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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Specialists, Generalists, And Policy Advocacy By Charitable Nonprofit Organizations, Heather Macindoe, Ryan Whalen May 2013

Specialists, Generalists, And Policy Advocacy By Charitable Nonprofit Organizations, Heather Macindoe, Ryan Whalen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Previous research finds modest levels of engagement in policy advocacy by charitable nonprofits, despite legal regulations permitting nonprofit advocacy and the significance of public policy to nonprofit constituencies. This paper examines nonprofit involvement in policy advocacy using survey data from Boston, Massachusetts. Nonprofit participation in policy advocacy is associated with professionalization, resource dependence, features of the institutional environment, and organizational characteristics such as size and mission. Drawing from population ecology theory, we examine an additional aspect of organizational mission: whether a nonprofit serves a specialized or general population. We find that nonprofits serving specialized populations are more likely to participate ...


Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo Dec 2012

Fear Vs. Facts: Examining The Economic Impact Of Undocumented Immigrants In The U.S., David Becerra, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayón, Jason T. Castillo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Undocumented immigration has become a contentious issue in the U.S. over the past decade. Opponents of undocumented immigration have argued that undocumented immigrants are a social and financial burden to the U.S. which has led to the passage of drastic and costly policies. This paper examined existing state and national data and found that undocumented immigrants do contribute to the economies of federal, state, and local governments through taxes and can stimulate job growth, but the cost of providing law enforcement, health care, and education impacts federal, state, and local governments differently. At the federal level, undocumented immigrants ...


Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo Sep 2004

Presidents, Profits, Productivity, & Poverty: A Great Divide Between The Pre- & Post-Reagan U.S. Economy?, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examined profits, productivity, and poverty in the United States from 1961 through 2002. Results indicated that the "great divide" thesis regarding the U.S. economy before and after the Reagan administration depends on which measure of the economy is the focus of attention. In addition, on some measures where before and after differences were detected, the nature of those differences was paradoxical. Corporate profits as a share of national income, for example, were highest in Democratic rather than Republican administrations and despite the increased income inequality of the post-Reagan years, individual and family poverty rates remained relatively constant ...


The National Domestic Workers Union And The War On Poverty, Elizabeth Beck Dec 2001

The National Domestic Workers Union And The War On Poverty, Elizabeth Beck

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article explores values, strategies, and tensions found within the War on Poverty and examines a War on Poverty-supported initiative, the National Domestic Workers Union (NDWU). The article makes the argument that the NDWU is illustrative of the War on Poverty in that each held structurally based descriptions of poverty and individually based prescriptions. The article explores the relationship of domestic service to the institutions of racism, classism, and sexism and how the ND WU strategies of training, service, and, advocacy-like those of the War on Poverty-sought to address the needs of individual domestic workers while circumventing larger and more ...


Declarations Of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition In U.S. Poverty Policy. Alan F. Zundel Dec 2001

Declarations Of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition In U.S. Poverty Policy. Alan F. Zundel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Alan E Zundel, Declarations of Dependency: The Civic Republican Tradition in U. S. Poverty Policy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000. $16.95 papercover.


The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell Dec 1993

The Political Activity Of Social Workers: A Post-Reagan Update, Mark Ezell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article reports the findings of a survey that examined the political activism of social workers and what changes may have occurred in their political participation during the Reagan years. Social workers are politically active largely by writing letters to public officials but also by discussing political issues with friends, by belonging to politically active organizations and by attending political meetings. In addition, a substantial proportion of social workers make campaign contributions and get involved in candidate elections. Among social workers, those with the highest educational degrees, those who are NASW members, those who are in macro type jobs, and ...


The Fall Of The Industrial City: The Reagan Legacy For Urban Policy, David Stoesz Mar 1992

The Fall Of The Industrial City: The Reagan Legacy For Urban Policy, David Stoesz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Reagan presidency reversed a half-century of federal aid to cities. Poor minority comnnunities were particularly hard-hit, since this was accompanied by a white flight to the suburbs and the replacement of better paying industrial jobs requiring little education with poorer paying service jobs requiring iore education. Meanwhile wealthy communities prospered. To address urgent social problems, urban politicians are advocating strategies such as industrial policy, public entrepreneurship, and guerrilla welfare.


Introduction: American Social Policy And The Reagan Legacy, James Midgley Mar 1992

Introduction: American Social Policy And The Reagan Legacy, James Midgley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

With the retirement of Ronald Reagan from active political life; the long term effects of his policies and programs need to be addressed. This introduction to fire special issue on The Reagan Legacy and the. American Welfare State draws on the findings of the various contributors t"' provide an overview of the impact of Reagan administration's policies on various facets of the welfare stale, and an assessment of their likely longer term effects.


Society, Social Policy And The Ideology Of Reaganism, James Midgley Mar 1992

Society, Social Policy And The Ideology Of Reaganism, James Midgley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The complex historical and ideological themes which formed the basis for Reaganism in the 1980s are based on economic individualism, traditionalism and authoritarian populism. By creating an ideological formation which appealed to a wide constituency, right-wing activists sought to reverse the centrist consensus liberalism of the New Deal. These ideas also informed the Reagan administration’s social policies and, although not implemented as intended, have had a major impact on the American welfare state.


Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick Mar 1992

Changes In Poverty, Income Inequality And The Standard Of Living During The Reagan Years, Robert D. Plotnick

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The record of economic well-being in the 1980s belied Reagan's claim that Americans would be better off if they scaled back the welfare state and cut tax rates. Though the standard of living rose, its growth was no faster than during 1950-1980. Income inequality increased. The rate of poverty at the end qf Reagan's term was the same as in 1980. Cutbacks in income transfers during the Reagan years helped increase both poverty and inequality. Changes in tax policy helped increase inequality but reduced poverty. These policy shifts are not the only reasons for the lack of progress ...


Unhousing The Urban Poor: The Reagan Legacy, Beth A. Rubin, James D. Wright, Joel A. Devine Mar 1992

Unhousing The Urban Poor: The Reagan Legacy, Beth A. Rubin, James D. Wright, Joel A. Devine

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Reagan era was characterized by the popularity of individual level explanations and market based solutions for a range of social problems, including homelessness. We argue that such an approach was inadequate and may, in fact, have toorsened the housing situation. We claim that homelessness is fundamentally a housing problem linked to two key trends of the 1980s: the increasing rate of poverty and the declining supply'f low-income housing. Market approaches to housing policy have resulted in housing policies by default: gentrification, condo conversion and displacement as well as tax policies that explicitly favor the nonpoor. Those policies gehred ...


Income Maintenance Programs And The Reagan Domestic Agenda, Howard Jacob Karger Mar 1992

Income Maintenance Programs And The Reagan Domestic Agenda, Howard Jacob Karger

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Income maintenance programs are a key feature of the American welfare state. The impact of the Reagan administration’s social welfare policies are examined in this article, which also speculates about the long-term effects of his successes on the future of income maintenance programs. Specifically, this article provides a brief historical background of income maintanence programs, examines Reagan’s ideological and strategic approach to deconstructing the welfare state, evaluates the domestic successes of the Reagan administration, and explores the long-term impact of Reagan’s policies on the future of income maintenance programs.


A Critique Of The Truly Disadvantaged: A Historical Materialist (Marxist) Perspective, Ralph C. Gomes, Walda Katz Fishman Dec 1989

A Critique Of The Truly Disadvantaged: A Historical Materialist (Marxist) Perspective, Ralph C. Gomes, Walda Katz Fishman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Scholars such as William J. Wilson, public policy analysts, politicians, media personalities and journalists have, in recent years, turned their attention to the pervasive and growing poverty, permanent unemployment and inequality in American society. They have noted the disproportionate occurrence of these phenomena among African Americans-especially women and children-and in the "inner city ghettos" of the former centers of industrial production. At the same time, they have either ignored or severed any connection between the deepening poverty of one section of society-whom they have called the "underclass"-and the vast accumulation of wealth among the capitalist class.


Policy Gambit: Conservative Think Tanks Take On The Welfare State, David Stoesz Dec 1987

Policy Gambit: Conservative Think Tanks Take On The Welfare State, David Stoesz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Conservative policy institutes have reevaluated their position regarding welfare and begun to present proposals to change social welfare policy. Instrumental in this development are the American Enterprise Institute and the Heritage Foundation, conservative think tanks which have developed projects for the purpose of making social policy more consonant with conservative philosophy. If progressive organizations are to reassert their role in the policy process, they will have to use some of the aggressive techniques pioneered by the conservative think tanks.


Registering The Poor To Vote: Lessons From The 1984 General Election, Ira Colby Sep 1987

Registering The Poor To Vote: Lessons From The 1984 General Election, Ira Colby

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Voter registration and educational programs for the poor and moderate income groups were a dominant political strategy embraced by a number of social welfare organizations during the 1984 general election. This article reviews one such project that registered 4,124 individuals and implemented a follow-up survey of 500 new registrants. Based on the survey, the author identifies a number of voting and nonvoting behaviors that should be considered in future voter registration and education projects. The author also identifies critical policy issues that impede voter participation among the poor.


Harry Lurie's Assessment And Prescription: An Early View Of Social Workers' Roles And Responsibilities Regarding Political Action, Joe M. Schriver May 1987

Harry Lurie's Assessment And Prescription: An Early View Of Social Workers' Roles And Responsibilities Regarding Political Action, Joe M. Schriver

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Harry Lawrence Lurie's recommendations and analyses concerning social workers' involvement in political action are reviewed. By reviewing some of Lurie's concerns and activities from the 1930's into the 1950's in this area, it is possible to gain helpful guidance and insight into contemporary concerns about social workers in the political arena. Lurie argued consistently for greater involvement by social workers in political action as individuals, as members of professional organizations, and in coalition with other groups outside of social work who were concerned with progressive social change. Lurie also articulated many of the conditions preventing effective ...


The Failure Of The Destitute Mother's Bill: The Use Of Political Power In Social Welfare, Eve P. Smith May 1987

The Failure Of The Destitute Mother's Bill: The Use Of Political Power In Social Welfare, Eve P. Smith

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Although social and economic conditions and prevailing popular philosophies may affect the success or failure of an attempt at change in social welfare policy and practice, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the political forces for and against the change may be more important. In 1897, fourteen years before the passage of the first U.S. Mothers' Pension law in Illinois, New York State Senator John Ahearn attempted such a law in New York. Although the bill was passed unanimously by both houses of the State Legislature, it was never signed into law. The reason was that the children's ...


Electoralism, Mobilization And Strategies For The 80s: An Assessment Of Organizing Trends In The Mid-Decade, Steve Burghardt Sep 1986

Electoralism, Mobilization And Strategies For The 80s: An Assessment Of Organizing Trends In The Mid-Decade, Steve Burghardt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Community organizers in the United States have two tasks today: a short-term defensive one of holding back the rightward assault against both the social welfare state and the working class in general; and a long-term, mobilizing task of building a constituency strong enough to transform the welfare state itself. We cannot lose sight of this latter goal, for the method and objectives we set for ourselves in the short-run will greatly determine the feasibility of our long-term goals.

This is no small matter, for the assault on the welfare state is as fundamental to the restructuring of class and social ...


The Influence Of Rev. Jesse Jackson's Candidacy For President On Pluralistic Politics: Implications For Community Action, James Craigen Sep 1986

The Influence Of Rev. Jesse Jackson's Candidacy For President On Pluralistic Politics: Implications For Community Action, James Craigen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This essay addresses the significant changes in power relationships brought about by the candidacy of the Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson for President of the United States. Specifically, it will attempt to focus on themes or issues reflecting the impact of his entry into the contest for the Democratic nomination as a viable Black candidate in November 1983, and the consequent redefinition of power relationships which occurred not only within the Democratic Party, but between Blacks and Whites, Blacks and Jews, Black elected and appointed officials, and his effort on relative deprivation among the people in the Rainbow coalition that he ...


The Relative Effectiveness Of Legislative Campaigning In A School Of Social Work, L. K. Northwood, Mike Parker Sep 1984

The Relative Effectiveness Of Legislative Campaigning In A School Of Social Work, L. K. Northwood, Mike Parker

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

There are three interrelated strategies commonly used by social workers for coping with the conservative attack on social welfare institutions: client advocacy, electoral, and policy strategies. The paper evaluates the relative effectiveness of the policy strategy when 532 members of a school of social work were asked to write their legislators in support of progressive legislation. Five indicators of the relative effectiveness of this campaign were identified and assessed. The campaign is adjudged relatively effective from the standpoint of enlisting and motivating participants "ready for service or action' (action potential); in implementing a formal plan or organization--a "connected series of ...


Moving From Professionalism To Political Advocacy In The Human Services--How To Organize A Successful Statewide Political Effort In Youth Services, Milan J. Dluhy Sep 1984

Moving From Professionalism To Political Advocacy In The Human Services--How To Organize A Successful Statewide Political Effort In Youth Services, Milan J. Dluhy

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The current funding environment makes political advocacy on the part of social work professionals mandatory. The social work literature on political advocacy is reviewed and categorized into schools of thought. The major portion of the paper, however, presents and then analyzes a case study of a statewide youth services association in order to gain more insight into how professional social workers can develop and use more successful political strategies and tactics.


Reaganomics And The Welfare State, Mimi Abramovitz, Tom Hopkins Nov 1983

Reaganomics And The Welfare State, Mimi Abramovitz, Tom Hopkins

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Supply-side tax and spending policies have intensified poverty, unemployment and inequality, especially for women, minorities and organized labor. At the same time Reaganomics is shrinking and weakening the welfare state. To better understand and resist this conservative assault it is necessary to demystify the "economics" and "politics" of supply-side doctrine. This paper (a) defines the basic assumptions of supply-side economics; (b) identifies some of its problems and contradictions; (c) discusses its impact on the welfare state; and (d) analyzes it as part of a broader plan for coping with the current economic crisis. It argues that the supply-side tax cut ...


Staff Activities In The Texas House Of Representatives, David F. Prindle, James Burshtyn May 1983

Staff Activities In The Texas House Of Representatives, David F. Prindle, James Burshtyn

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In this study multivariate analysis is applied to the allocation of staff time among members of the Texas House of Representatives. Ideology of the representative is found to be an important factor in explaining differences in staff behavior. Chief staffers serving liberal Democrats and Republicans report spending less time on constituency service, and more time on policy research, than do staffers serving conservative Democrats. There are differences between the parties, but not between the ideologies, on time spent with lobbyists. Other variables, such as urban population of the district, and the years a legislator has served in the House, show ...


The Impact Of Women Legislators On Introduction Of Social Legislation Into A Southern State House, Marjorie A. Baney May 1983

The Impact Of Women Legislators On Introduction Of Social Legislation Into A Southern State House, Marjorie A. Baney

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The study investigated the interest of male and female legislators in social legislation as measured by the number of bills each group introduced. Legislators included in the study were the entire female population of the North Carolina General Assembly House of Representatives serving between January and July 1981, and an equal number of their male colleagues randomly selected. Comparisons of the female and male legislators in the study criteria such as number of legislative terms served, relative power of committees on which they served, number of committee chairpersonships and independent rankings and effectiveness by colleagues, lobbyists and the media revealed ...


Alternative Service Delivery Strategies: Factors In States' Decision Making, Harold W. Demone Jr., Margaret Gibelman May 1983

Alternative Service Delivery Strategies: Factors In States' Decision Making, Harold W. Demone Jr., Margaret Gibelman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article focuses on the range of choices and factors affecting state level decision making about how human services are to be delivered. In light of the dual thrusts of decentralization and privatization, the viability of public-private partnerships through contracting for services is explored. Among the significant factors affecting decisions about alternative forms of service delivery are: political and fiscal preferences; the strength of organized labor; the role and availability of the private service sector and history with purchase of service. The advantages and disadvantages attributed to a contracting model for delivering services are unlikely to be argued from an ...


Social Work Pac's And State Social Work Associations Purpose, History, And Action Strategies, Gary Mathews May 1983

Social Work Pac's And State Social Work Associations Purpose, History, And Action Strategies, Gary Mathews

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Social work as a profession has only recently become politically active. One consequence of this interest in the political process has been the proliferation of political action committees as creatures of the National Association of Social Workers and its state chapters. Social work PAC's are a key ingredient necessary to enable the profession to influence public policy. Perhaps because political action committees are new to NASW, or perhaps because NASW is new to politics, very little has been written about the history, purpose or strategic implications of these committees.

This paper will trace the development and operation of PAC ...


Policy Traditions In American State Politics, Robert L. Savage May 1983

Policy Traditions In American State Politics, Robert L. Savage

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

An examination of the states across a wide range of policy innovations during three historical periods reveals policy traditions having distinctive geographic limits roughly conforming to major regions commonly recognized in American politics. Only two of these traditions, the "Southern Parochial" and the "Northeastern Bureaucratic," persist across time and even these have been weakened. This provides some evidence that while multilinear evolution along regional lines will continue to contribute to differences in policy values among the American states in the foreseeable future, sociocultural integration is the stronger dynamic in American political development, especially since about 1930.


Welfare Legislation And American Poverty Traps: Ironies And Characteristics, Theresa Villanueva, Richard J. Caston Dec 1981

Welfare Legislation And American Poverty Traps: Ironies And Characteristics, Theresa Villanueva, Richard J. Caston

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

We argue that legislative attempts to establish bureaucratic programs to eradicate American poverty will invariably result in ironic inconsistencies that will doom such programs to only limited or partial success. As an illustration, we examine the ironic history of the AFDC program as it has been legislated to deal with American poverty. Three sociological accounts for the ironies of welfare programming are then drawn together. One account suggests that undue concern over the work ethic has overridden more direct concern for the deprecating living conditions of the Door. A second account suggests that poverty is so functionally beneficial to a ...


The Political Influence Of Older Americans, John B. Williamson, Linda Evans, Lawrence A. Powell, Sharlene Hesse-Biber Dec 1981

The Political Influence Of Older Americans, John B. Williamson, Linda Evans, Lawrence A. Powell, Sharlene Hesse-Biber

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This essay explores the future prospects for the political influence of older Americans. Some analysts contend that the next fifty years will bring a marked increase in the political influence of the elderly. Others argue that the aged are unlikely to become a significant political influence at any time in the forseeable future. We review the relevant evidence and conclude that it is not entirely consistent with either of these positions. Our analysis suggests a third alternative, that there will be a marked increase in the political resources of the elderly, which will not necessarily translate into an increase in ...


The Reagan Election And Mandate: Their Fiscal Policy Implications For The Welfare State, James Fendrich, Douglas St. Angelo Sep 1981

The Reagan Election And Mandate: Their Fiscal Policy Implications For The Welfare State, James Fendrich, Douglas St. Angelo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper has three main thrusts. The first searches the Reagan campaign, the 1980 Republican Platform, the election and survey results to determine whether or not Reagan can creditably lay claim to a mandate for his social policies. The second thrust investigates the 1982 Reagan spending and taxing programs. Our purpose here is to ascertain if those policies denote major new directions in U.S. social policy. Our third purpose involves an assessment of the Reagan fiscal policies upon the U.S. economy.

This study concludes: (1) Reagan can claim a mandate for much of his social policies, (2) the ...