Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Habitus, Symbolic Violence, And Reflexivity: Applying Bourdieu’S Theories To Social Work, Wendy L. Wiegmann Jan 2017

Habitus, Symbolic Violence, And Reflexivity: Applying Bourdieu’S Theories To Social Work, Wendy L. Wiegmann

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

During the mid- to late-twentieth century, Pierre Bourdieu crated a conceptual framework that describes how underclass status becomes embodied in individuals, and the ways that personal, professional, and political fields perpetuate this oppression. Bourdieu’s theories also outline the role of the “critical intellectual” in undermining oppression and fighting for social justice. Using key terms from Bourdieu’s explanatory framework, this article examines the power relations and symbolic violence built into the interactions between social workers and clients, and offers suggestions as to how reflexive and relational social work can help workers reduce this impact. This paper also explores the ...


Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon Sep 2010

Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Parental culpability for juvenile delinquency has permeated social welfare thought and practice throughout U.S. history. This article presents a case study of one Midwestern municipality's efforts to create a training school for parents as a remedy for delinquency in the 1940s. The case study illustrates how city leaders attempted to put theory about delinquency causation into practice by forging a collaborative intervention strategy among various community partners including public schools, social welfare agencies, and law enforcement. In light of the case study, this article examines historical and contemporary efforts to punish parents of juvenile delinquents.


Risk And Protective Factors Of Micronesian Youth In Hawai'i: An Exploratory Study, Scott K. Okamoto, David T. Mayeda, Mari Ushiroda, Davis Rehuher, Tui Lauilefue, Ophelia Ongalibang Jun 2008

Risk And Protective Factors Of Micronesian Youth In Hawai'i: An Exploratory Study, Scott K. Okamoto, David T. Mayeda, Mari Ushiroda, Davis Rehuher, Tui Lauilefue, Ophelia Ongalibang

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This exploratory, qualitative study examined the risk and protective factors of Micronesian middle and high school students in Hawai'i. Forty one Micronesian youth participated in 9 focus groups that explored their experiences within their schools, families, and communities. The findings describe youths' experiences of ecological stress beginning with their migration to Hawai'i, and the potential outcomes of this stress (e.g., fighting, gangs, and drug use). Cultural buffers, such as traditional practices and culturally specific prevention programs, were described as aspects that prevented adverse outcomes. Implications for prevention practice are discussed.


Taking A Juvenile Into Custody: Situational Factors That Influence Police Officers' Decisions, Terrence T. Allen Jun 2005

Taking A Juvenile Into Custody: Situational Factors That Influence Police Officers' Decisions, Terrence T. Allen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Situational factors that influence police officers decisions to take juveniles into custody were investigated. A cross-sectional self administered survey was conducted. Four-hundred and twenty-eight male and female police officers from six police districts in Cleveland Ohio completed and submitted a twenty-five item questionnaire. Using a logistic regression model the study identified: adolescents who disrespect police officers; adolescents who are out late at night; adolescent males; anyone looking suspicious; and the age of the police officer as the most significant predictors. This was an exploratory study that sought to investigate police/juvenile encounters from a street level situational perspective. The results ...


Open For Business: Exploring The Life Stages Of Two Canadian Street Youth Shelters, Jeff Karabanow Dec 2002

Open For Business: Exploring The Life Stages Of Two Canadian Street Youth Shelters, Jeff Karabanow

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Youth shelters have emerged as significant resources for homeless and runaway adolescents. Through participant observations of shelter culture, review of agency archival materials, and in-depth interviews with 21 shelter workers (front line staff, middle managers, and upper-level executives), this analysis explores the life stages of two Canadian street youth shelters, highlighting the dramatic transformations in their internal operations and external environments. This paper also offers an understanding of organizational evolutionary processes.


"For Their Own Good?": Sex Work, Social Control And Social Workers, A Historical Perspective, Stéphanie Wahab Dec 2002

"For Their Own Good?": Sex Work, Social Control And Social Workers, A Historical Perspective, Stéphanie Wahab

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article provides an overview of the social responses to prostitution since the mid 1800s and how the responses of social workers have been shaped by shifting social contexts. Understanding the complex interplay of these forces is key to mapping out the divergent social work practice approaches with sex workers and their influence over time. The article presents three main constructs which have influenced social work responses to sex work; 1) the notion that women needed to be protected for their own good, 2) competing class values and, 3) social control.


Review Of In The Name Of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. Barbara Perry. Reviewed By Wilma Peebles-Wilkins., Wilma Peebles-Wilkins Sep 2002

Review Of In The Name Of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. Barbara Perry. Reviewed By Wilma Peebles-Wilkins., Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Barbara Perry, In the Name of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. New York: Routledge, 2001. $22.95 papercover.


Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond The Law. Bruce A. Jacobs Dec 2001

Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond The Law. Bruce A. Jacobs

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Bruce A. Jacobs, Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2000. $19.95 paperback.


The Effectiveness And Enforcement Of A Teen Curfew Law, Richard D. Sutphen, Janet Ford Mar 2001

The Effectiveness And Enforcement Of A Teen Curfew Law, Richard D. Sutphen, Janet Ford

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article examines the effect of a teen curfew on juvenile arrest rates and reviews the first year of the curfew's implementation in a city of over 200,000 population. Juvenile arrest rates were compared for three years prior to the curfew's enactment and three years of curfew enforcement. Data related to 377 curfew violations and 83 parent citations issued in 22 police beats during the first year of implementation were analyzed to determine whether the curfew was primarily enforced in areas with serious juvenile crime or targeted low income, minority neighborhoods. Results indicate that the curfew had ...


Pathways To Prison: Life Histories Of Former Clients Of The Child Welfare And Juvenile Justice Systems, Stephen A. Kapp Sep 2000

Pathways To Prison: Life Histories Of Former Clients Of The Child Welfare And Juvenile Justice Systems, Stephen A. Kapp

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines the relationship between child maltreatment and future offending from the viewpoint of former clients. Imprisoned adults describe their experiences in child welfare and juvenile justice system services. Specifically, those placed out of the home originally into the child welfare system have a different perspective on their path to prison than those placed into the juvenile justice system as delinquents. The study contributes to the literature by examining the relationship between the services children receive in the child welfare system as well as the juvenile justice system and their imprisonment as adults from a former service recipient's ...


Hate Crime Laws And Sexual Orientation, Elizabeth P. Cramer Sep 1999

Hate Crime Laws And Sexual Orientation, Elizabeth P. Cramer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article provides definitions for hate crimes, a summary of national data on hate crime incidents, and descriptions of federal and state hate crime laws. The author presents various arguments in support of and against hate crime laws, and the inclusion of sexual orientation in such laws. The author contends that it is illogical and a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment to exclude sexual orientationf rom hate crime laws. The perpetratorso f hate crime incidents, regardess of the target group, have similar motives and perpetrate similar types of assaults; the victims experience similar physical and psychological harm. Excluding a class ...


Review Of The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach. Irving A. Spergel. Reviewed By James Callicut, University Of Texas, Arlington., James W. Callicutt Sep 1996

Review Of The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach. Irving A. Spergel. Reviewed By James Callicut, University Of Texas, Arlington., James W. Callicutt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Irving A. Spergel, The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. $24.00 papercover.


The Ideological Context Of Changing Juvenile Justice, Preston Elrod, Daryl Kelley Jun 1995

The Ideological Context Of Changing Juvenile Justice, Preston Elrod, Daryl Kelley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The ideological nature of juvenile justice policy is analyzed, including the domain assumptions of the predominant juvenile justice ideologies which presently inform juvenile justice policy development. Further, it is argued that the failure of present juvenile justice policies to effectively respond to the juvenile "crime problem" may lead to the opportunity to develop a more critically informed juvenile justice policy, one which is better able to meet the needs of clients and respond more effectively to juvenile crime. Finally, some of the essential elements of a critical juvenile justice ideology and practice capable of more realistically and humanely responding to ...


Family Correlates Of Delinquency: Cohesion And Adaptability, Glenn Shields, Richard D. Clark Jun 1995

Family Correlates Of Delinquency: Cohesion And Adaptability, Glenn Shields, Richard D. Clark

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Circumplex Model of family functioning, which includes measures of cohesion and adaptability, was used with a community-based sample of youth (N = 480) to test its usefulness for explaining delinquent behavior. Results from the research indicate that the Circumplex Model is inadequate for explaining delinquency. It was concluded that the two major components of the model, cohesion and adaptability, do not operate in the curvilinear fashion as hypothesized. Rather, the results suggest the both factors are linear in their relationship with delinquency.


Symbolic Violence And Social Control In The Post-Total Institution Era, John W. Murphy, John T. Pardeck, Woo Sik Chung, Jung Min Choi Dec 1994

Symbolic Violence And Social Control In The Post-Total Institution Era, John W. Murphy, John T. Pardeck, Woo Sik Chung, Jung Min Choi

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Subsequent to the passage of the Community Mental Health Act in 1963, the "Total Institutions" described by Goffman have for the most part disappeared. Nonetheless, many writers charge that social control is still the primary function of mental health programs, even those that are identified as community-based. The new methods of control have not received widespread attention. In community-based programs control is operationalized in the form of "symbolic violence." This paper examines the various factors that contribute to this style of violence.


Inequality, Crime And Control. George S. Bridges And Martha Myers. Dec 1994

Inequality, Crime And Control. George S. Bridges And Martha Myers.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

George S. Bridges and Martha Myers (Eds.), Inequality, Crime and Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. $59.95 hardcover; $22.95 papercover.


Theories Of Deviance. Stuart H. Traub And Craig B. Little. Dec 1994

Theories Of Deviance. Stuart H. Traub And Craig B. Little.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Stuart H. Traub and Craig B. Little (Eds.). Theories of Deviance (Fourth edition). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock, 1994. $30.00 papercover.


Rooms For The Misbegotten: Social Design And Social Deviance, Bruce A. Arrigo Dec 1994

Rooms For The Misbegotten: Social Design And Social Deviance, Bruce A. Arrigo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Housing strategies designed to create a sense of community for our nation's at-risk and poverty-stricken citizens continue to be a source of debate. One major issue is the degree to which criminal behavior exists within these environments. In this article, the results from a seven year study of one single room occupancy (SRO) facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania are described. Analysis of two models used for intervening with the vulnerable tenant population of the SRO suggest that a "strengthfocused" strategy rather than a "need- focused" approach may be more effective in reducing crime and may contribute to the establishment of ...


Juvenile Delinquency And The Transition To Monopoly Capitalism, Kevin I. Minor Dec 1993

Juvenile Delinquency And The Transition To Monopoly Capitalism, Kevin I. Minor

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper identifies three macrosociological forces (i.e., the social position of youth, private market relations, and poverty and inequality) that are crucial for understanding delinquency and analyzes how these forces evolved together as part of the historical transformation in the United States to monopoly capitalism. The thesis is that these forces have contributed to delinquency by acting collectively to decrease the capacity of social institutions to maintain informal social control. Implications for policy are also considered.


Social Work And Sexual Harassment, Surjit Singh Dhooper, Marlene B. Huff, Carrie M. Schultz Sep 1989

Social Work And Sexual Harassment, Surjit Singh Dhooper, Marlene B. Huff, Carrie M. Schultz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Ninety-seven members of the Kentucky chapter of National Association of Social Workers were surveyed about their knowledge of and experience with sexual harassment in their work places. Fifty-one percent knew of sexual harassment of female social workers and 18% knew of similar harassment of male workers. Twenty-six percent had themselves been victims of sexual harassment. Verbal harassment was the most common followed by a combination of verbal and physical harassment in the form of sexy jokes and unwanted touching. A majority of the victims resorted to either avoidance, defusion, or reason in dealing with their harassers. Young workers from small ...


The World According To Nambla: Accounting For Deviance, Mary Deyoung Mar 1989

The World According To Nambla: Accounting For Deviance, Mary Deyoung

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) is a pedophile organization that advocates adult sexual behavior with male children. Given the considerable consensus in this society that such sexual behavior with children is exploitative and victimizing in nature, the techniques that NAMBLA uses to justify, rationalize and normalize its philosophy and its members' practices in order to avoid or neutralize censure and stigma, are of particular sociological interest. This paper uses Scott and Lyman's (1968) concept of "accounts" as a theoretical framework for the analysis of these techniques that are found in the publicly disseminated literature of the ...


Economic Motivators For Shoplifting, Joann Ray, Katherine Hooper Briar Dec 1988

Economic Motivators For Shoplifting, Joann Ray, Katherine Hooper Briar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Shoplifting has been attributed to many psychological and physiological factors, especially when women are involved. This article examines the many factors that account for shoplifting behavior focusing on research findings which suggest economic and employment precipitants of the problem. Changes in policy and programmatic responses to shoplifters are suggested.


Reforming The Juvenile Correctional Institution: Efforts Of The U.S. Children's Bureau In The 1930s, Marguerite G. Rosenthal Dec 1987

Reforming The Juvenile Correctional Institution: Efforts Of The U.S. Children's Bureau In The 1930s, Marguerite G. Rosenthal

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The U.S. Children's Bureau, the federal agency responsible for social policy for children in the early part of this century, delayed studying the problems associated with the institutionalization of juvenile delinquents for nearly twenty-five years. In the 1930's, the Bureau undertook several projects and studies related to training schools for delinquents which were designed to create reform in an area long recognized as harmful to children. This article traces the history of the Bureau's work in the institutional field from 1912-54, analyzes the reasons for the agency's initial reluctance and later activity in this area ...


Stability And Fluctuation In Juvenile Delinquency In Israel, Ram A. Cnaan, Itzhak Hocherman Sep 1987

Stability And Fluctuation In Juvenile Delinquency In Israel, Ram A. Cnaan, Itzhak Hocherman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A review of the literature indicates two major approaches in official crime rate analysis. The first approach postulates a positive correlation between recorded crime rates and a number of factors including police strength, organizational structure of social control agencies, opportunity, and social pathologies. The second postulate is based on Erikson's hypothesis of stability of deviance over time, namely that recorded crime rates in a given society will remain comparatively stable over time. We tested these approaches based on 15 years of juvenile delinquency statistics in Israel. Official statistics on both recorded juvenile delinquents and their recorded crimes were tested ...


The Use Of Survey Methods In Researching Parents Of Adjudicated Teenage Prostitutes, John Longres Sep 1987

The Use Of Survey Methods In Researching Parents Of Adjudicated Teenage Prostitutes, John Longres

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper is methodological in its orientation. It describes experiences in applying survey methods to a difficult and hard to reach population - parents of adjudicated teenage prostitutes.


Organizational Deviance: A Humanist View, David R. Simon Sep 1985

Organizational Deviance: A Humanist View, David R. Simon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The sociological paradigm proposed by C. Wright Mills is advocated as a basis (model) for the study of elite deviance of an organizational nature. The relationship between social structure and social character within organizational environments is examined utilizing central concepts regarding both social character (i.e., alienation, other-directedness, and inauthenticity) and bureaucratic structural characteristics (e.g., routinization and fragmentation of tasks, dehumanization and groupthink, the construction of guilt neutralizing ideologies, and front activities). The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this approach for a humanist study of crime.


Community Organization Approaches To The Prevention Of Juvenile Delinquency, Ronald J. Berger, Cherylynne E. Berger Mar 1985

Community Organization Approaches To The Prevention Of Juvenile Delinquency, Ronald J. Berger, Cherylynne E. Berger

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines juvenile delinquency prevention programs which implement large-scale intervention and social change strategies. A typology of community organization practice is used to analyze the assumptions, objectives, and methods underlying these approaches. Three models of community organization-- locality development, social planning, and social action--are used to evaluate three exemplary delinquency prevention programs: the Chicago Area Project, the 1960's provision of opportunity programs, and the 1960's comprehensive community-based projects such as Mobilization for Youth. The difficulties encountered in implementing these models and programs are identified and assessed. The implications for contemporary crime prevention efforts are also considered.


Political Symbolism In Juvenile Justice: Reforming Florida's Juvenile Detention Criteria, C. Aaron Mcneece, Mark Ezell May 1983

Political Symbolism In Juvenile Justice: Reforming Florida's Juvenile Detention Criteria, C. Aaron Mcneece, Mark Ezell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A recent reform in Florida's juvenile detention criteria was over-turned during the subsequent legislative session. This paper describes both the initial reform and its reversal and suggests that symbolic political rewards may often be more important than the actual consequences of a policy. Recommendations are made for accomplishing policy reform in a traditional political culture.


Special Problems Faced By The Elderly Victims Of Crime, J. David Hirschel, Karen B. Rubin Jun 1982

Special Problems Faced By The Elderly Victims Of Crime, J. David Hirschel, Karen B. Rubin

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Recently, increased attention has been paid to the problems faced by the elderly within our society. One of the most pressing problems is the threat of crime, This article examines the actual risk of criminal victimization among the elderly, the physical, financial, and psychological consequences of victimization, and the special problems faced by the elderly as they attempt to deal with the criminal justice system. Finally, their fear of crime, which in itself constitutes a very real form of victimization, is explored.


In Judgment Of Victims: The Social Context Of Rape, Joyce E. Williams, Karen A. Holmes Mar 1982

In Judgment Of Victims: The Social Context Of Rape, Joyce E. Williams, Karen A. Holmes

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines some of the linkages between the rape victims' experience and community attitudes about rape, focusing on differences among three racial-ethnic groups. Public attitude data were collected from a stratified sample of 1,011 respondents; personal interviews were conducted with 335 Anglos, 336 Blacks and 340 Mexican Americans. Victim data were collected from in depth interviews with 61 female rape victims: 32 Anglos, 11 Blacks and 18 Mexican Americans. While the victim data suggest some degree of negative impact resulting from the rape experience for all victims, significant differences were found among the three racial-ethnic groups. Public attitude ...