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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Thinking About Peace Today, Michael Allen Fox Jun 2011

Thinking About Peace Today, Michael Allen Fox

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Discussing peace-and how to get to and maintain situations, practices, and socio-political structures that build peace-is of the greatest urgency. But the first step, both psychologically and epistemologically, is overcoming preoccupation with war and resistance to thinking about peace. This article takes on these problems and lays essential groundwork for substantive discussion of peace. Attractions of war and myths of war are deconstructed, and negative views of humans' capacity for peaceful behavior are examined and rejected. Wide-ranging costs of war and war-preparedness are also exposed. The value of peace is then discussed. A concluding section offers a list of "home ...


Students For Peace: Contextual And Framing Motivations Of Antiwar Activism, Eric Swank, Breanne Fahs Jun 2011

Students For Peace: Contextual And Framing Motivations Of Antiwar Activism, Eric Swank, Breanne Fahs

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article traces the development of peace activism among undergraduate social work students. In doing so, it explores how social statuses, political contexts, and collective action frames affect the likelihood of joining the movement against the Afghanistan war (2001 to current). After analyzing data from a multicampus sample of Bachelors in Social Work (BSW) students (n = 159), results show that peace activism was predicted by level of education as well as perceptions of proper foreign policy, the relative efficacy of social movement tactics, and identification with specific activist ideals. Finally, being situated in activist networks fostered greater peace activism while ...


World Peace: A First Step Commentary For The Special Issue On Peace, Conflict And War, Michael D. Knox Jun 2011

World Peace: A First Step Commentary For The Special Issue On Peace, Conflict And War, Michael D. Knox

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The first step in achieving peace on earth must be the elimination of war and threats of war. Citizens of the United States are in a better position than others to make this happen. We spend significant portions of our tax dollars, and borrow money from foreign countries, to wage wars. We sell weapons and destabilize governments. We prioritize funding for war over spending on education, medical research, alternative energy sources, healthcare, housing and food for the needy, a balanced budget and almost everything else that can have a positive impact on this planet's quality of life.


Contesting Buddhisms On Conflicted Land: Sarvodaya Shramadana And Buddhist Peacemaking, Masumi Hayashi-Smith Jun 2011

Contesting Buddhisms On Conflicted Land: Sarvodaya Shramadana And Buddhist Peacemaking, Masumi Hayashi-Smith

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Buddhism in its various incarnations has both aided and hindered the peace processes in Sri Lanka. Sarvodaya Shramadana, a Buddhist development organization, stands out in the way it uses religion to promote peace through a more humanist interpretation of Buddhist teachings. While Sarvodaya's alternative approach toward the religion provides an optimistic space for promoting peace, its connections to and dependence on populism can also complicate its politics. This article argues that the most effective means of peace work can be found through the same channel of collective mobilization that hindered it, Buddhism.


"Just Say No": Organizing Against Militarism In Public Schools, Scott Harding, Seth Kershner Jun 2011

"Just Say No": Organizing Against Militarism In Public Schools, Scott Harding, Seth Kershner

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In an effort to counteract the growing militarization of schools, military counter-recruitment (CR) has emerged as an effective grassroots movement across the United States. Led by a small number of local activists, CR utilizes community organizing methods to confront the structures supporting military enlistment as a viable career option. Despite operating with limited resources, counter-recruitment has secured key legal and policy victories that challenge the dominant social narrative about military service. Three examples of counterrecruitment are profiled to illustrate the different tactics and strategies used for successful organizing within a culture of militarism.


Humanitarian Aid And The Struggle For Peace And Justice: Organizational Innovation After A Blind Date, Joseph G. Bock Jun 2011

Humanitarian Aid And The Struggle For Peace And Justice: Organizational Innovation After A Blind Date, Joseph G. Bock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Humanitarian organizations working in developing countries have gone through a transformation since the thaw of the Cold War. Their increased programming to promote justice and peace has resulted in disparate partnership configurations. Illustrative examples of these configurations show how organizational deficiencies and challenges have spawned innovation. These innovations provide insight about how similar organizations might usefully be engaged in the struggle to promote greater justice and peace in areas of the world suffering from violent conflict.


Possibilities For Peace: Germany's Transformation Of A Culture Of War, S. Elizabeth Snyder Jun 2011

Possibilities For Peace: Germany's Transformation Of A Culture Of War, S. Elizabeth Snyder

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In reaction to its militarist past, Germany has created a strong culture of peace, including solid educational and institutional supports for maintaining popular attitudes critical of war and military operations. Germany has been recognized for these efforts by a number of international organizations, including the United Nations. At the same time, Germany has sought to maintain a policy of active membership in NATO and active cooperation and participation in NATO operations. As the United States applies increased pressure on its NATO allies in the wars of Iraq and Afghanistan, many of the inherent social and political tensions in German policy ...


Peace And War In The Qur'an And Juridical Literature: A Comparative Perspective, Liyakat Takim Jun 2011

Peace And War In The Qur'an And Juridical Literature: A Comparative Perspective, Liyakat Takim

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Qur'anic period of Islamic history took place in a social context of significant diversity. A number of important verses in the Qur'an reflect this diversity and encourage Islamic believers to seek peaceful coexistence with those of other faiths, especially those designated as "people of the Book," specifically Christians, Jews and Sabeans. In the later classical period of Islamic history, the exegesis of Islamic jurists markedly de-emphasized peaceful coexistence in favor of interpretations encouraging conquest and religious uniformity. Although the classical jurists have exercised enormous interpretive authority in subsequent Islamic history, their authority was never understood to be ...


Civil Resistance And The Corruption-Violence Nexus, Shaazka Beyerle Jun 2011

Civil Resistance And The Corruption-Violence Nexus, Shaazka Beyerle

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

There are multiple ways in which corruption is linked to violent conflict, some direct and some indirect. For ordinary citizens, the experience of this nexus is the denial of basic freedoms and rights. In spite of such bleak circumstances, people can move from being victims and bystanders to becoming a force for transforming their societies. Citizens are engaging in civil resistance to curb corruption and win accountability and justice. This article: explores the linkages between corruption and violence; identifies the conceptual and practical limitations of top-down, technical approaches to combating corruption; articulates a bottom-up approach in which the civic realm ...


"Curiously Uninvolved": Social Work And Protest Against The War In Vietnam, Susan Kerr Chandler Dec 2004

"Curiously Uninvolved": Social Work And Protest Against The War In Vietnam, Susan Kerr Chandler

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article reviews four leading social work journals from 1965-1975 for content on the War in Vietnam and the social issues arising from it. It finds that social work's major journals carried nearly no articles, letters, editorials, or short subjects related to the war and concludes that the dominant discourse constructed in the journals excluded meaningful engagement with the war or protest against it.


Restorative Justice, Responsive Regulation And Social Work, Gale Burford, Paul Adams Mar 2004

Restorative Justice, Responsive Regulation And Social Work, Gale Burford, Paul Adams

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Two of the dichotomies or tensions at the heart of this profession are especially important for the themes of this special issue on restorative justice and responsive regulation. These are the relation between formal and informal helping and between care and control, or empowerment and coercion. In this article, we make a case for the importance of Braithwaite's work, especially his (2002) book, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation, for conceptualizing the nature of social work in relation to these dualities. Since Braithwaite's writings do not have social work or social welfare scholars and professionals as their primary audience ...


Managing Social Conflict - The Evolution Of A Practical Theory, David B. Moore Mar 2004

Managing Social Conflict - The Evolution Of A Practical Theory, David B. Moore

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article describes the co-evolution of a process and a theory. Through the 1990s, the process known as "conferencing" moved beyond child welfare and youth justice, to applications in schools, neighbourhoods, and workplaces. In each of these applications, conferencing has assisted participants to acknowledge and transform interpersonal conflict, as a prelude to negotiating a plan of action. Much analysis of conferencing has been linked with social theorist John Braithwaite, whose work has influenced the development of a multidisciplinary theory of these process dynamics, and the development of guiding principles. Key links between theory and practice are described in chronological sequence.


Responsive Regulation In Child Welfare: Systemic Challenges To Mainstreaming The Family Group Conference, Paul Adams, Susan Chandler Mar 2004

Responsive Regulation In Child Welfare: Systemic Challenges To Mainstreaming The Family Group Conference, Paul Adams, Susan Chandler

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The purpose of this article is to examine the challenges inherent in trans- forming child welfare services. We apply Braithwaite's model of responsive regulation to the restorative practice of family group conferencing in child welfare. Shifting the role of the state away from controller of families in the child protective services system to one of regulatory partner with them is extraordinarily difficult. The paper looks at the complexities of reorienting child welfare services through the use of family group conferences on a large scale.


Families And The Republic, John Braithwaite Mar 2004

Families And The Republic, John Braithwaite

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Restorative and responsive justice can be a strategy of social work practice that builds democracy bottom-up by seeing families as building blocks of democracy and fonts of democratic sentiment. At the same time, because families are sites of the worst kinds of tyranny and the worst kinds of neglect, a rule of law is needed that imposes public human rights obligations on families. The republican ideal is that this rule of law that constrains people in families should come from the people. Restorative and responsive justice has a strategy for the justice of the people to bubble up into the ...


Review Of Healing Communities In Conflict: International Assistance In Complex Emergencies. Kimberly A. Maynard. Reviewed By Nancy Farwell, University Of Washington., Nancy Farwell Sep 2000

Review Of Healing Communities In Conflict: International Assistance In Complex Emergencies. Kimberly A. Maynard. Reviewed By Nancy Farwell, University Of Washington., Nancy Farwell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Kimberly A. Maynard, Healing Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex Emergencies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. $27.50 hardcover.


War, Peace, And "The System": Three Perspectives, Paul Adams Jun 1991

War, Peace, And "The System": Three Perspectives, Paul Adams

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Social workers have sometimes seen war as part of a larger system and as linked to other forms of violence or social evil. This article considers three kinds of analysis which identify different systems (capitalism, patriarchy, and exterminism), see the links in different ways, and lead to different practical conclusions. Each perspective is examined in terms of its capacity to explain the phenomena it describes and to identify a social change strategy that can eliminate them. It is suggested that social workers may be professionally predisposed to select among these perspectives for reasons other than their explanatory power or strategic ...


Work, Violence, Injustice And War, David G. Gil Mar 1989

Work, Violence, Injustice And War, David G. Gil

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This essay explores links between work, societal violence, social and economic injustice at home and abroad, and the propensity to resort to war. It clarifies the concept societal violence and traces its roots to coercively established and maintained exploitative modes of work, exchange and distribution. It suggests that overcoming violence in human relations requires transformations of work, exchange, and distribution in accordance with egalitarian, democratic, humanistic and ecological values in order to eliminate obstacles to human development. Social policies and political strategies toward these ends are discussed in the concluding sections of the essay.


Beyond War: Empowerment For Senior Citizens In A Nuclear Age, Susan Rice May 1988

Beyond War: Empowerment For Senior Citizens In A Nuclear Age, Susan Rice

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

An educationally focused non-partisan grass roots peace movement is described, as are the empowering effects of being involved in such a group. Beginning attempts to utilize this approach with senior citizens are explored, and further experimentation is encouraged.


Transcending Despair: A Prelude To Action, Norman N. Goroff May 1988

Transcending Despair: A Prelude To Action, Norman N. Goroff

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The central thesis of this essay is that in order to feel empowered to work for the elimination of nuclear weapons, persons need to face and transcend their despair when they contemplate the nuclear destruction of the planet. The repression of fear of nuclear disaster results in a sense of powerlessness to do anything about the inevitable destruction and consequently nothing is done, thereby allowing the "Lovers of Death" (Fromm, 1964) to build bigger and better ways to destroy the planet.


Social Work Concerns Related To Peace And People Oriented Development In The International Context, Daniel S. Sanders May 1988

Social Work Concerns Related To Peace And People Oriented Development In The International Context, Daniel S. Sanders

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

It is the thesis of this paper that the social work profession along with other human service professions has the potential of making a vital contribution in promoting peace and people oriented development and that the ultimate test of the profession's contribution to individuals, families, and communities in varying contexts is the ensuring of human survival and the enhancing of the quality of life for all people.


Making War Thinkable, Shimon S. Gottschalk May 1988

Making War Thinkable, Shimon S. Gottschalk

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper identifies significant cognitive elements in Western thought which appear to undergird and lend an aura of legitimacy and credence to discussions of defense, armaments, and the preparation of war.


The Warfare-Welfare Tradeoff: Consequences Of Continuing The Nudear Arms Race And Some Policy Alternatives, Sam Marullo May 1988

The Warfare-Welfare Tradeoff: Consequences Of Continuing The Nudear Arms Race And Some Policy Alternatives, Sam Marullo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper provides a survey of the positive functions of the nuclear arms race for segments of society and society as a whole. The analysis of the positive functions does not serve as a justification for the status quo, but is undertaken to point out the numerous constraints mitigating against change. Massive social forces operate in such a manner as to continue and expand the arms race, indicating large scale social changes are required to stop it. A series of policy alternatives are enumerated as functional alternatives which would have fewer negative consequences while preserving our national security.


Common Rooms And Functions Of The Warfare And Welfare State, David G. Gil Mar 1977

Common Rooms And Functions Of The Warfare And Welfare State, David G. Gil

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Warfare and welfare are usually assumed to serve contradictory ends and to be rooted in antithetical values, institutions and dynamics. In this essay, I propose to challenge this notion and to advance, instead, the thesis that, in spite of significant differences between them, warfare and welfare serve, nevertheless, identical and complementary functions, and are both rooted in identical societal values, institutions and dynamics.

As with other phenomena which are considered to be "social problems," such as poverty, crime, unemployment, inflation, mental illness, etc., but which are merely by-products of the "normal" workings of certain social systems, warfare and welfare can ...


The Soft Spot: How To Attack The Pentagon, Marion Anderson Mar 1977

The Soft Spot: How To Attack The Pentagon, Marion Anderson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Have you been wondering why al I the ideas you learned in Economics I haven't been working? Why the forecasts made at summit meetings of economists seem to go wrong? Why the U.S. economy, in utter disregard of all the rules of classical economics, suffers rising inflation and rising unemployment at the same time?

Well, there are reasons. Reasons that establishment economists have not wanted to face, and sti I I refuse to face, because the great myth of the last three decades would then be exposed. The myth is that we are so rich, so productive and ...


Influencing Welfare/Warfare Priorities Through The New Budgetary Process, Ann Blalock Mar 1977

Influencing Welfare/Warfare Priorities Through The New Budgetary Process, Ann Blalock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In the previous article, Weinert challenged social workers, and other professionals in the area of social welfare, to commit themselves to greater collective political action in the interest of substantial social change. He suggested that there are many options for movement in that direction. This article briefly discusses one incremental option within the established political system, intervention within the new Congressional budgetary process. This is not an insignificant strategy. Its purpose is to influence the way the national budget is constructed. The budget incorporates to an important degree the society's prevailing definition of its priorities. Furthermore, future policy alternatives ...


Social Wolk In Relief And Rehabilitation After Wars, At Home And Abroad, Walter A. Friedlander Mar 1977

Social Wolk In Relief And Rehabilitation After Wars, At Home And Abroad, Walter A. Friedlander

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In the United States after the wars of the 19th. century, particularly after the Civil War, no professional social workers existed who could have cared for the wounded soldiers and civilians or for the disabled veterans. But in Europe, during the war of France and Italy against Austria, in 1859, the foundation of some services for the wounded soldiers of the three involved nations were laid by a Swiss banker, Henry Dunant of Geneva who arrived by accident on the evening of the bloody battle in Solferino (Italy) and started to help bandaging some of the bleeding victims of this ...


A Disarmed World: Problems In Imaging The Future, Elise Boulding Mar 1977

A Disarmed World: Problems In Imaging The Future, Elise Boulding

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

One of the major handicaps to scholars, activists and would-be policy makers associated with the post-World War II peace research and peace action movements has been the inability to construct coherent and believable images of a post military industrial United States society. Even at the height of the economics of disarmament studies in the 1960s the most that economists could demonstrate was that disarmament could take place without severe economic dislocations, and that resources released from arms could be used for improving the global standard of living. The new peace research movement was also producing books in the sixties showing ...


Alienation Of Youth As An Unintended Consequence Of Military Assistance In Africa: Illustrations From The Ethiopian Experience, Quentin F. Schenk Mar 1977

Alienation Of Youth As An Unintended Consequence Of Military Assistance In Africa: Illustrations From The Ethiopian Experience, Quentin F. Schenk

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The development of global competition between Russia and the United States led to a dramatic diversion of the resources of the United States to military and quasi-military programs. Some of the objectives of the competition were to maintain United States influence and power over its empire in the Middle East and Africa: to monitor the Red Sea; to have a presence near Egypt, especially in view of the development of the Aswan Dam by the Russians; to have proximity to its Asian colony, Israel; to keep watch over its oil in Saudi Arabia; to establish and man satellite tracking stations ...


Human Security Or National Defense: The Question Of Conversion, Bruce Birchard Mar 1977

Human Security Or National Defense: The Question Of Conversion, Bruce Birchard

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

How can we convert the enormous human, financial and technological resources currently committed to military illusions of "national security" to programs and institutions which provide real human security? That is the central question of this paper.


Social Welfare And Some Implications Of Non-Violence, Mulford Q. Sibley Mar 1977

Social Welfare And Some Implications Of Non-Violence, Mulford Q. Sibley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A new journal has made its appearance. It is called Soldier of Fortune and is devoted to the concerns of "professional adventurers"--that is, to those who would like to become hired violent fighters in various parts of the world. The journal opens its columns to their advertisements: "Ex-marine seeks employment as mercenary, full-time or job contract, prefers South or Central America but all offers considered." "Experienced mature fighter/seeks assignment anywhere.... " In defending his journal from the charge of encouraging brutality, the founder says: "After all, booze is brutal, cars are brutal, sex is brutal. There's a need ...