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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Health Belief Model And Preventive Health Behavior: An Analysis Of Alternative Models Of Causal Relationships , Robbyn R. Wacker Jan 1990

The Health Belief Model And Preventive Health Behavior: An Analysis Of Alternative Models Of Causal Relationships , Robbyn R. Wacker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Three areas of preventive health behavior using data from the National Survey of Preventive Health Practices and Consequences were investigated. First the latent constructs of preventive health behaviors were examined for fourteen preventive health behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL was conducted on three different hypothesized models, each representing a different way to conceptualize health behaviors. The model based on a common approach to grouping health behavior resulted in a model that was empirically unsound suggesting a need to identify the mechanisms that facilitate the clustering of preventive health actions;The second research question investigated the Health Belief Model ...


Power Of The Korean Elderly In The Extended Family , Seon-Hee Mo Hong Jan 1990

Power Of The Korean Elderly In The Extended Family , Seon-Hee Mo Hong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using a sample of 252 Korean elderly living in Korea with a married child, this research focused on factors related to decision-making power (DMP) between generations in the extended family. In general, the elderly had distinctly less DMP than the younger generation in most family matters, although they had greater power in decisions about financial support for relatives, ancestor worship, and children's religion;To determine factors affecting DMP of the elderly in the extended family, three groups of variables were examined: (1) modern environment of the aged--individual modernity, residential area, and education of their children; (2) exchange resource variables--education ...


The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio Jan 1990

The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to investigate the farming activities of female headed households in the Philippines. In particular. how resource-poor households utilize networks to access resources and technology;To accomplish the above purpose, a survey questionnaire was prepared in the Department of Sociology in Iowa State University. After approval. it was translated and taken to the sampled 8 rural barrios which had previously been stratified according to population and migration status. All female heads of households in these barrios were interviewed by females who were residents of the barrios;Results indicate that FHHs' and households' characteristics are important factors in ...


Between Hierarchy And Market: Industrial Reform In The People's Republic Of China In An Institutional Perspective , Xiao-Jia Ge Jan 1990

Between Hierarchy And Market: Industrial Reform In The People's Republic Of China In An Institutional Perspective , Xiao-Jia Ge

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

By employing an institutional perspective, this study analyzes industrial reform in the People's Republic of China (PRC), particularly the reform of state-enterprise relations since 1978. By viewing institutional reform as a process of changing rules and procedures governing both state-enterprise relations and micro-economic organizational behavior, the study gives a detailed account of the evolutionary process of the PRC's industrial reform and of the continuities and discontinuities that this reform has involved. Using Kornai's theoretical framework, particularly the concepts of paternalism and soft budget constraints, phenomena seen as symptomatic of the syndromes described by Kornai were analyzed through ...


From Sect To Cult To Sect: The Christian Catholic Church In Zion , Warren Jay Beaman Jan 1990

From Sect To Cult To Sect: The Christian Catholic Church In Zion , Warren Jay Beaman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is an ethnographic case study of the founding of the Christian Catholic Church and Zion, IL, by John Alexander Dowie from 1893 to 1905. This group is analyzed as first a sect, then a cult, and finally a sect. This is not the expected change from sect to denomination suggested by Niebuhr following Troeltsch;Recent research on cults and sects follows Stark and Bainbridge's definitions. Both cult and sect are deviant religious movements. The sect revitalizes an established religion and the cult begins a new religion. The Stark and Bainbridge definition proves inadequate in its prediction of cult ...


The Multidimensional Structure Of The Life Satisfaction Index A And Its Application In Research On Aging , Cleve Redmond Jan 1990

The Multidimensional Structure Of The Life Satisfaction Index A And Its Application In Research On Aging , Cleve Redmond

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Three sections, in the form of complete papers for professional publication, form the core of this dissertation. Paper 1 used data from a national survey to compare three second-order factor models of the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA) through confirmatory factor analyses. Support was found for all three models, with the model suggested by Liang fitting slightly better than the other two;Paper 2 examined the stability of three LSIA dimensions, and their relationships to predictor variables, across age-groups, cohorts, and time. Stacked-group LISREL models were fit to data on 58 to 85 year-olds from two national surveys. Factor loadings ...


The Role Of Women In Agricultural Production And Household Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between India And Cameroon , Astair Gebremariam Mengesha Jan 1990

The Role Of Women In Agricultural Production And Household Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between India And Cameroon , Astair Gebremariam Mengesha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study involves a comparative analysis of women's roles in agricultural production and decision making in the household in five villages of the semi-arid tropics. Two villages in south India and three villages in northern Cameroon are studied;To understand the subject, a research background is given. This background includes a brief review of works on women in agriculture in general and specific relevant concepts, such as: self-identity, role and status, family and household, task allocation and decision making, and agriculture and market conditions;Functional theory, symbolic interaction, the conflict perspective, exchange theory, and role theory are examined and ...


Age Differences In Gambling Behavior, Waiman Peter Mok Jan 1990

Age Differences In Gambling Behavior, Waiman Peter Mok

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Self-Esteem, Depression And Drinking In College, Marlene Reneé Fisher Jan 1990

Self-Esteem, Depression And Drinking In College, Marlene Reneé Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Aids-Related Information Sources On Homophobia: A Social Learning Perspective, Brian E. Magruder Jan 1990

The Impact Of Aids-Related Information Sources On Homophobia: A Social Learning Perspective, Brian E. Magruder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Factors Associated With Job Satisfaction For A Specified Segment Of Public Sector Personnel, Peter John Conis Jan 1990

Factors Associated With Job Satisfaction For A Specified Segment Of Public Sector Personnel, Peter John Conis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Exploring The University-Industry-Government High Technology Research Triad: Public Policy Ramifications Of Biotechnology , Brian Josef Reichel Jan 1990

Exploring The University-Industry-Government High Technology Research Triad: Public Policy Ramifications Of Biotechnology , Brian Josef Reichel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation represents an alternative format, which includes four papers submitted to scholarly journals. Section one demonstrates the applicability of cooptation theory to explain increased university-industry biotechnology research ties and the corresponding strains placed on the traditional university structure from such relationships. Public policies driving university cooptation are analyzed and particular cases of organizational strain are specified;Section two combines special interest group theory and the organizational resource-dependence model to explain Iowa's public policy of stimulating biotechnology research. Iowa's attempts to address the farm crisis through economic development strategies relying on biotechnology are investigated in this paper. The ...


Corporate Contributions: An Empirical Assessment Of The Underlying Factors Among Small Business Organizations , Dan Rubarema Muhwezi Jan 1990

Corporate Contributions: An Empirical Assessment Of The Underlying Factors Among Small Business Organizations , Dan Rubarema Muhwezi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines corporate contributions in small communities. Three organization theories: resource dependence, strategic choice and institutional theory are used to set a framework for analyzing the factors that influence small corporations to contribute various resources to their host communities. Several hypotheses are derived from these theories and tested with 1987 survey data from small manufacturing businesses operating in small communities in Iowa;First, the impact of contextual factors: dominance, headquarter location, history, dependence, and community need is examined. Second, the effect of community-organization variables: interaction, influence, and commitment is also estimated;The results show that interface variables are the ...


Explaining International Voluntary Cooperation Under Anarchy: An Analysis Of Emergent Norm Governed Behavior As Substitute For A Global Sovereign , Daniel Steven Bahr Jan 1990

Explaining International Voluntary Cooperation Under Anarchy: An Analysis Of Emergent Norm Governed Behavior As Substitute For A Global Sovereign , Daniel Steven Bahr

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

How can cooperation among states be explained? This study investigates the emergence of norms of cooperation at the international level. It utilizes superordinate conditions to explain voluntary cooperation among state in the absence of a sovereign;Literature relating to the generation of norms at the international level are reviewed from the areas of sociology, social psychology, game theory, and regime theory. Based on the review of the literature, a model employing superordinate goal theory is developed, along with independent and dependent variables;A data set consisting of 26 cases is developed from three category areas covering environmental, economic, and political ...


Locations Of Sauk, Mesquakie, And Associated Euro-American Sites 1832 To 1845: An Ethnohistoric Approach , Kathryn Elizabeth Gourley Jan 1990

Locations Of Sauk, Mesquakie, And Associated Euro-American Sites 1832 To 1845: An Ethnohistoric Approach , Kathryn Elizabeth Gourley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

By the treaty negotiated at the close of the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Sauk (Sac) and Mesquakie (Fox) ceded their lands bordering the Mississippi River. Thirteen years and several treaties later,the tribes had ceded all their remaining lands in Iowa Territory to the United States government and they were relocated to a reservation in present-day Kansas. Abundant documentary evidence of these land transfers has survived. These documents have been the basis of many detailed studies by historians and ethnohistorians (Berthrong 1956: Gallaher 1916a, b: M. Green 1965, 1976: Hagan 1958: Kurtz 1986: Trennert 1981: Van der Zee ...


Social Change In The Saudi Family , Saeed Saeed Hamdan Jan 1990

Social Change In The Saudi Family , Saeed Saeed Hamdan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Social change is pervasive in Saudi Arabia today and the impact can be seen readily in the modern family;To study family change, a sample of Saudi families in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, was selected. Two types of families were surveyed, 300 husbands and 300 wives representing the "old" family and 300 husbands and 300 wives representing the "young" family;A questionnaire was prepared which included questions about marital arrangements, the size of the family, family functions and activities, family living conditions, family power, the husband and wife's roles, practice of the Islamic religion, and other ...


Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer Jan 1989

Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Generally, a sound agricultural development is one that realizes both increases in agricultural production and justice in its distribution (that is, growth with equity). To achieve this, particularly in the Third-World countries, there is a growing recognition that special attention has to be given to modernization of traditional small farmers so that their agricultural production can increase (Kahn, 1978). Consequently, there is need for a development strategy that can reach the small, traditional farmers. Along this line, the government of Sudan hopes that agricultural cooperatives can play this role; this is reflected in the emphasis on cooperatives in the government ...


Traditional Korean Medicine In The Modernization Process: Institutional And Attitudinal Changes , Seung-Pyo Hong Jan 1989

Traditional Korean Medicine In The Modernization Process: Institutional And Attitudinal Changes , Seung-Pyo Hong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the research is to contribute to the sociological understanding of East Asian medicine in Korea. Specifically, at the institutional level, this study describes changes in the structure and organization of the traditional East Asian medical system, looks for some major reasons for these changes, examines the system's developmental process as a social system, and inquires about the system's dynamic relationship with Western medicine. At the individual level, this research examines the Korean people's attitudes and behaviors concerning East Asian medicine in relation to Western medicine; the effects of sociodemographic variables and nationalistic sentiment on ...


The Implementation Of Public Policy: A Sociological Examination Of A Watershed Project Using Grounded Theory , James E. Malia Jan 1989

The Implementation Of Public Policy: A Sociological Examination Of A Watershed Project Using Grounded Theory , James E. Malia

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Local sponsors of federal projects may redefine policy initiatives and implementation strategies to be consistent with local perceptions of need and available resources. These local solutions may not be adequate to sustain the project or to address the larger societal good that is the prime policy objective. As a result, the policy fails to achieve its stated objectives and the societal good may be compromised. The study examines the implementation of a watershed project to learn how implementation strategies can be better devised to increase local compliance;The Little Sioux Watershed program in Western Iowa provides the empirical data for ...


A Comparative-Ethnographic Study Of A Massage Parlor And Nude Modeling Studio , Francine J. Green Jan 1989

A Comparative-Ethnographic Study Of A Massage Parlor And Nude Modeling Studio , Francine J. Green

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a comparative-ethnographic study of 15 women providing sexual services in a massage parlor and a nude modeling studio. A qualitative research design is employed. This deviant subculture is examined from a symbolic interactionist perspective, with special attention given to how sexual encounters are defined and managed, stigma is neutralized, norms and ideologies are expressed, and social relations are organized. Both etiological factors and socialization processes involved in entering and remaining in the provision of sexual services are explored. Four major areas of exploration include: (1) early negative sexual experiences, (2) negative labeling, (3) absence of parental love, and ...


An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer Jan 1989

An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is the organizational basis of increased agricultural productivity. The study reviews both the organizational structure and the effectiveness of interorganizational relations of 18 organizations which comprise the agricultural support network in Central Province, Zambia;An examination of modified Aiken and Hage scales of centralization, formalization task routineness reveal the applicability of their use cross-culturally as well as the centralized nature of most Zambian organizations. The study reveal a corporate system of administrative arrangement with policy decisions and directives originating at the center;The study also reveals that most interorganizational linkages are mandated by law and ...


A Case Study Of The Malaysian Small-Scale Enterprise Nursery Schemes , Nuriyah Noriah Moon Jan 1989

A Case Study Of The Malaysian Small-Scale Enterprise Nursery Schemes , Nuriyah Noriah Moon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is an exploratory study on the implementation of the Malaysian Nursery Schemes undertaken by the Development Bank of Malaysia (BPMB). Analyses were made at the individual, organizational and institutional levels to compare successful and unsuccessful participants and to identify factors facilitating or impeding participant success at both schemes; scheme 1 in Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan and scheme 2 in Jengka, Pahang. Focus, however, was on the scheme 1 in Kelantan. This was due to the unavailability of information in the second scheme, although some comparisons and analyses were made, where ever possible. Although this study involved a very small sample ...


A Typology Of Agrarian Production Systems By Relations Of Reproduction In The Pacifico Sur Region Of Costa Rica , Antonio Ybarra-Rojas Jan 1989

A Typology Of Agrarian Production Systems By Relations Of Reproduction In The Pacifico Sur Region Of Costa Rica , Antonio Ybarra-Rojas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commoditization, the process of dependency reproduction through market mediated relations of production, underlined the construction of a typology of agrarian producers and their social class situations. Questionnaire data from 996 rural producer households of the South Pacific Region of Costa Rica were used to test 18 theoretical propositions as nominal and graduated parameters that characterized the properties of the typology. The combined and uneven development effects on the division of labor process affecting these producers were identified through their confirmed labor market specialization. The capitalist employees were identified as specializing in the full time, permanent rural employment jobs, the simple ...


Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto Jan 1989

Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to modernization theorists, the development processes in developing countries should follow the development pattern of the now-developed countries. One of the development characteristics is the sectoral movement from agriculture to industry, services, or other nonagricultural sectors, in terms of the share of the economy and labor absorption. It remains unclear whether this movement can be best understood at the macrolevel, where the unit of analysis is the nation-state, or at the microlevel, where analysis is at the local level. By considering off-farm labor activities as an indicator of the movement, the study identified modernization processes at the village level ...


In The World But Not Of The World: Religiosity, Alienation, And Philosophy Of Human Nature Among Bible College And Liberal Arts College Students , Terry E. Huffman Jan 1988

In The World But Not Of The World: Religiosity, Alienation, And Philosophy Of Human Nature Among Bible College And Liberal Arts College Students , Terry E. Huffman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study attempts to investigate the relationship between religiosity, alienation, and philosophy of human nature using a sample of students enrolled in a fundamental Bible college and students enrolled in a liberal arts college. Two additional preceding variables, socioeconomic status and religious socialization were included in the model as they were assumed to influence levels of alienation and religiosity respectively;The theoretical model suggested that higher levels of religiosity would be related to lower levels of personal alienation. Furthermore, as conservative, fundamental Christianity was of interest with its particular theological orientation (i.e., the belief in original sin), it was ...


The Impact Of The Video Cassette Recorder On Media Use Within Families Of Urban Dwellers , Richard Edward Worringham Jan 1988

The Impact Of The Video Cassette Recorder On Media Use Within Families Of Urban Dwellers , Richard Edward Worringham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

VCR ownership is growing at a fast pace in the US, yet little is known about its impact upon the family. The impact of the VCR may be analyzed in terms of three interrelated aspects of family life, decision making, normative development and media choices. Believing that VCR's impact upon the family might vary according to status, role, sex, age and education of its members, a random telephone survey of parents and children in the City of Ames, Iowa, was designed to measure the differences of parent and child perceptions and their agreement of disagreement about the impact of ...


A Cognitive Approach To The Study Of Ingroup Bias: Role Of Reasons , Okhee Park Hong Jan 1988

A Cognitive Approach To The Study Of Ingroup Bias: Role Of Reasons , Okhee Park Hong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite considerable research on ingroup bias, there is a lack of theory to explain this phenomenon and thus a lack of understanding of the mechanism behind it. The purpose of this dissertation is to propose a new explanation of ingroup bias. In particular, the research is interested in the cognitive, rather than motivational, basis for ingroup bias. The most predominant theory of ingroup bias has been social identity theory. The theory is based on the assumption of existence of the need for a positive social identity, and is thus a motivationally oriented theory. As an alternative to social identity theory ...


Effectiveness Of The Thai Governmental Policy On Rural Community Development: A Critical Appraisal , Wanna Panmunin Jan 1988

Effectiveness Of The Thai Governmental Policy On Rural Community Development: A Critical Appraisal , Wanna Panmunin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the impact of the Thai government's rural community development program, the Virtuous and Prosperous Land (VPL) program. The main tenet of this is an application of Buddhist doctrines to achieve development. The data used were from a study of "People's Participation in the Virtuous and Prosperous Land (VPL) Program," conducted by the Office of the National Research Council of Thailand during May-July of 1986. Social action theory is used to predict relationships between the actors (residents of rural Thailand), the situation (participation in the VPL program), the actors' orientation to the situation (represented by mind ...


Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama Jan 1988

Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Based on perceptions from two groups of experts, problems and solutions of development have been found to vary across the three Third World regions. Further, some societal conditions affect these perceptions more significantly than others.


Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby Jan 1988

Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study identifies the community power structure and the pattern of leadership in a Midwestern city besides describing the social participation of those individuals who were active in the most important issues carried out in their community through the three years prior to 1981. The reputational approach and social exchange theory are included in the theoretical framework to guide the study. The study involves a survey performed by the Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, in 1981. Participants were selected through a snowball technique starting with ten knowledgeables in the community. The final size of the sample was 120. In ...