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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski Jan 2008

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Prisonization theory asserts that inmates who internalize the attitudes and behaviors of a criminal lifestyle are most likely to continue their criminal careers and thus less likely to desist from crime. Unfortunately, virtually all prior studies of prisonization have used male samples and ignored female inmates. Using official data from 174 female inmates in Arizona, the current study examined predictors of 10 forms of institutional misconduct. Net the effects of demographic, social history, criminal career, and other risk factors, women who had served prior prison terms were significantly likely to commit all forms of misconduct. The effect of prior prison ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer Jan 2008

Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the influence of interclass context on how people identify themselves as middle class. Data were collected from 676 employees of Iowa State University who categorized themselves as being in the middle class. Using an online survey design, all participants were randomly selected into an experimental condition in which they were asked to compare their own social class (i.e., the middle class) with either the working class or the upper class. In agreement with social identity theory, participants evaluated members of the upper class to be more successful, but less moral, than members of the middle class ...


An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman Jan 2008

An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how attitudes and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions to eat irradiated food. This inquiry is important because, food irradiation is controversial and the public's attitude toward it can influence the extent to which it is eventually adopted.;The data received from the first, large-scale commercially funded market test of irradiated food in supermarkets located throughout Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been used for statistical analysis. The test was conducted by Huisken's Meats, Inc. on spring of 2000. The data includes questionnaire responses of 225 participants.;The data analysis of consumers' opinions, concerning food irradiation, confirms the theory ...


An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem Jan 2008

An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study that seeks to examine the foster care experience through the narratives of fifteen participants. This study specifically examines how foster care and family disruptions impact a young adult's ability to form and establish meaningful and trusting romantic relationships. The data were collected from interviews of young adults raised in long-term foster care and adoptive foster care placements. As I set out to explore the foster care experience, I noted the recurring themes that resonated from interviews with the participants. Participants' experiences and understandings of attachment are reflected in my findings.;Many researchers, such as ...


Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis Of Post-Conflict Rural Development In Southern Sudan, Joseph Deng Malual Jan 2008

Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis Of Post-Conflict Rural Development In Southern Sudan, Joseph Deng Malual

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Organizations that provide assistance in post-conflict situations shift from emergency humanitarian relief to long-term development assistance, but face enormous challenges because conflicts have destroyed assets crucial for sustainable development. Southern Sudan emerged from a 23 year devastating civil war that ended in 2005 as result of a peace treaty signed by the Southern People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and the Government of Sudan (GOS). The central goal in this study is to understand the extent and means by which development organizations are helping make people central actors in their own development by effectively empowering them through meaningful participation and ...


Community Well-Being, Individual Responsibility, And Agricultural Change: An Analysis Of Iowa Communities, Daniel R. Sundblad Jan 2008

Community Well-Being, Individual Responsibility, And Agricultural Change: An Analysis Of Iowa Communities, Daniel R. Sundblad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes towards vertical integration in agriculture, increases in farm size, and fewer farm numbers have concerned sociologists for decades. This research conducted two empirical examinations of such trends and their effects on community well-being in 99 small towns in Iowa from 1994 to 2004. The first study examined the effects of the scale and structure of agriculture on material and social community well-being. Changes in farm size proved more drastic than changes in farm organization during this decade, with the most dramatic changes occurring in the concentration of pork production. The findings indicate that structural variables have a modest, yet ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...


Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair Jan 2007

Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the capacity of Agnew's General Strain Theory to explain the self-reported criminality of women. Using a sample of chemically addicted women, this research examines how strains with special relevance for women---losing custody of a child, homelessness, being a victim of assault, suffering from female related health problems, and getting a positive HIV diagnosis, can accumulate and lead to criminal behavior. It also explores the mediating effects of negative emotions and anger in the strain-crime relationship.;The results reveal that exposure to a greater number of strains increases the likelihood of criminal behavior. They also reveal that ...


An Exploratory Look At Career Criminality, Psychopathy, And Offending Persistence: Convergence Of Criminological And Psychological Constructs?, Christine Marie Graeve Jan 2007

An Exploratory Look At Career Criminality, Psychopathy, And Offending Persistence: Convergence Of Criminological And Psychological Constructs?, Christine Marie Graeve

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There exists an abundance of literature on career criminality within criminology and psychopathy within psychology. However, relatively little effort has been made linking the constructs together. This thesis examines the influence of several potential determinants of career criminality, psychopathy, and persistent offending. Some of these potential determinants of these constructs include several psychological and sociological factors. The data (N = 2,486) used in this thesis were originally collected in 1964 and 1965 from young males entering the California Youth Authority (CYA) who were then studied for the next 20 years. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of ...


Living Better Together: The Relationship Between Social Capital And Quality Of Life In Small Towns, Monica Marlene Whitham Jan 2007

Living Better Together: The Relationship Between Social Capital And Quality Of Life In Small Towns, Monica Marlene Whitham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from a study of community life in small Iowa towns, this analysis seeks to understand the relationship between social capital and quality of life at the community level. Social capital has been shown to be related to a variety of aspects of community life, such as crime (Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls 1997) and local economy (Casey and Christ 2005; Flora, et al. 1997; Knack and Keefer 1997), but there is a lack of research on how social capital is related to quality of life. This study attempts to fill the gap by examining the relationship between social capital ...


Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace Jan 2006

Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines neighborhood characteristics as predictors of parenting quality among African-American mothers. Drawing upon Wilson's (1996) ideas of how community conditions affect the urban poor, I examined protective qualities of community life including residential stability and social capital. I examined social capital in two separate social fields based on Wilkinson's (1970) field theory approach to community development. These two separate fields, community and organizational social capital were tested as predictors of African-American mothers' psychological well-being and parenting quality;Among the 759 African-American mothers who participated in this study, high residential stability significantly predicted community social capital but ...


Modernization And Development As Part Of The Globalization Process: Holistic Participatory Community Development In A Community In The Mantaro Valley, Peru, Edith C. Fernandez-Baca Jan 2006

Modernization And Development As Part Of The Globalization Process: Holistic Participatory Community Development In A Community In The Mantaro Valley, Peru, Edith C. Fernandez-Baca

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Development has been conventionally defined as directional change towards nationally organized economic growth. Currently, however, with the emergence of the global marketplace, the focus of development efforts has gone from nationally organized to globally organized economic growth (McMichael 2000). Bhattacharyya (2004) defines community development as the process of creating or increasing solidarity and agency. Community development involves building the capacity of people, encouraging them to create their own dreams and learn new skills and knowledge.;There are three community development issues that can impact the direction community development practice might take: structure (social practices and organizations: social capital), power (relationships ...


The Construction Of Masculinity In Homosocial Environment: A Case Study, Joann Lynn Watkins Rogers Jan 2006

The Construction Of Masculinity In Homosocial Environment: A Case Study, Joann Lynn Watkins Rogers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research seeks to understand how a specific form of masculinity is produced, reproduced, negotiated, and maintained. The fundamental questions that drive this case study are "How do men in a college fraternity teach, learn, and negotiate hegemonic masculinity, and how do they ensure conformity to hegemonic practices"? I discuss how members in a fraternity perform and perceive masculinity within the confines of an institution that also governs their actions and behaviors. I demonstrate that it is the fraternity that allows the performance of hegemonic masculinity to continue and it is this same predominantly male environment that also allows for ...


Structure Of Organizational Trust In Military-Type And Civilian Organizations: Validation Of The Organizational Trust Questionnaire , Ekaterina S. Ralston Jan 2006

Structure Of Organizational Trust In Military-Type And Civilian Organizations: Validation Of The Organizational Trust Questionnaire , Ekaterina S. Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contemporary research on organizational trust views it as either rational or relational phenomenon that is a result of interpersonal bonds or cooperative relationships between the trusting parties. Resent studies agree that a certain degree of trust must be embedded in and enacted through organizational interactions and structures, taking trust from a purely interpersonal phenomenon to a more complex organizational phenomenon that has multiple antecedents;This study hypothesizes that that an organizational member's intention to trust others in the organization is affected by six factors: (1) the individual's propensity to trust, (2) co-workers' character and behaviors, (3) bosses' character ...


Poverty And Food Insecurity In Rural Iowa: An Examination Of Four Food Desert Counties , Ella Annette Bitto Jan 2005

Poverty And Food Insecurity In Rural Iowa: An Examination Of Four Food Desert Counties , Ella Annette Bitto

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Pockets of poverty are found throughout rural Iowa. Rural America is comprised of people with varying backgrounds who much make their livelihoods in a society that is increasingly a part of a global village. Living in Iowa, called by many the breadbasket of the world, does not necessarily mean that everyone will have equal access to food. In fact, over 46,600 Iowans between 2001--2003 experienced some form of poverty and 9.4 percent were defined as food insecure. This dissertation examines the economic structure of Iowa's counties to determine how agriculture and local business influence per capita income ...


The Structural Organization Of Cbnrm In Botswana , Kutlwano Mulale Jan 2005

The Structural Organization Of Cbnrm In Botswana , Kutlwano Mulale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The devolution of natural resource management to local community groups is a dominant theme in contemporary discussion of common property natural resource management. Throughout much of Africa and other parts of the developing world Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programs are being implemented. Though governments in Africa and other parts of the developing world embrace the idea of CBNRM, the actual process of devolution of natural resource management to local community groups is problematic. In some countries, like Zimbabwe for instance, the central government devolved natural resource management to district councils which are themselves arms of the central government ...


Healthy Communities Equal Healthy Ecosystems? Evolution (And Breakdown) Of A Participatory Ecological Research Project Towards A Community Natural Resource Management Process, San Miguel Chimalapa (Mexico) , Isabel A. Gutiérrez-Montes Jan 2005

Healthy Communities Equal Healthy Ecosystems? Evolution (And Breakdown) Of A Participatory Ecological Research Project Towards A Community Natural Resource Management Process, San Miguel Chimalapa (Mexico) , Isabel A. Gutiérrez-Montes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In tropical forest regions throughout the world, forest fires are a major risk to the well-being and sustainable livelihood of rural communities. The Chimalapas region is one of the priority conservation areas in Mexico since it is one of the country's most important sources of water, supports exceptionally diverse ecosystems and species of flora and fauna. Unlike in temperate conifer forests, fire is extremely rare in the Chimalapas cloud forests, but after the 1998 fire events, forest fires are a constant threat in the region. These fires result from the indiscriminate use of fire in agricultural activities as well ...


Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal Jan 2005

Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Malaysia is confronting a problem of increased adolescent delinquency. Despite these situations, there is very little research on adolescent delinquency. Some researchers have suggested that family functioning dimensions may become risk factors to the development of risky behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine perceived family functioning dimensions (problem solving, affective involvement, affective response, roles, communication, behavior control, general functioning, family time, religious belief, and religious practice) and their effect on the occurrence of adolescent delinquency. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on total delinquency scores of this group ...


The Contribution Of Levels Of Social Capital To Community Development , Syed Noor Ali Tirmizi Jan 2005

The Contribution Of Levels Of Social Capital To Community Development , Syed Noor Ali Tirmizi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Social capital, first conceptualized by Pierre Bourdieu and further developed by Coleman and Putnam, can be considered to be a 'set of social relations' that provide access to resources. Despite its recognized role in community development efforts, considerable variation exist among researchers regarding the definition, dimensions and indictors of social capital. Lin's social resources theoretical framework posits social capital as an important input in development efforts and guides operationalization of social capital here. This study uses data from a 1995 nationwide survey (Economic Development Strategies and Entrepreneurial Infrastructure) of 307 rural that experienced a successful community development effort (expansion ...


Racializing Business Networks: A Study Of The Impact That Social Capital Has On African American And White-Dominated Business Networks , Robert Kelvin Perkins Jan 2004

Racializing Business Networks: A Study Of The Impact That Social Capital Has On African American And White-Dominated Business Networks , Robert Kelvin Perkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects that social capital has on racializing business networks. Racializing business networks refers to business networks in which all or the majority of its members are from one ethnic group or the goals of the networks are specifically designed for economic development/success for a particular ethnic group. I examine the differences between White-dominated and African American business networks in four mid-Western states (Iowa, Ohio, Minnesota, and Nebraska) using Portes and Sensenbrenner four components of economic social capital. The four components of economic social capital are value introjection, reciprocity transaction, bounded ...


Navigating The Workplace: Gay White Men In Corporate America , Shaun Bryant Keister Jan 2004

Navigating The Workplace: Gay White Men In Corporate America , Shaun Bryant Keister

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The lives of gay men and lesbians continue to be understudied in sociology. In addition, gay white men are uniquely positioned in society, at once belonging to the dominant culture by virtue of being both "white" and "male," and part of a minority group because of their sexual orientation. This distinction is important to acknowledge and study. Additionally, because sexual orientation can be hidden or made invisible, the ability to choose if and when one might divulge their orientation adds a unique dimension to how gay white men navigate their lives. This body of research specifically examines how gay white ...


Pre-Prison, Prison, Post-Prison: Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms , Daniel Shawn Murphy Jan 2004

Pre-Prison, Prison, Post-Prison: Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms , Daniel Shawn Murphy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Those sentenced to prison bring with them individual characteristics acquired prior to incarceration. This study assesses the effect of pre-prison experiences on adjustment to the prison environment. Regression analysis indicates that pre-prison experiences are significantly related to the likelihood of participating in, or being exposed to, elements of the incarceration experience that may cause post traumatic stress symptoms. A second component of this study assesses the relationship between elements of the incarceration experience and post traumatic stress symptoms. Regression analysis indicates that aspects of the incarceration experience constitute traumatic stressors that cause post traumatic stress symptoms in some individuals. This ...


Managing Household Food And Feeding : Gender, Consumption And Citizenship Among Community Supported Agriculture Members, Leah Kase Sokolofski Jan 2004

Managing Household Food And Feeding : Gender, Consumption And Citizenship Among Community Supported Agriculture Members, Leah Kase Sokolofski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) links consumers and farmers through a sustainable, direct-marketing method that makes consumers participants in food production. CSA brings consumers to the place where their food is grown and creates relationships between consumers and the farmers growing their food. Synthesizing literatures on gendered food and feeding work and theories of consumption, this thesis analyzes consumer-members' experiences with Community Supported Agriculture in Burlington, Vermont, USA. This research focuses on participants in two CSAs, based in an urban greening project called Intervale, located near downtown Burlington. Utilizing qualitative research methods, the research addresses two main questions: How does CSA ...


Investigating Types Of Delinquents In A Non-Western Country: A Group-Based Model Approach , Yi-Fu Chen Jan 2004

Investigating Types Of Delinquents In A Non-Western Country: A Group-Based Model Approach , Yi-Fu Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on the empirical status for theories of types of delinquents in a non-Western country: Taiwan. Based on the theories and current empirical status of them, current study tries to answer three main questions: (1) How many groups of delinquent trajectories in Taiwan? (2) What factors distinguish between trajectory groups? Do empirical findings support common factors argument or trajectory-specific argument? (3) Do the covariates of delinquency work differently for trajectory groups in different timing?;Using five-year prospective longitudinal research in Taiwan, current research applies Nagin's group-based models to exploring these questions. In group-based models, results show three ...


Measuring The Impact Of Higher Education On Student Development Regarding Racial Attitudes And Support For Race-Based Policy , Timothy Donald Levonyan Radloff Jan 2004

Measuring The Impact Of Higher Education On Student Development Regarding Racial Attitudes And Support For Race-Based Policy , Timothy Donald Levonyan Radloff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the educational effect of diversity course graduation requirements on undergraduate students' racial attitudes and support for race-based policy at a predominantly White Midwest university. The present research utilized social structural variables as well as classical and contemporary measures of prejudice and racism to analyze undergraduate students' racial attitudes toward African Americans and support for race-based policy. An 85-question survey on the Internet was administered to undergraduate students at two different time periods during the 2000--01 academic year employing two different data collection techniques. Undergraduate students were contacted in their classes and asked ...


The Discursive Structures Of Totalitarian Ideology , Yong Wang Jan 2003

The Discursive Structures Of Totalitarian Ideology , Yong Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Realist approaches to the study of ideology have treated ideologies as static ideas that mediate between presumed social realities and political powers. In this research the researcher views ideology as discursive practice that constitutes social realities through producing its subjects. A series of formal narrative models are established to tackle the fundamental discursive structures of ideological texts. Temporal narrative analysis is used to reconstruct grand narrative in terms of causality and social categorizations. Models of narrative modes, genres, and modalities are established to examine the processes of self-identity formation. Furthermore, a semantic analytical approach is devised to examine the associations ...


Predictors Of Police Harassment And Arrests Among Homeless And Runaway Adolescents , Lisa Ellen Thrane Jan 2003

Predictors Of Police Harassment And Arrests Among Homeless And Runaway Adolescents , Lisa Ellen Thrane

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines risk factors associated with informal and formal contact with law enforcement among 602 homeless and runaway youth from the Midwest. This study considers the effects of extra-legal factors, family context, individual traits, and situational considerations on the frequency of police harassment and self-reported post-runaway arrests. In addition, potential interactions will be examined. In the final model, the findings reveal that males are more likely to be hassled by the police. Youth Self-Report (YSR) aggressive behavior is a subscale from Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (1991) Externalizing behavior. It is positively associated with police harassment. Deviant subsistence strategies and ...


Testing Thornberry's Interactional Theory: The Reciprocal Relations , Sangmoon Lee Jan 2003

Testing Thornberry's Interactional Theory: The Reciprocal Relations , Sangmoon Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thornberry's interactional model (1987) suggested that the process of delinquency could be explained by the reciprocal relations between social control variables and social learning variables over developmental stages. However, previous studies for testing interactional model (Thornberry et al., 1991, 1994) had some limitations. They did not adequately include theoretically significant measures of both social control and social learning variables. They did not fully cover the transition throughout adolescence. They also did not adequately examine the variation of social category and individual criminal propensity. This study selects family attachment as social control and deviant peer association as social learning variable ...


The Impact Of Marital Conflict On Adolescent Adjustment , Ming Cui Jan 2003

The Impact Of Marital Conflict On Adolescent Adjustment , Ming Cui

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study examines the impact of marital conflict on adolescent adjustment problems. Based on this general interest, the study further explores several related research questions, such as what specific aspects of marital conflict lead to adolescent adjustment problems, whether changes in marital conflict predict changes in adolescent problems, what kinds of adolescent problems are exhibited, and by what processes the relation between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment problems operates. While focusing on these research issues, this study also tries to overcome some of the methodological limitations in previous studies. The study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families ...