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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell Jan 2018

Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Utilizing four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and permissive) and two types of educational achievement (years of education completed and completion of a college degree), we investigated whether mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between parenting styles in adolescence and the educational attainment of young adults. We further assessed whether the relationships among parenting styles and educational attainment vary by race and ethnicity for African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Compared to youth with authoritative parenting, those who experienced uninvolved or authoritarian parenting were more likely to experience depressive affect, and these symptoms of depression partially mediated the ...


Social Work In The Black Community: A Collective Response To Contemporary Unrest, Stephenie Howard Jan 2017

Social Work In The Black Community: A Collective Response To Contemporary Unrest, Stephenie Howard

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The frequent outpour of civil unrest in the Black community in response to instances of social injustice is a manifestation of outrage and exhaustion with systems that perpetuate socioeconomic disparities and human rights violations in this community. Lessons learned from historical practices of social work in the Black community may enhance the potential of contemporary social workers to shepherd this social consciousness into sustained social change. Toward this goal, this paper will synthesize and juxtapose the parallel paths taken by early Black social workers and their majority counterparts. This paper will also identify strategies for integrating the legacy of early ...


Experiences And Responses To Microaggressions On Historically White Campuses: A Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis, Y. Kafi Moragne-Patterson, Tracey M. Barnett Jan 2017

Experiences And Responses To Microaggressions On Historically White Campuses: A Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis, Y. Kafi Moragne-Patterson, Tracey M. Barnett

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

According to the U.S. Department of Education (2011), only 59% of students who sought bachelors’ degrees from four-year postsecondary institutions in 2006 completed the degree within six years, and among African American/Black students, only 40% finished college within six years. Despite efforts to quantify factors that contribute to low retention rates among African American students, less is known about the qualitative experiences of students who remain on campuses across the United States. This qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis examines the microaggressive encounters experienced by African American undergraduate college students (ages 17-22) at historically White, fouryear colleges and universities to better ...


A Right To Motherhood? Race, Class, And Reproductive Services In The Jim Crow South, Cynthia Edmonds-Cady Jan 2017

A Right To Motherhood? Race, Class, And Reproductive Services In The Jim Crow South, Cynthia Edmonds-Cady

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research examines birth control and sterilization practices aimed at low-income black women in the United States from 1939-1950, within the framework of specific race- and class-based constructions of motherhood in the Jim Crow South. How these social services aimed at reproductive health were grounded within differential ideals about family, childbirth, and motherhood for White versus African American women is explored. Evidence is presented from archival collections containing records for Planned Parenthood’s Negro Project, The Association for Voluntary Sterilization’s programs, and The American Social Health Association’s public health programs. Birth control services in the South were delivered ...


The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson Jan 2017

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

United States research concludes concentrations of Latinos/Latinas and African Americans have a negative impact on Neighborhood Social Cohesion (NSC); however, European research finds higher levels of NSC when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. This study utilizes a longitudinal stratified random sample of 7,495 households in 430 Census Blocks within 10 United States cities that participated in the Making Connections Initiative. Results show higher NSC is associated with higher percentages of residents who are Latino/Latina, African American, and homeowners when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. The study findings challenge the stigma associated with concentrations of racial ...


Young, Jobless, And Black: Young Black Women And Economic Downturns, Raine Dozier Mar 2012

Young, Jobless, And Black: Young Black Women And Economic Downturns, Raine Dozier

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research challenges William Julius Wilson's (1980) postulation that social class has superseded race in predicting economic outcomes among African Americans. Among the evidence Wilson used to support his claim was the strong position of black degree holders, particularly women. Shortly after the publication of The Declining Significance of Race, however, the United States experienced a severe recession and slow recovery, contributing to a marked growth in the black-white wage gap among women. Young black women were particularly hard hit. Over the 1980s, their cumulative work experience became increasingly correlated with educational attainment, leading to an absolute loss in ...


The Significance Of Race For Neighborhood Social Cohesion: Perceived Difficulty Of Collective Action In Majority Black Neighborhoods, Tara Hobson-Prater, Tamara G.J. Leech Mar 2012

The Significance Of Race For Neighborhood Social Cohesion: Perceived Difficulty Of Collective Action In Majority Black Neighborhoods, Tara Hobson-Prater, Tamara G.J. Leech

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article explores William Julius Wilson's contentions about community cultural traits by examining racial differences in middle class neighborhoods' levels of social cohesion. Specifically, we explore the perceived difficulty of these actions--as opposed to general pessimism about their outcomes--as a potential explanation for low levels of instrumental collective action in Black middle class neighborhoods. Our results indicate that, regardless of other neighborhood factors, majority Black neighborhoods have low levels of social cohesion. We also find that this racial disparity is statistically explained by shared perceptions about the amount of effort required to engage in group action in different neighborhoods ...


Racial Attitudes In The New Millennium: Cool Feelings In Hot Times, Sarah E. Cribbs Mar 2012

Racial Attitudes In The New Millennium: Cool Feelings In Hot Times, Sarah E. Cribbs

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In The Declining Significance of Race, William Julius Wilson (1980) stated social class was more influential than race in determining social outcomes for Blacks. This thesis remains a controversial centerpiece among race scholars. This paper examines one part of the overall puzzle of American race relations: white racial attitudes since September 11, 2001. Using Wilson's declining significance of race thesis, I question if white racial attitudes toward Blacks declined significantly from 2002 to 2004. If social class exerts greater influence on social indicators than race in the coming years, will racial prejudice, particularly toward Blacks, also decline in significance ...


"Waiting For The White Man To Fix Things:" Rebuilding Black Poverty In New Orleans, Robert L. Hawkins, Katherine Maurer Mar 2012

"Waiting For The White Man To Fix Things:" Rebuilding Black Poverty In New Orleans, Robert L. Hawkins, Katherine Maurer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper revisits William Julius Wilson's thesis that class has surpassed race in significance of impact on African Americans. Our study uses qualitative data from a three-year ethnographic study of 40 largely low-income families in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. We also include a review of the recent U.S. Census study assessing New Orleans's current economic state. Participants in our study viewed race and class as major factors in four areas: (1) immediately following the devastation; (2) during relocation to other communities; (3) during the rebuilding process; and (4) historically and structurally throughout New Orleans. Our analysis ...


Moving Beyond Dichotomies: How The Intersection Of Race, Class And Place Impacts High School Graduation Rates For African American Students, Heather L. Storer, Joseph A. Mienko, Yu-Ling Chang, Ji Young Kang, Christina Miyawaki, Katie Schultz Mar 2012

Moving Beyond Dichotomies: How The Intersection Of Race, Class And Place Impacts High School Graduation Rates For African American Students, Heather L. Storer, Joseph A. Mienko, Yu-Ling Chang, Ji Young Kang, Christina Miyawaki, Katie Schultz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Over thirty years ago, William Julius Wilson declared that class trumped race as the more significant determinant of social mobility and economic opportunity. Despite the acclaim and scrutiny for Wilson's work, the United States has grown increasingly divided by intersecting factors of race, class and other demographic factors such as place (Massey, 2007). These divisions are especially evident in the public education system. We analyze how race, class and place interact to predict high school graduation rates in a national sample of schools and students. Results confirm that a singular focus on race, class, or locale is insufficient to ...


Building Their Readiness For Economic "Freedom": The New Poor Law And Emancipation, Anne O'Connell Jun 2009

Building Their Readiness For Economic "Freedom": The New Poor Law And Emancipation, Anne O'Connell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Contemporary studies that track the new racialization of poverty in Canada require an historical account. The history we invoke in North America is often borrowed from the British poor laws, a literature that is severed from its counterpart: the histories of racial slavery, racial thinking, White bourgeois power and the making of White settler societies. The effects of severing the history of poor relief from racial classifications and racism(s) are far reaching. Systems of oppression come to be seen as separate structures in which the New Poor Law appears as a domestic policy in Britain unrelated to racial thinking ...


Racial/Ethnic Differences In The Provision Of Health-Related Programs Among American Religious Congregations, R. Khari Brown, Amy Adamczyk Jun 2009

Racial/Ethnic Differences In The Provision Of Health-Related Programs Among American Religious Congregations, R. Khari Brown, Amy Adamczyk

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Using national data from the Faith Communities Today 2000 survey, the current study builds upon Lincoln and Mamiya's (1990) argument of the civically active Black Church. Originally used to assess the relative activism of Black and White congregations, the current study suggests that Black congregations are more likely to provide health programs than are predominantly White, Hispanic and Asian congregations. The greater involvement of Black congregations in the provision of health programs likely has much to do with the historical and continued cultural, spiritual, and political role that churches play in Black communities.


Ethnicity Matters: The Socioeconomic Gradient In Health Among Asian Americans, Emily S. Ihara Jun 2009

Ethnicity Matters: The Socioeconomic Gradient In Health Among Asian Americans, Emily S. Ihara

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and health status among Asian Americans using data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a population-based random-digit-dial survey with race-ethnic supplemental samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that the inverse relationship between socioeconomic position and health status is similar for Asian Americans when measured as an aggregate group compared to Whites. However, when specific Asian American ethnic groups are examined, the relationship varies greatly. For example, among Chinese Americans and Vietnamese Americans, education is a significant predictor of poor health status, but household income is more significant among Korean Americans ...


African American Grandmothers Providing Extensive Care To Their Grandchildren: Socio-Demographic And Health Determinants Of Life Satisfaction, Dorothy Smith-Ruiz Dec 2008

African American Grandmothers Providing Extensive Care To Their Grandchildren: Socio-Demographic And Health Determinants Of Life Satisfaction, Dorothy Smith-Ruiz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The article explores the relationships between grandmothers' socioeconomic and health characteristics in relation to life satisfaction. Reasons for caregiving, assumption of the caregiver role, and grandmothers'attitudes and experiences in custodial caregiving were discussed qualitatively from data gathered in detailed interviews of a convenience sample of 99 custodial African American grandmothers caringf or one or more grandchildreny ounger than 18 in North Carolina. Most grandmothers in this sample reported mixed feelings toward custodial caregiving, both as a burden as well as a blessing. They also reported a weak support system and relied on their faith more than family and friends ...


Racial/Ethnic Differences In Religious Congregation-Based Social Service Delivery Efforts, R. Khari Brown Dec 2008

Racial/Ethnic Differences In Religious Congregation-Based Social Service Delivery Efforts, R. Khari Brown

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The current study utilizes Swidler's (1986) cultural toolkit theory to explain racial/ethnic differences in American religious congregations' provision of social service programs. This study suggests that black Americans' reliance upon structural tools to assess poverty contributes to their congregations being more heavily involved than majority white congregations in the provision of social services that attempt to make a longer-term impact on community life (i.e. academic tutoring and job training). In contrast, white Americans' greater reliance upon individualistic tools to understand poverty arguably contributes to their congregations being more heavily involved in the provision of programs that have ...


A Boiling Pot Of Animosity Or An Alliance Of Kindred Spirits? Exploring Connections Between Native Americans And African Americans, Hilary N. Weaver Dec 2008

A Boiling Pot Of Animosity Or An Alliance Of Kindred Spirits? Exploring Connections Between Native Americans And African Americans, Hilary N. Weaver

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The relationship between indigenous people and people of African heritage in the United States is a long and complex one. An examination of historical and contemporary connections between indigenous persons and African Americans not only clarifies complex and frequently overlooked parts of American history but sets the stage for examining future possibilities. It is useful for helping professionals to understand these relationships since this history may serve as the basis for positive connections or animosities between clients and professionals. This article begins with a discussion of selected historical intersections between these populations that highlight the complex and varied nature of ...


Transforming Caregiving: African American Custodial Grandmothers And The Child Welfare System, S. Yvette Murphy, Andrea G. Hunter, Deborah J. Johnson Jun 2008

Transforming Caregiving: African American Custodial Grandmothers And The Child Welfare System, S. Yvette Murphy, Andrea G. Hunter, Deborah J. Johnson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Growing numbers of African American grandmothers are raising grandchildren under the auspices of the child welfare system; however, little is known about the manner in which child welfare policies and practices impact custodial grandparenting. Based on focus groups with African American grandmothers who are raising grandchildren as formal kinship caregivers, this study explored the ways in which the new formalized relationship between the child welfare system and African American custodial grandmothers is transforming the meanings and practices related to intergenerational caregiving in African American families. Drawing on cultural and historical traditions, grandmothers forge a transformative partnership with child welfare that ...


Greek-Letter Membership And College Graduation: Does Race Matter?, Ronald E. Severtis Jr., C. Andre Christie-Mizell Sep 2007

Greek-Letter Membership And College Graduation: Does Race Matter?, Ronald E. Severtis Jr., C. Andre Christie-Mizell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Research, utilizing a nationally representative sample of 3,712 Americans, revealed that Greek-letter membership increases the probability of college graduation more for African Americans than for European Americans. Conversely, father's education is a more robust predictor of educational outcomes for European Americans compared to their African American counterparts


Color-Blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption And Public Policy, Pamela Anne Quiroz Jun 2007

Color-Blind Individualism, Intercountry Adoption And Public Policy, Pamela Anne Quiroz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A prevailing ideology of color-blindness has resulted in privatizing the discourse on adoption. Color-blind individualism, the adoption arena's version of color-blind discourse, argues that race should not matter in adoption; racism can be eradicated through transracial adoption; and individual rights should be exercised without interference of the state. As privatization has increasingly dominated our world and disparities between countries have grown, so too has intercountry adoption. This paper examines the colonial aspects of intercountry adoption and implications for conceptualizing global human rights from our current emphasis on individual rights, as the real issue continues to be which children are ...


Outsiders-Within: Critical Race Theory, Graduate Education And Barriers To Professionalization, Carolann Daniel Mar 2007

Outsiders-Within: Critical Race Theory, Graduate Education And Barriers To Professionalization, Carolann Daniel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article uses the lens of critical race theory to examine the experiences of minority students in and outside of the social work education classroom. Research has not critically analyzed the structures, policies and practices of graduate education programs and how they influence the socialization experiences of students. Qualitative interviews with 15 African American and Latino students reveal that their experiences are often characterized by marginalization and conflict. They suggest that certain aspects of the professionalization process create and support forces that reproduce stratified social relations. These problematic relations have a negative impact on minority students threatening their persistence and ...


Undermining Progress In Early 20th Century North Carolina: General Attitudes Towards Delinquent African American Girls, Tanya Smith Brice Mar 2007

Undermining Progress In Early 20th Century North Carolina: General Attitudes Towards Delinquent African American Girls, Tanya Smith Brice

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article examines efforts made to challenge progress towards adequate service provision for delinquent African American girls in early 20th century North Carolina. This article seeks to explore the nuances of aid, from the African American community and by progressive whites, as it relates to legislative efforts, economic backing and public health issues. It also seeks to examine motivations for engaging in undermining activities.


Nineteenth Century Review Of Mental Health Care For African Americans: A Legacy Of Service And Policy Barriers, Tony B. Lowe Dec 2006

Nineteenth Century Review Of Mental Health Care For African Americans: A Legacy Of Service And Policy Barriers, Tony B. Lowe

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The need to focus on service and policy barriers to mental health service delivery for African Americans remains critical. The purpose of this article is to review nineteenth century care as a method for understanding contemporary service and policy barriers. A case study strategy is used to compare the efforts of Pennsylvania and South Carolina using primary and secondary sources to document these developments through a political economy perspective. These findings suggest that the prevailing social, political and economic realities have created mental health disparities along racial lines. Existing barriers are likely rooted in this same reality.


Multiracial America: A Resource Guide On The History And Literature Of Interracial Issues. Karen Downing, Darlene Nichols, And Kelly Webster., Rose M. Barreto Dec 2006

Multiracial America: A Resource Guide On The History And Literature Of Interracial Issues. Karen Downing, Darlene Nichols, And Kelly Webster., Rose M. Barreto

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Karen Downing, Darlene Nichols and Kelly Webster, Multiracial America: A Resource Guide on the History and Literature of Interracial Issues. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield, 2005. $35.00.


The Severely-Distressed African American Family In The Crack Era: Empowerment Is Not Enough, Eloise Dunlap, Andrew Golub, Bruce D. Johnson Mar 2006

The Severely-Distressed African American Family In The Crack Era: Empowerment Is Not Enough, Eloise Dunlap, Andrew Golub, Bruce D. Johnson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Numerous African American families have struggled for generations with persistent poverty, especially in the inner city. These conditions were further strained during the 1980s and 1990s by the widespread use of crack cocaine. For many, crack use became an obsession, dominated their lives, and superseded family responsibilities. This behavior placed additional pressure on already stressed kin support networks. This paper explores the processes prevailing in two households during this period. In the 2000s, children born to members of the Crack Generation are avoiding use of crack but face major deficits from their difficult childhoods. This presents both challenges and opportunities ...


Review Of The Politics Of Multiracialism: Challenging Racial Thinking. Heather M. Dalmage (Ed.). Reviewed By Wilma Peebles-Wilkins., Wilma Peebles-Wilkins Mar 2006

Review Of The Politics Of Multiracialism: Challenging Racial Thinking. Heather M. Dalmage (Ed.). Reviewed By Wilma Peebles-Wilkins., Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Heather M. Dalmage (Ed.), The Politics of Multiracialism: Challenging Racial Thinking. Albany, NY.: State University of New York Press, 2004. $65.50 hardcover, $21.95 papercover.


Review Of Technology And The African American Experience: Needs And Opportunities For Study. Bruce Sinclair (Ed.). Reviewed By John Mcnutt., John Mcnutt Sep 2005

Review Of Technology And The African American Experience: Needs And Opportunities For Study. Bruce Sinclair (Ed.). Reviewed By John Mcnutt., John Mcnutt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Bruce Sinclair (Ed.), Technology and the African American Experience: Needs and Opportunities for Study. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. $35.00 hardcover.


Family Structure Effects On Parenting Stress And Practices In The African American Family, Daphne S. Cain, Terri Combs-Orme Jun 2005

Family Structure Effects On Parenting Stress And Practices In The African American Family, Daphne S. Cain, Terri Combs-Orme

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The predominant approach to African-American parenting research focuses on disadvantages associated with single parenthood to the exclusion of other issues. The current research suggests that this does not represent the diversity in family structure configurations among African-American families, nor does it give voice to the parenting resilience of single mothers. We argue that rather than marital status or family configuration, more attention needs to be given to the inadequacy of resources for this population.

In the current study, we examined the parenting of infants by African- American mothers and found that mothers' marital status and family configuration did not affect ...


Social Security And The African American Male (A Cash Transfer System), Eddie Davis Mar 2005

Social Security And The African American Male (A Cash Transfer System), Eddie Davis

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

All employed workers are required to contribute to the Social Security System; however,a disproportionatep ercentage of African American males never live long enough to collect any benefits from their contributions. On the other hand, the life-expectancy of white males is significantly longer than the life expectancy of African American males, and their collection of Social Security benefits tends to exceed their contributions to the system. The federal government keeps the Social Security system from becoming completely solvent by raiding it of any surplus funds it collects; thereby, preventing the Social Security Fund from developing interest income, and accumulating funds ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Sex And Race Inequities In Unemployment Insurance Benefits, Melissa Latimer Dec 2003

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Sex And Race Inequities In Unemployment Insurance Benefits, Melissa Latimer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research makes a unique contribution to the growing body of literature on the welfare system by examining the relationship between sex, race, and social insurance benefits in a rural state. Using data from the West Virginia Unemployment Compensation Program, this research investigates sex and race differences in (1) monetary disqualifications for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits and (2) separation issue and nonseparation issue disqualifications of UI benefits. The analyses indicate that unemployed women, people of color, younger, and low income workers are the most likely to fail the monetary qualifications for UI benefits and to lose qualified weeks of UI ...


Antiracism Discourse: The Ideological Circle In A Child World, Miu Chung Yan Mar 2003

Antiracism Discourse: The Ideological Circle In A Child World, Miu Chung Yan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Antiracism is a dominant discourse in contemporary societies. The understanding of antiracism, however, varies. Government, through its own textually mediated organization of apparatus, tends to homogenize the discourse. This paper is to demonstrate, by employing institutional ethnography, how a child's act can ignite the socially organized textual engine to include the children's world in the ideological circle of antiracism discourse dominated by the government. Institutional ethnography, as demonstrated in this paper, is a useful tool for social workers to deconstruct the textual condition in which social work practice is embedded. The ideological circle is a powerful concept to ...