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Articles 1 - 30 of 67

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Potential Of Youth Savings Accounts In Three East African Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, And Uganda, Njeri Kagotho, Proscovia Nabunya, Fred Ssewamala, Vilma Ilic May 2013

The Potential Of Youth Savings Accounts In Three East African Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, And Uganda, Njeri Kagotho, Proscovia Nabunya, Fred Ssewamala, Vilma Ilic

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper explores the potential of expanding a youth-focused asset-based intervention program for poor communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS-currently underway in one East African country, Uganda-into similar communities in the other two East African countries: Kenya and Tanzania. This concept paper is informed by prior work on youth-focused asset-based programs first proposed in the United States of America and now successfully implemented in Uganda (Ssewamala, 2008; Ssewamala, Alicea, Bannon, & Ismayilova, 2008; Ssewamala & Ismayilova, 2008, 2009) and grounded in an asset-based development theoretical framework, which denotes an integrated approach to human, social, and economic capital development (Sherraden, 1990, 1991). Although each ...


Social Capital, Human Capital, And Economic Well-Being In The Knowledge Economy: Results From Canada's General Social Survey, Robert D. Weaver, Nazim Habibov Jun 2012

Social Capital, Human Capital, And Economic Well-Being In The Knowledge Economy: Results From Canada's General Social Survey, Robert D. Weaver, Nazim Habibov

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Beginning in the mid-1990s, the Canadian welfare state's devolutionary transformation ushered in an era which potentially increased the importance of social capital and human capital as mechanisms for promoting socio-economic advancement. In this study, the authors analyze data from Canada's General Social Survey to assess how social capital and human capital influence the reported incomes of the Canadian population. The primaryfindings were that both social and human capital influenced income and that human capital had a larger effect on economic mobility than did social capital. The implications the study's findings have for policy and programmatic interventions within ...


Neoliberalism, Piven And Cloward's Bargaining Theory, And Wages In The United States, 1965-2006, Thomas W. Volscho Jun 2012

Neoliberalism, Piven And Cloward's Bargaining Theory, And Wages In The United States, 1965-2006, Thomas W. Volscho

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The political economy of the United States during the last thirty years has been described as neoliberal. Part of the neoliberal turn involves reducing or eliminating income support programs such as AFDC/TANF, waging war against organized labor, and increasingly conservative (i.e., neoliberal) public policies. Following an analysis by Lewis (2001) which showed that wages increased in response to higher average monthly AFDC payments, I update and expand this test of Piven and Cloward's bargaining power theory of wages by looking at other factors which may influence worker bargaining power: unions, interest rates, policy liberalism, and economic growth ...


Sanctioning Policies-Australian, American And British Cross-National Reflections And Comparisons, Harry Savelsberg Sep 2011

Sanctioning Policies-Australian, American And British Cross-National Reflections And Comparisons, Harry Savelsberg

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Over the last two decades welfare policies have undergone major reforms in Anglo-Western nations such as the U.S., U.K. and Australia. Central to these reforms have been the revision of welfare recipient entitlements and responsibilities and the emergence of a responsibility and obligations agenda. The essence of this agenda is conditionality and reciprocity, and it includes the threat of punitive sanctions for failing to comply with mandatory participation requirements. This paper highlights the potent influence of the ideas of American conservatives on policy reforms in the U.S., the U.K. and Australia and provides a thematic crossnational ...


Child Support As Labor Regulation, Yiyoon Chung Sep 2011

Child Support As Labor Regulation, Yiyoon Chung

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The development of child support policy over the past three decades provides an emblematic case study of the ways in which a new policy that reflects the rise of moral arguments about individual and family responsibility, once established, produces significant consequences for both the economic sphere and political dialogues. I use social control theory to examine a rarely appreciated consequence of child support policies: labor regulation. Particularly, I demonstrate the ways in which the discourse embedded in child support has exalted the importance of work even under the lowest terms, and has deflected public attention away from labor market issues.


Skew Selection Theory Applied To The Wealth And Welfare Of Nations, Susan F. Allen, Deby L. Cassill Jun 2010

Skew Selection Theory Applied To The Wealth And Welfare Of Nations, Susan F. Allen, Deby L. Cassill

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

According to skew selection theory, working citizens who build wealth and, at the same time, share portions of their wealth with those in need are more likely to survive economic downturns than citizens who hoard wealth. In this article, skew selection is employed as a theoreticalframework to support governmental efforts to develop social policies that protect the income of working citizens and, at the same time, provide for vulnerable, non-working children and elders. To illustrate its applicability, the social policies of Japan, Sweden and the United States-all of which are challenged by decaying ratios of working to non-working citizens-are compared ...


Why You Should Care About The Threatened Middle Class, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks, Jan Ivery, Mary L. Ohmer Jun 2010

Why You Should Care About The Threatened Middle Class, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks, Jan Ivery, Mary L. Ohmer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In the last two decades, the income and security of the individual middle class worker has declined and the gap between the middle class and the wealthy has widened. We explain how this is bad for democracy, the economy, and the aggregate health of the nation. We examine the governmental policies and interventions that increased the middle class following the depression and maintained its vigor through the post-World War II period. The impetus for these changes in governmental policies in the 1930s was to end the Great Depression. We pose the question of whether a nation can recover from a ...


Globalization, Precarious Work, And The Food Bank, Ernie S. Lightman, Andrew Mitchell, Dean Herd Jun 2008

Globalization, Precarious Work, And The Food Bank, Ernie S. Lightman, Andrew Mitchell, Dean Herd

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper explores whether people are better off working in the precarious employment associated with a neoliberal globalized economy. Firstly, we show the impacts of globalization on the composition of food bank users in Toronto, Canada. We then compare two groups offood bank users, one with at least one household member working, the other without. Our findings demonstrate that the life experiences of the two groups remain depressingly similar: those employed remained mired in poverty and continued to lead marginalized, precarious lives. The lack of investment in education or training characteristic of 'work-first' welfare reforms leads to unstable, low-paid work ...


Potential Impact Of Eitc Adjustments On Financial Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Families: A Simulation Model, Younghee Lim, Catherine Lemieux Jun 2008

Potential Impact Of Eitc Adjustments On Financial Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Families: A Simulation Model, Younghee Lim, Catherine Lemieux

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Policies that help low-income mothers find and keep employment as a means of obtaining self-sufficiency have been a focal point of the welfare reform debate in the past decade. In the midst of this dialogue, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has gained popularity as one of the core work support programs for America's low- and moderately low-income families with children. This study compares the estimated effects of EITC when its value deteriorated in the late 1990s with that of a simulated EITC for which the real value kept pace with the actual cost of living on welfare caseload ...


The Role Of Informal Social Networks In Micro-Savings Mobilization, Margaret Lombe, Fred M. Ssewamala Sep 2007

The Role Of Informal Social Networks In Micro-Savings Mobilization, Margaret Lombe, Fred M. Ssewamala

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The influence of informal institutions on economic outcomes for low income individuals and households has received little attention in the United States. Yet, drawing on social capital theory and existing studies from developing countries where informal institutions have been widely used in promoting economic opportunities offamilies in poverty, one would expect these institutions to have positive effects on the economic outcomes of low income individuals in the context of an IDA program. Using a sample of 840 respondents who were enrolled in a community action program, this study assesses the effects of informal networks of social support on performance in ...


Globalization, Immigration And The Welfare State: A Cross-National Comparison, Qingwen Xu Jun 2007

Globalization, Immigration And The Welfare State: A Cross-National Comparison, Qingwen Xu

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Over the past decades, the forces of globalization have helped created a huge wave of immigration. The relationship between globalization and immigration has been intensely examined in the last decade with a focus not only on whether and how much globalization has caused international immigration but also how to promote and sustain a just global system for the growing number of immigrants. This study selects three developed countries with different welfare state philosophies and traditions-Australia, Sweden and the United States-and compares how they cope with the growing number of immigrants and their various needs. This paper reflects thinking about states ...


The Challenge Of Community Work In A Global Economy, Howard Karger, Christian Iyiani, Pat Shannon Jun 2007

The Challenge Of Community Work In A Global Economy, Howard Karger, Christian Iyiani, Pat Shannon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article examines how and why five major stakeholders-international financial organizations; NGOs; governmental entities; multinational corporations; and community development projects- have failed to significantly and uniformly reduce aggregate global poverty. The article uses the results of a case study of HIV/ AIDS prevention in a low-income Nigerian city to argue that effective action must involve local and global stakeholders in collaborative partnerships. It concludes by discussing the critical role of facilitators in such partnerships.


Economic Mobility Of Single Mothers: The Role Of Assets And Human Capital Development, Min Zhan Dec 2006

Economic Mobility Of Single Mothers: The Role Of Assets And Human Capital Development, Min Zhan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines the economic mobility of single mothers. It highlights the relationships between single mothers' financial assets and human capital development (educational advancement, job training, and work hours) with their economic mobility. Analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) indicates that assets may help improve upward economic mobility. Assets, however, have differential impact on single mothers with different income levels. In addition, human capital development mediates the positive link between assets and the economic mobility for mothers living between the 100% and 200% federal poverty. These results support asset building as an investment strategy to ...


Searching For Social Capital In U.S. Microenterprise Development Programs, Nancy C. Jurik, Gray Cavender, Julie Cozogill Sep 2006

Searching For Social Capital In U.S. Microenterprise Development Programs, Nancy C. Jurik, Gray Cavender, Julie Cozogill

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper focuses on the claims and efforts of U.S. microenterprise development programs (MDPs) to build social capital among poor and low income entrepreneurs. MDPs offer business training and lending services to individuals operating very small businesses (with five or fewer employees and less than $20,000 in start-up capital). Advocates suggest that MDPs help promote economic development by building social capital defined as networks among small entrepreneurs and between entrepreneurs and their larger community. We begin our paper with a short review of the varied definitions and claims about the role of social capital in promoting civic and ...


Reshaping Retirement Policies In Post-Industrial Nations: The Need For Flexibility, Angela L. Curl, M. C. "Terry" Hokenstad Jr. May 2006

Reshaping Retirement Policies In Post-Industrial Nations: The Need For Flexibility, Angela L. Curl, M. C. "Terry" Hokenstad Jr.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Social Security programs in post-industrial nations are facing the need for policy reforms. Fiscal shortfalls in current Social Security programs are a major driving force promoting these reforms. At the same time, changes in longevity and the nature of work and retirement also suggest the need for policy reform. This article begins with a broad overview of some of the policy innovations of the Europe Union as a whole, and then focuses more indepth on policy reforms in three countries that exemplify Esping-Andersen's (1990) typology of welfare states: Sweden, Germany, and Canada. These three countries have passed policies that ...


Just Around The Corner: The Paradox Of The Jobless Recovery. Stanley Aronowitz. May 2006

Just Around The Corner: The Paradox Of The Jobless Recovery. Stanley Aronowitz.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Stanley Aronowitz, Just Around the Corner: The Paradox of the Jobless Recovery. Philadelphia. PA: Temple University Press, 2005. $49.50 hardcover, $16.95 papercover.


The Social And Economic Impact Of Sanctions And Time Limits On Recipients Of Temporary Assistance To Needy Families, Taryn Lindhorst, Ronald J. Mancoske Mar 2006

The Social And Economic Impact Of Sanctions And Time Limits On Recipients Of Temporary Assistance To Needy Families, Taryn Lindhorst, Ronald J. Mancoske

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A central feature of the reforms enacted through the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare reform) has been the adoption of strategies to involuntarily remove Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients from the welfare rolls, including increased use of sanctions and time limits on welfare receipt. Drawing on data from a three year panel study of women who had been receiving welfare in a state which adopted stringent sanctioning and time limit policies, we investigate predictors of recipients' TANF status after implementation of welfare reform, and identify differences in post-reform material resources, hardships and quality of life ...


Review Of Perspectives On The Economics Of Aging. David A. Wise (Ed.). Reviewed By Martin B. Tracy., Martin B. Tracy Dec 2005

Review Of Perspectives On The Economics Of Aging. David A. Wise (Ed.). Reviewed By Martin B. Tracy., Martin B. Tracy

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of David A. Wise (Ed.), Perspectives on the Economics of Aging. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2004. $90.00 hardcover.


Examining The Relationship Between Community Residents' Economic Status And The Outcomes Of Community Development Programs, Christopher R. Larrison, Eric Hadley-Ives Dec 2004

Examining The Relationship Between Community Residents' Economic Status And The Outcomes Of Community Development Programs, Christopher R. Larrison, Eric Hadley-Ives

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In designing and implementing community development interventions the economic status of targeted participants is a demographic characteristic worth considering. The findings from this research indicate that even within the limited economies of rural Mexican villages there are variations in economic status that affect the ways in which the outcomes of community development programs are perceived. The poorest of the poor are likely to be less satisfied with development projects than those with average or better-off economic status. This is true whether a development project uses a bottomup approach or a top-down approach. The more participatory approach does not attenuate the ...


Measuring And Indigenizing Social Capital In Relation To Children's Street Work In Mexico: The Role Of Culture In Shaping Social Capital Indicators, Kristin M. Ferguson Dec 2004

Measuring And Indigenizing Social Capital In Relation To Children's Street Work In Mexico: The Role Of Culture In Shaping Social Capital Indicators, Kristin M. Ferguson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Drawing from social capital theory, this study assessed the relevance of existing conceptions of social capital-largely from the United States and Canada-in the Mexican context, in an effort to contribute novel variables to the street-children literature. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 204 mothers of street-working and non-working children were interviewed within one community in Monterrey, Nuevo Le6n, Mexico. Factor analysis was used to corroborate the internal construct validity of two dimensions of social capital: family social capital and community social capital. Findings reveal that culture can play an influential role in how social capital indicators are defined and measured.


Review Of Western Welfare In Decline: Globalization And Women's Poverty. Catherine Kingfisher. Reviewed By Silvia Borzutsky., Silvia Borzutzky Dec 2004

Review Of Western Welfare In Decline: Globalization And Women's Poverty. Catherine Kingfisher. Reviewed By Silvia Borzutsky., Silvia Borzutzky

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Catherine Kingfisher, Western Welfare in Decline: Globalization and Women's Poverty. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. $49.95 hardcover, $21.95 papercover.


Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo Sep 2004

Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examined profits, productivity, and poverty in the United States from 1961 through 2002. Results indicated that the "great divide" thesis regarding the U.S. economy before and after the Reagan administration depends on which measure of the economy is the focus of attention. In addition, on some measures where before and after differences were detected, the nature of those differences was paradoxical. Corporate profits as a share of national income, for example, were highest in Democratic rather than Republican administrations and despite the increased income inequality of the post-Reagan years, individual and family poverty rates remained relatively constant ...


Review Of Japan's Economic Dilemma: The Institutional Origins Of Prosperity And Stagnation, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. $ 54.95 Hardcover, $ 19.95 Papercover. Bai Gao. Reviewed By Christian Aspalter., Christian Aspalter Mar 2003

Review Of Japan's Economic Dilemma: The Institutional Origins Of Prosperity And Stagnation, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. $ 54.95 Hardcover, $ 19.95 Papercover. Bai Gao. Reviewed By Christian Aspalter., Christian Aspalter

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Bai Gao, Japan's Economic Dilemma: The Institutional Origins of Prosperity and Stagnation, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. $54.95 hardcover, $19.95 papercover.


Review Of One Third Of A Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports On The Great Depression. Richard Lowitt And Maurine Beasley (Eds.). Review By John M. Herrick, John M. Herrick Mar 2002

Review Of One Third Of A Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports On The Great Depression. Richard Lowitt And Maurine Beasley (Eds.). Review By John M. Herrick, John M. Herrick

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Richard Lowitt and Maurine Beasley (Eds.), One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports on the Great Depression. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000. $21.95 papercover.


The Poverty Of Hard Work: Multiple Jobs And Low Wages In Family Economies Of Rural Utah Households, Christina E. Gringeri Dec 2001

The Poverty Of Hard Work: Multiple Jobs And Low Wages In Family Economies Of Rural Utah Households, Christina E. Gringeri

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The combination of paid work and poverty, or near poverty, is a growing problem in the United States, one of which is often accentuated by residence in rural, low-wage communities where underemployment is more prevalent than in metropolitan areas. This paper examines the experiences of sixty rural families with inadequate employment using data from ethnographic interviews with a particular focus on the strategies they use to meet their family's needs in spite of low-wage work.


The Role Of Social Capital In Reclaiming Human Capital: A Longitudinal Study Of Occupational Mobility Among Displaced Steelworkers, Allison Zippay Dec 2001

The Role Of Social Capital In Reclaiming Human Capital: A Longitudinal Study Of Occupational Mobility Among Displaced Steelworkers, Allison Zippay

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines the employment and income effects of job training, education, and social network contacts over a l0-year period among a random sample of steelworkers who lost jobs to plant closings in the early 1980s in a manufacturing community in Western Pennsylvania. First interviewed in 1987, a majority of the 102 respondents were unemployed or underemployed. A second round of interviews was conducted in 1997 with 87 of the original respondents to examine changes in income and employment status, the types of training and education that had been pursued over the course of 10 years, and their use of ...


An Exploration Into Individual Development Accounts As An Anti-Poverty Strategy, Timothy G. Reutebuch Sep 2001

An Exploration Into Individual Development Accounts As An Anti-Poverty Strategy, Timothy G. Reutebuch

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A non-random, cross-sectional sampling procedure was utilized in this study to determine what factors are related to households choosing to utilize Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) as a means to escape poverty. Surveys from 111 households were collected from September 1997, to April 1999, in seven Ohio counties to elucidate the relationship between the level of assets in working poor households and selected household demographic variables, and the decision on whether or not to actually participate in an IDA program. Findings revealed that households 1) with more than one wage earner and 2) with higher levels of education are more likely ...


From Plant Closure To Reemployment In The New Economy: Risks To Workers Dislocated From The Declining Garment Manufacturing Industry, Cynthia Rocha Jun 2001

From Plant Closure To Reemployment In The New Economy: Risks To Workers Dislocated From The Declining Garment Manufacturing Industry, Cynthia Rocha

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The current study investigates financial and emotional consequences to workers as the U.S. economy continues to shift from a manufacturing to a service economy. One hundred eighty-eight garment workers were surveyed before their plant closed in 1998 and six months later to assess reemployment opportunities, financial difficulty and emotional well-being. All workers experienced some financial difficulty after the plant closed, with single parents reporting the greatest financial difficulty. Workers who became immediately reemployed lost an average of $2.41 in wages per hour. Sixteen percent of the sample lost their health insurance. Overall depression and anxiety scores declined over ...


Social Work And Labor: A Look At The North American Agreement On Labor Cooperation, Constance Phelps Mar 2001

Social Work And Labor: A Look At The North American Agreement On Labor Cooperation, Constance Phelps

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), a side agreement to NAFTA, provides an instructive example of an attempt to link global trade to labor standards. While this side agreement was created in order to bolster the internationalization of trade, it has brought Labor, human rights groups and governments together to scrutinize and challenge the ways that each NAFTA member country ensures the provision of basic health, safety, and human rights on the job. Effective enforcement of the Agreement will come only with political pressure from a wide variety of groups interested in improving quality of life for workers ...


The Transformation Of Russian Social Policy In The Transition Toward A Market Economy, Isabel Pla Julian Mar 2001

The Transformation Of Russian Social Policy In The Transition Toward A Market Economy, Isabel Pla Julian

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The last few years have witnessed truly extraordinary events in the formerly communist societies. These countries were characterized by the great importance attached to social policy as opposed to market economy countries with a similar level of economic growth. However, the transition process toward a market economy has set new conditions for the functioning of governing levels and companies, which has affected social policies altogether. On the one hand, economic liberalization has brought about a reduction of the Russian Government's intervention in the economy, particularly in social policy. On the other hand, the privatization of the state company in ...