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Journal Of Sociology And Social Welfare Vol. 45 No. 2 Jan 2018

Journal Of Sociology And Social Welfare Vol. 45 No. 2

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

No abstract provided.


Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster Jan 2018

Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study investigates whether and how support for welfare state arrangements for the old relate to the stereotypes of the young and the old within society. It is hypothesized that the social status that these groups have in society affect these attitudes through different mechanisms, relating to the deservingness criteria that citizens apply. An empirical analysis of Round 4 of the European Social Survey (including 50,009 individuals from 29 European countries) shows that: (1) the social esteem of people over 70 predicts support for welfare state arrangements for the old; and (2) the social esteem of people in their ...


Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell Jan 2018

Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Utilizing four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and permissive) and two types of educational achievement (years of education completed and completion of a college degree), we investigated whether mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between parenting styles in adolescence and the educational attainment of young adults. We further assessed whether the relationships among parenting styles and educational attainment vary by race and ethnicity for African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Compared to youth with authoritative parenting, those who experienced uninvolved or authoritarian parenting were more likely to experience depressive affect, and these symptoms of depression partially mediated the ...


Community Partnerships For The Prevention Of The Worst Forms Of Child Labor Among Migrant Children In Samut Sakhon, Thailand, Tsz Ki K. Tang, David Engstrom, Sompong Srakaew Jan 2017

Community Partnerships For The Prevention Of The Worst Forms Of Child Labor Among Migrant Children In Samut Sakhon, Thailand, Tsz Ki K. Tang, David Engstrom, Sompong Srakaew

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This policy note examined the child labor prevention model employed in Samut Sakhon, Thailand, which aims to prevent migrant children from entering the worst forms of child labor in the seafood processing industry. The model consists of transitional education and corporate social responsibility (CSR). The analysis examines the context of child labor and explores the challenges and opportunities to make anti-child labor efforts more effective.


Social Work In The Black Community: A Collective Response To Contemporary Unrest, Stephenie Howard Jan 2017

Social Work In The Black Community: A Collective Response To Contemporary Unrest, Stephenie Howard

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The frequent outpour of civil unrest in the Black community in response to instances of social injustice is a manifestation of outrage and exhaustion with systems that perpetuate socioeconomic disparities and human rights violations in this community. Lessons learned from historical practices of social work in the Black community may enhance the potential of contemporary social workers to shepherd this social consciousness into sustained social change. Toward this goal, this paper will synthesize and juxtapose the parallel paths taken by early Black social workers and their majority counterparts. This paper will also identify strategies for integrating the legacy of early ...


Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar Jan 2017

Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Families who are food insecure do not have regular access to food, access to enough food to satisfy their hunger, or have to resort to extraordinary measures to access food such as traveling to food pantries and other emergency food sources. This article focuses on low-income families with children who live in extended stay motels and experienced food insecurity. Families reported several indicators of food insecurity and discussed the barriers to food security they experienced as a result of living in a motel. Families reported that the locations of the motels, lack of transportation, the lack of storage space and ...


The Association Between Neighborhood Factors And Mexican Americans’ Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review, Kai Wei, Jaime Booth Jan 2017

The Association Between Neighborhood Factors And Mexican Americans’ Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review, Kai Wei, Jaime Booth

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This systematic review seeks to elucidate the association between neighborhood factors and Mexican American mental health outcomes. We searched PsycINFO and Academic Search Premier for studies related to neighborhood factors and mental health. Google Scholar was used to identify additional studies, followed by a manual inspection of the related work. Eleven studies were identified. Nine studies found that neighborhood factors had a significant impact on mental health among this group. Neighborhood compositional factors influenced mental health directly, among which minority concentration was found to be protective for Mexican American mental health. Neighborhood contextual factors influenced mental health directly and indirectly ...


Experiences And Responses To Microaggressions On Historically White Campuses: A Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis, Y. Kafi Moragne-Patterson, Tracey M. Barnett Jan 2017

Experiences And Responses To Microaggressions On Historically White Campuses: A Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis, Y. Kafi Moragne-Patterson, Tracey M. Barnett

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

According to the U.S. Department of Education (2011), only 59% of students who sought bachelors’ degrees from four-year postsecondary institutions in 2006 completed the degree within six years, and among African American/Black students, only 40% finished college within six years. Despite efforts to quantify factors that contribute to low retention rates among African American students, less is known about the qualitative experiences of students who remain on campuses across the United States. This qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis examines the microaggressive encounters experienced by African American undergraduate college students (ages 17-22) at historically White, fouryear colleges and universities to better ...


Civic Engagement And Institutional Trust Among South Africans, Yoosun Chu, Ce Shen Jan 2017

Civic Engagement And Institutional Trust Among South Africans, Yoosun Chu, Ce Shen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The importance of institutional trust and its key determinants have been widely acknowledged in developed countries. However, in developing countries, where institutional trust has not been well established, its structural causes have not received adequate research emphasis. The aims of our study are: (1) to examine the direct effect of civic engagement on institutional trust; and (2) to examine the mediating effects of government dysfunction and government performance on the relationship between civic engagement and institutional trust. We conducted a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis using data from the 2004 Afrobarometer Round 2.5 survey in South Africa (N = 2 ...


Habitus, Symbolic Violence, And Reflexivity: Applying Bourdieu’S Theories To Social Work, Wendy L. Wiegmann Jan 2017

Habitus, Symbolic Violence, And Reflexivity: Applying Bourdieu’S Theories To Social Work, Wendy L. Wiegmann

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

During the mid- to late-twentieth century, Pierre Bourdieu crated a conceptual framework that describes how underclass status becomes embodied in individuals, and the ways that personal, professional, and political fields perpetuate this oppression. Bourdieu’s theories also outline the role of the “critical intellectual” in undermining oppression and fighting for social justice. Using key terms from Bourdieu’s explanatory framework, this article examines the power relations and symbolic violence built into the interactions between social workers and clients, and offers suggestions as to how reflexive and relational social work can help workers reduce this impact. This paper also explores the ...


Impact Of Short Lifetime Limits On Child Neglect, Vicky N. Albert, William C. King Jan 2017

Impact Of Short Lifetime Limits On Child Neglect, Vicky N. Albert, William C. King

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Great Recession that officially began in December 2007 nationally resulted in a loss of income on the part of many families with children who in turn, relied on a variety of safety nets, including cash assistance from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Loss of income has been recognized as a major risk factor of child maltreatment, in particular child neglect. During its 2007 recession, Arizona shortened its TANF lifetime limits substantially which resulted in transfer income losses for many families with children on TANF. Using time-series analysis, the present study determines the relative impact of TANF’s ...


Congregations In The Community: A Case Study Of Social Welfare Provision, Sarah B. Garlington Jan 2017

Congregations In The Community: A Case Study Of Social Welfare Provision, Sarah B. Garlington

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A complex mix of community and government activities address social welfare needs. Even with structural changes, communities are active in assessing and providing for their own members’ needs, though in widely variable forms. Religious organizations are key in community social welfare. This project investigates the role of religion in social welfare provision at the local community level. Examining religion’s participation contributes to the understanding of religion’s role in the public sphere as moral commentator, contributor to the common good, and identity legitimation. This article uses a functionalist theoretical framework and case study data to discuss congregations and social ...


A Right To Motherhood? Race, Class, And Reproductive Services In The Jim Crow South, Cynthia Edmonds-Cady Jan 2017

A Right To Motherhood? Race, Class, And Reproductive Services In The Jim Crow South, Cynthia Edmonds-Cady

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research examines birth control and sterilization practices aimed at low-income black women in the United States from 1939-1950, within the framework of specific race- and class-based constructions of motherhood in the Jim Crow South. How these social services aimed at reproductive health were grounded within differential ideals about family, childbirth, and motherhood for White versus African American women is explored. Evidence is presented from archival collections containing records for Planned Parenthood’s Negro Project, The Association for Voluntary Sterilization’s programs, and The American Social Health Association’s public health programs. Birth control services in the South were delivered ...


"I Play Golf With My Kids, Not My Colleagues": Politicians, Parenting, And Unpaid Work As A Choice?, Cheryl Najarian Souza Jan 2017

"I Play Golf With My Kids, Not My Colleagues": Politicians, Parenting, And Unpaid Work As A Choice?, Cheryl Najarian Souza

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Through in-depth interviews with thirty women and men politicians, this paper investigates their unpaid work as parents and their paid work. Using Goffman’s (1959) concepts of “front stage” and “back stage” performances, the author argues that the women and men developed strategies to do this work. Decisions about whether or not to run for their first job in politics were gendered. Another finding was that the experiences of their families and the making of public policies were gendered. The women organized their “village” while the men saw their fathering roles in terms of scheduling dad time. Finally, there were ...


The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson Jan 2017

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

United States research concludes concentrations of Latinos/Latinas and African Americans have a negative impact on Neighborhood Social Cohesion (NSC); however, European research finds higher levels of NSC when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. This study utilizes a longitudinal stratified random sample of 7,495 households in 430 Census Blocks within 10 United States cities that participated in the Making Connections Initiative. Results show higher NSC is associated with higher percentages of residents who are Latino/Latina, African American, and homeowners when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. The study findings challenge the stigma associated with concentrations of racial ...


When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock Jan 2017

When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Aging-in-place is a well-established concept, but discussions rarely consider that many older adults live with pets. In a ‘pet-friendly’ city, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore perspectives of community-based social support agencies that promote aging-in-place, and those of animal welfare agencies. Applying a relational ecology theoretical framework, we found that pets may contribute to feeling socially- situated, yet may also exacerbate constraints on autonomy experienced by some older adults. Pet-related considerations at times led to discretionary acts of more-than-human solidarity, but also created paradoxical situations for service-providers, impacting their efforts to assist older adults. A shortage of pet-friendly affordable housing ...


The Construction Of A Class With A Sense Of Entitlement: A Case Study On Political Rhetoric As Symbolic Violence In Denmark, Klarissa Lueg, Andreas Jakobsen Jan 2016

The Construction Of A Class With A Sense Of Entitlement: A Case Study On Political Rhetoric As Symbolic Violence In Denmark, Klarissa Lueg, Andreas Jakobsen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Taking a Bourdieusian perspective, this paper illustrates how one politically staged TV broadcast on a receiver of benefit payment has triggered political scapegoating in Denmark. The case has challenged the prevailing welfare state discourse and fostered the construction of a low class with a “sense of entitlement” by the media.

We show that the media adopted the notion of a “sense of entitlement” originally used by politicians. Welfare state critical phrases and proverbs experienced a revival.

We claim that this one-sided rhetoric abstracts from political responsibility and that power, agenda-building and rhetoric act as symbolic violence.


Gender Differences In Self-Employment Of Older Workers In The United States And New Zealand, Angela L. Curl, Deanna L. Sharpe, Jack Noone Jan 2014

Gender Differences In Self-Employment Of Older Workers In The United States And New Zealand, Angela L. Curl, Deanna L. Sharpe, Jack Noone

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined differences in self-employment of workers age 50+ in the United States (N = 3,948) and New Zealand (N = 1,434). Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted by country and gender. For both U.S. men and women, lower income, higher wealth, and having an employed spouse increased the likelihood of self-employment. Older age, lower income, higher wealth, and household composition increased the odds of being self-employed for men in New Zealand. Women in New Zealand were more likely to be self-employed if they were in a blue-collar occupation, had higher household wealth, higher education, and did not ...


Relational Ecology: A Theoretical Framework For Understanding The Human-Animal Bond, Jennifer M. Putney Dec 2013

Relational Ecology: A Theoretical Framework For Understanding The Human-Animal Bond, Jennifer M. Putney

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This qualitative study investigated the perceived impact of companion animals on the psychological well-being of lesbian women over age 65. Twelve women, ranging in age from 65-80, were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. Four thematic findings are highlighted: love and attachment, animals in transitional spaces, challenges and rewards of caregiving, and preparation for death. The author offers the term "relational ecology" to explain how animals contribute to well-being. This integrates the growth task model of human development, object relations theory, liminality, and deep ecology.


Expanding The Ecological Lens In Child Welfare Practice To Include Other Animals, Christina Risley-Curtiss Dec 2013

Expanding The Ecological Lens In Child Welfare Practice To Include Other Animals, Christina Risley-Curtiss

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Sixty-nine million U.S. households have companion animals and most of these families consider these animals to be family members. Research shows that children have powerful emotional connections with animals that can be both beneficial and harmful. Considerable research findings report that violence against animals often co-occurs with, indicates, or predicts other forms of family violence, including child abuse. A companion animal may be an abused child's confidante, and separation from that animal through foster care may be a source of stress and grief for that child. Child welfare agencies are slowly acknowledging some animal-human relationships, especially in regard ...


Cross-Reporting Of Interpersonal Violence And Animal Cruelty: The Charlotte Project, Dennis D. Long, Shanti J. Kulkarni Dec 2013

Cross-Reporting Of Interpersonal Violence And Animal Cruelty: The Charlotte Project, Dennis D. Long, Shanti J. Kulkarni

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The overlapping nature of interpersonal violence and animal cruelty is well established, however historically each issue has been addressed by distinct and separate protective systems. An innovative community-based project is described that utilized crosstraining as a mechanism to foster collaboration between human services and animal control agencies. Findings are useful for professionals and community stakeholders interested in facilitating the cross-reporting of interpersonal violence and animal cruelty.


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 4 (December 2013) Dec 2013

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 4 (December 2013)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

REDEFINING SOCIAL WELFARE: CONNECTIONS ACROSS SPECIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE: REDEFINING SOCIAL WELFARE: CONNECTIONS ACROSS SPECIES - Christina Risley-Curtiss
  • HUMAN CONSEQUENCES OF ANIMAL EXPLOITATION: NEEDS FOR REDEFINING SOCIAL WELFARE - Atsuko Matsuoka and John Sorenson
  • THE IMPACT OF COMPANION ANIMALS ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AND COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: SETTING RESEARCH, POLICY AND PROGRAM AGENDAS - Phil Arkow
  • RELATIONAL ECOLOGY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE HUMANANIMAL BOND - Jennifer M. Putney
  • CHILDREN'S IDEAS ABOUT THE MORAL STANDING AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF NON-HUMAN SPECIES - Gail F Melson
  • EXPANDING THE ECOLOGICAL LENS IN CHILD WELFARE PRACTICE TO INCLUDE OTHER ANIMALS - Christina Risley-Curtiss
  • CROSS-REPORTING ...


"Leads" To Expanded Social Networks, Increased Civic Engagement And Divisions Within A Community: The Role Of Dogs, Catherine Simpson Bueker Dec 2013

"Leads" To Expanded Social Networks, Increased Civic Engagement And Divisions Within A Community: The Role Of Dogs, Catherine Simpson Bueker

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Dogs play a distinct role in their impact on human relationships and processes because of the unique role they play in American society, existing in a liminal space of "almost" human. Both the level of emotional attachment and the requisite daily care make dogs important players in bringing humans in contact with one another and mediating human relationships. This study examines the role that dogs play in mediating relationships between and among humans. By analyzing 24 in-depth interviews, as well as Letters to the Editor, editorials, and other items in a local newspaper, and observing public meetings around dog usage ...


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 3 (September 2013) Sep 2013

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 3 (September 2013)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • HOUSING ASSISTANCE AND DISCONNECTION FROM WELFARE AND WORK: ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF PUBLIC HOUSING AND TENANT-BASED RENTAL SUBSIDIES - Andrea Hetling and Hilary Botein
  • SUICIDE WITHIN UNITED STATES JAILS: A QUALITATIVE INTERPRETIVE META SYNTHESIS - Laura Frank and Regina T P. Aguirre
  • WELFARE REFORM IN THE STATES: DOES THE PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE LEGISLATORS IN STATE LEGISLATURES AFFECT WELFARE REFORM POLICIES? - Lee W. Payne
  • SOCIAL SECURITY: STRENGTHEN NOT DISMANTLE - Michael M. 0. Seipel
  • TRADING THE PICKET FENCE: PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDBIRTH, MARRIAGE, AND CAREER - Wanda Parham-Payne, Bette J. Dickerson, and Tekisha Dwan Everette
  • BEYOND PROFESSIONAL EMERGENCIES: PATTERNS OF MISTAKES IN SOCIAL ...


Between Stonewall And Aids: Initial Efforts To Establish Gay And Lesbian Social Services, Michael G. Lee Sep 2013

Between Stonewall And Aids: Initial Efforts To Establish Gay And Lesbian Social Services, Michael G. Lee

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Little has been written about gay and lesbian communities' efforts to address health and human service concerns prior to the HIV/AIDS crisis. This article analyzes content from The Advocate along with organizational documents from the early 1970s to explore the health issues addressed by these fledgling providers. Major concerns identified include social adjustment to a gay or lesbian identity, chemical health, sexual health, and family supports. These findings depict a service context strained by funding instability, workplace turmoil, neighborhood hostility, and high levels of consumer needs that would later come to characterize the complex nature of AIDS service work.


Trading The Picket Fence: Perceptions Of Childbirth, Marriage, And Career, Wanda Parham-Payne, Bette J. Dickerson, Tekisha Dwan Everette Sep 2013

Trading The Picket Fence: Perceptions Of Childbirth, Marriage, And Career, Wanda Parham-Payne, Bette J. Dickerson, Tekisha Dwan Everette

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

While there was a slightly lower rate of out-of-wedlock births in 2009, 41 percent of all births were to unmarried women. Although there has been an increase across the board among older age groups, Black women continue to have children out of wedlock at a disproportionately higher rate than White and Asian women. This is of particular interest, considering African-American women are increasingly attaining higher levels of education in comparison to previous generations of African-American women. As such, the perceptions of childbirth, child-rearing, and marriage among a sample of African-American women matriculating within a postsecondary setting are explored.


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 2 (June 2013) May 2013

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 40, No. 2 (June 2013)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • A HALF-CENTURY OF CALIFORNIA POVERTY - Robert G. Mogull
  • THE POTENTIAL OF YOUTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS IN THREE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRIES: KENYA, TANZANIA, AND UGANDA - Njeri Kagotho, Proscovia Nabunya, Fred Ssewamala, and Vilma Ilic
  • THE MASARYKS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA: CONTRIBUTIONS IN SOCIOLOGY, SOCIAL WELFARE AND POLITICS - Rebecca L. Hegar
  • SWEDEN'S PARENTAL LEAVE INSURANCE: A POLICY ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE GENDER EQUALITY - Juliana Carlson
  • REMARITAL CHANCES, CHOICES, AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES: ISSUES OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL WELFARE - Kevin Shafer and Todd M. Jensen
  • BLACK WOMEN IN THE "BLACK METROPOLIS" OF THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY: THE CASE OF PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS - Robert ...


The Masaryks Of Czechoslovakia: Contributions In Sociology, Social Welfare And Politics, Rebecca L. Hegar May 2013

The Masaryks Of Czechoslovakia: Contributions In Sociology, Social Welfare And Politics, Rebecca L. Hegar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article profiles contributions to sociology, social welfare and politics by members of the Masaryk family of Czechoslovakia, with primary emphasis on the career of Alice G. Masaryk (or Masarykovd), an applied sociologist and founder of Czech social work. As the daughter of Tomdi G. Masaryk, an academic philosopher and early sociologist who became the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918, her life and work are inextricably linked with the country's history and with one of the remarkable families of their era. Research for this articlei nvolved searchingl iteraturef rom several disciplines and reviewing historical publications and documents from ...


A Half-Century Of California Poverty, Robert G. Mogull May 2013

A Half-Century Of California Poverty, Robert G. Mogull

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In this article, poverty statistics are examined over the past 50 years for insights on trends. Data were tabulated by Decennial Censuses for the state of California and categorized by demographic group. Trends are revealed by evidence from unique calculations of Poverty Indexes, that is, of 'fair shares" of poverty. By examining 5 decades of evidence, it is found that some groups have clearly progressed-specifically Asians & Pacific Islanders, Blacks, and Hispanics, while others have found their recent poverty status deteriorate- especially the elderly, Native Americans, and Whites.


Influences Of Environmental Factors On The Physical Functioning Of Older Adults In Urban China, Fei Sun, Chuntian Lu, Jordan I. Kosberg Mar 2013

Influences Of Environmental Factors On The Physical Functioning Of Older Adults In Urban China, Fei Sun, Chuntian Lu, Jordan I. Kosberg

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the influence of municipal-level environmental factors (i.e., economy, pollution, health care) on the physical functioning of the elder population in urban China using a two level hierarchical linear model (HLM) method. Data came from the 2005 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, including 3,830 older adults (Ma, - 86.4) randomly selected from 152 cities across China. Municipal-level data retrieved from the Chinese Statistical Yearbook 2005 include indictors of economic development, pollution, and health service availability. Higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and more doctors were associated with fewer functioning limitations. The effect ...