wisconsin. Findings suggest that these men use General Assistance as a type of unemployment insurance between jobs. Policy, program and research recommendations are made regarding the need for assistance ...


Entrepreneurial Activities Of Homeless Men, Steven Balkin Dec 1992

Entrepreneurial Activities Of Homeless Men, Steven Balkin

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Encouraging and assisting homeless people to become self-employed provides a way for some of them to increase their incomes, and may help close the gap between the cost of housing and labor market earnings. A survey of operators of homeless shelters was conducted to determine the types of work activities that adult homeless men participate in. Self-employment was found to be a common activity for a substantial proportion of adult homeless men; and a preferred mode of employment for many. Advantages and disadvantages of such an approach are discussed. Several program models are described which can be used to enhance ...


Black Pink Collar Workers: Arduous Journey From Field And Kitchen To Office, Judith B. Bremner Sep 1992

Black Pink Collar Workers: Arduous Journey From Field And Kitchen To Office, Judith B. Bremner

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The black female workers' journey from field to office was a long and arduous one. This paper examines the transition of black women from agricultural laborers to pink collar workers during the period 1900 to 1980. More black women than white women have had to work in paid employment in order to maintain their families economically. Discrimination against black pink collar workers in career advancement and the better-paying positions, is especially critical because so many black families are female-headed households in need of all the economic resources that the mother-breadwinner can obtain.


Organization Development And Community Development: True Soulmates Or Uneasy Bedfellows?, Darlyne Bailey, Pranab Chatterjee May 1992

Organization Development And Community Development: True Soulmates Or Uneasy Bedfellows?, Darlyne Bailey, Pranab Chatterjee

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Our paper is written to express both strong dissent from and partial support of Dr. Packard's article "Organization Development Technologies in Community Development: A Case Study." Beginning with a summation of the article, this paper introduces the main area of contention, provides a vignette to illustrate key points and concludes with affirmation of the need for reconciling the differences between organizational development (OD) and community development (CD) as two systems of planned change.


Occupational Social Work And Multinational Corporations, Chathapuram S. Ramanathan Jun 1991

Occupational Social Work And Multinational Corporations, Chathapuram S. Ramanathan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In a global economy, transfer of human technology via multinational Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) is a reality. Successful development and implementation of multinational EAPs require attention to the host country's political, legal frameworks, and cultural issues. The roles of occupational social workers vary based on these dimensions and issues. The targets of interventions are foreign executives and their families, host country employees and their families, and the organization itself.


How Voluntary Agency Networks Fared In The 1980s, Margaret Gibelman, Harold W. Demone Jr. Dec 1990

How Voluntary Agency Networks Fared In The 1980s, Margaret Gibelman, Harold W. Demone Jr.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Believing that the least government is the best government, the Reagan Administration favored, in both principle and practice, the transfer of functions to and fiscal independence of the private sector. This article provides a comparative analysis of the financial status of three major types of voluntary agency networks before and near the end of the Reagan era. Focusing on national voluntary health, child welfare league, and family service agencies, proportionate and absolute revenues, sources of income, and new income generating strategies are examined within the context of philanthropic trends and the compensatory role of state and local governments.

These agency ...


Do Respondents Who Pen Comments Onto Mail Surveys Differ From Other Respondents? A Research Note On The Human Services Job Satisfaction Literature, R. L. Mcneely Dec 1990

Do Respondents Who Pen Comments Onto Mail Surveys Differ From Other Respondents? A Research Note On The Human Services Job Satisfaction Literature, R. L. Mcneely

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A current study has criticized the human services job satisfaction literature for relying solely on information obtained by "closed-ended" questionnaires. Stating that these studies may not accurately reflect the actual conditions under which public welfare employees function, the authors base their criticisms on an analysis of the extemporaneous comments of subjects participating in a national study. Nonetheless, whether or not those who pen comments are representative of the broader population of human service workers remains an open question. The study reported in this article sought to shed light on this issue by comparing respondents who commented versus those who did ...


Gender, Employment And Psychosocial Well-Being, David C. Congdon Sep 1990

Gender, Employment And Psychosocial Well-Being, David C. Congdon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Although authors are increasingly addressing the specific needs of men and women at work, no theory based comparison of how employment affects their psychosocial well-being has been available. A six dimensional index was developed to explore a social exchange model of the associations among employment, psychosocial well-being, and worker productivity for men and women. Findings based on two samples of 41 (instrument pretest) and 143 (model test) employed and unemployed union workers suggest strong reliability and validity estimates for the index, support for the model, high explanatory power, and different results for men and women. Implications for further research and ...


Illness Career Descent And The Descending Hierarchy: The Organizational Structure Of A Retirement Facility, Bradley J. Fisher Sep 1990

Illness Career Descent And The Descending Hierarchy: The Organizational Structure Of A Retirement Facility, Bradley J. Fisher

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Illness career descent is a process involving the downward trajectory of chronic illness and the residents' downward movement through the organizational structure of the retirement facility. This structure can be conceptualized as a "descending" hierarchy where residents experience downward mobility through successively lower statuses. These conceptualizations are grounded in three years of participant observation and interviews with over 150 residents at a multilevel care retirement facility. Downward mobility, within the facility, entails relocation to more regimented and stigmatized residency situations. The individual's goal is to slow down the pace of this illness career timetable. Descending hierarchical structures within facilities ...


Women In Blue-Collar Occupations: An Exploration Of Constraints And Facilitators, Kris Kissman Sep 1990

Women In Blue-Collar Occupations: An Exploration Of Constraints And Facilitators, Kris Kissman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study reports on some of the variables which facilitate and impede work satisfaction among women in nontraditional occupations. A small sample of women working as machinists, pipe fitters, carpenters, electricians, technicians, and construction workers reported that sexual harassment on the job impeded their work satisfaction. Respondents' perceptions of equality in pay and promotion on the job, and congruence between work and domestic roles, served to enhance work satisfaction. Age was related to a sense of competence, perception of equality on the job, and congruence between work and domestic roles. Social support significantly enhanced work satisfaction.


Social Work And Sexual Harassment, Surjit Singh Dhooper, Marlene B. Huff, Carrie M. Schultz Sep 1989

Social Work And Sexual Harassment, Surjit Singh Dhooper, Marlene B. Huff, Carrie M. Schultz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Ninety-seven members of the Kentucky chapter of National Association of Social Workers were surveyed about their knowledge of and experience with sexual harassment in their work places. Fifty-one percent knew of sexual harassment of female social workers and 18% knew of similar harassment of male workers. Twenty-six percent had themselves been victims of sexual harassment. Verbal harassment was the most common followed by a combination of verbal and physical harassment in the form of sexy jokes and unwanted touching. A majority of the victims resorted to either avoidance, defusion, or reason in dealing with their harassers. Young workers from small ...


Towards A Construct Of Employment For Social Welfare And Economic Productivity, David C. Congdon Jun 1989

Towards A Construct Of Employment For Social Welfare And Economic Productivity, David C. Congdon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article analyzes Marxian socialist, neo-classical, and Keynesian economic theories toward developing a construct of employment which supports social welfare and economic productivity. It considers their motivational approaches, outcomes, and requirements for social control. A Keynesian construct of employment is recommended as supportive of social well-being, high productivity, and a level of social control reduced from that in currently dominant economic systems. Implications and implementation issues are considered.


Recisions, Organizational Conditions And Job Satisfaction Among Black And White Human Service Workers: A Research Note, R. L. Mcneely Sep 1988

Recisions, Organizational Conditions And Job Satisfaction Among Black And White Human Service Workers: A Research Note, R. L. Mcneely

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Despite the growing attention evident in the human services literature on the related topics of job satisfaction and burnout, virtually none of the empirical studies published to date have examined the possible influences of recent federal and state cutbacks in human service funding levels on the job satisfaction of human service workers. One outcome of these cutbacks has been the curtailment of services offered by county welfare departments, often achieved by reducing the number of public welfare workers through hiring freezes, attrition, layoffs, etc. The remaining public welfare workers often have then been placed in the unenviable position of trying ...


Rold Ambiguity Among Foster Parents: Semi-Professionals In Professionalizing Organizations, Kenneth J. Mietus, Michael D. Fimmen Mar 1987

Rold Ambiguity Among Foster Parents: Semi-Professionals In Professionalizing Organizations, Kenneth J. Mietus, Michael D. Fimmen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Because foster parent role ambiguity has been viewed primarily as a micro-level phenomenon, efforts to reduce its negative consequences have emphasized ameliorist solutions which attempt to alter the behavior of individuals. We suggest that consideration of role ambiguity as a macro-level phenomenon provides a sounder basis for developing long-range solutions which can alter the structure of foster care organizations in ways which will complement existing ameliorist strategies. As semi-professionals, the work-role expectations of foster parents are seen as being contradictory to the goals of a profess ionalizing organizational structure. The transitional nature of this professionalizing process, and the contradictions which ...


Social Workers' Satisfactions: Methodological Notes And Substantive Findings, Y. Meller, D. Macarov Dec 1986

Social Workers' Satisfactions: Methodological Notes And Substantive Findings, Y. Meller, D. Macarov

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The use of instruments derived from industrial research to investigate the work satisfactions of social workers can lead to distortion of results. Responses from ninety-one social workers in nine agencies indicates sources of satisfactions and dissatisfactions not present in industrial settings, and -- in contradistinction to the "dual-factor" or "bipolarity" theory -- both satisfactions and dissatisfactions arising from the same source in some cases.

The most important factors affecting workers' satisfactions were the ability to achieve results, their relationships with clients, their relationship with members of multidisciplinary staffs, and presence or absence of sufficient time and resources.

The "higher order" needs -- recognition ...


Professional Contacts And Perceived Occupational Prestige, Moshe Sherer Dec 1986

Professional Contacts And Perceived Occupational Prestige, Moshe Sherer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A random sample of 142 social workers in Israel, were asked to indicate the other professionals whom they meet in the course of their work, and the frequency of these contacts. They were also asked to assess the occupational prestige of social workers relative to that of the other professionals. The findings showed that social workers tended to downgrade their own prestige, the more frequently they met with representatives of occupations which have higher rankings on an objective occupational prestige scale.


Factors Contributing To Coalition Maintenance, Maria Roberts-Degennaro May 1986

Factors Contributing To Coalition Maintenance, Maria Roberts-Degennaro

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Organizations are building advocacy coalitions as a way of strengthening their survival skills. This article reports on a case study of the factors associated with maintaining an advocacy coalition. The survival of a coalition appears to depend on whether it can insure its member organizations of the payoffs from committing their resources for advocacy purposes.


Social Service Delivery Systems: The Impact Of Technology And Organizational Structure, Louella Mann Mar 1986

Social Service Delivery Systems: The Impact Of Technology And Organizational Structure, Louella Mann

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Changes in work and social structures are reviewed for the period from the early industrial era to the present. Work structure is hypothesized to have a significant impact upon society and the individual. The structure of the modern work setting and the rapid changes in technology have increased the stress associated with anxiety and isolation. In turn, these problems contribute to the onset of social ills. Also examined are ways to diminish the negative effects of the role conflict which results from the divergent structures present in the personal and work settings. Predictions about the future of social service delivery ...


Behavioral Social Work In Community And Organizational Settings, Jack Rothman, Bruce A. Thyer Jun 1984

Behavioral Social Work In Community And Organizational Settings, Jack Rothman, Bruce A. Thyer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Principles and methods of behavioral social work have found little application at the community and organizational levels of intervention. It is the contention of the authors that integration of such content would enhance practice at these levels. Components of behavioral community intervention are indicated and illustrated in micro/macro settings, with advantages to practice specified. Ethical Considerations in using this methodology are discussed.