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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla Jan 1992

The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the West African country of Burkina Faso, soil erosion has long been a concern. The national government has perceived soil erosion a problem for over a quarter of a century. Although institutional support and practices to control the severity of soil erosion are available, attempts to address the problem have met with limited success. This limited success may be related to lack of consideration of the local indigenous knowledge as a restraining factor. Farmers may be reluctant to adopt conservation practices unfamiliar to them;This study, conducted in two villages in the northwestern Burkina Faso investigates the important role ...


A Theoretical Perspective For Explaining Factors Associated With Cooperative Membership In The Qassim Region Of Saudi Arabia , Muhamad Suliman Al-Sakran Jan 1992

A Theoretical Perspective For Explaining Factors Associated With Cooperative Membership In The Qassim Region Of Saudi Arabia , Muhamad Suliman Al-Sakran

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study is on voluntary membership of farmers in agricultural cooperatives. Communication channels and personal motives of farmers are investigated in an effort to understand the problems hindering the agricultural cooperation movement. The main purpose of this study is to critique the traditional diffusion model in its application to cooperative membership in Saudi Arabia. Suggestions are made to expand the traditional model beyond utilitarian considerations to consider cooperation as a moral obligation. This comes out of a deontological perspective where cultural (moral) conditions are combined with perceived individual benefits for understanding how farmers decide on whether or ...


Family Social Structure, Farm Operation Characteristics And The Adoption Of New Technologies For Sustainable Farming Systems In Mali , Mahamadou Tangara Jan 1992

Family Social Structure, Farm Operation Characteristics And The Adoption Of New Technologies For Sustainable Farming Systems In Mali , Mahamadou Tangara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent the social structure of the family farm production unit and farm operation characteristics are related to the adoption of new farming technologies in the OHV area;This study relates the adoption/diffusion model to the farming system research and extension (FSR/E) approach applied to farming families of the "Operation Haute Vallee" area in Mali. Adoption is defined as a decision to use fully an innovation, and diffusion can be considered as the spreading of a practice perceived as new from its source of creation to adopters as individuals ...


The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio Jan 1990

The Impact Of Network Formation On Technology Use Among Female Headed Households In Rural Southern Philippines , Enrico Neri Imperio

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to investigate the farming activities of female headed households in the Philippines. In particular. how resource-poor households utilize networks to access resources and technology;To accomplish the above purpose, a survey questionnaire was prepared in the Department of Sociology in Iowa State University. After approval. it was translated and taken to the sampled 8 rural barrios which had previously been stratified according to population and migration status. All female heads of households in these barrios were interviewed by females who were residents of the barrios;Results indicate that FHHs' and households' characteristics are important factors in ...


Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer Jan 1989

Agricultural Cooperatives As A Means For Agricultural Development: The Case Of Western Sudan Small Farmers' Cooperatives , Siddig El Tayeb Muneer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Generally, a sound agricultural development is one that realizes both increases in agricultural production and justice in its distribution (that is, growth with equity). To achieve this, particularly in the Third-World countries, there is a growing recognition that special attention has to be given to modernization of traditional small farmers so that their agricultural production can increase (Kahn, 1978). Consequently, there is need for a development strategy that can reach the small, traditional farmers. Along this line, the government of Sudan hopes that agricultural cooperatives can play this role; this is reflected in the emphasis on cooperatives in the government ...


The Impact Of The Farm Economic Crisis On The Career Aspirations Of Iowa Farm Youth , Kazi Aziz Ahmed Jan 1989

The Impact Of The Farm Economic Crisis On The Career Aspirations Of Iowa Farm Youth , Kazi Aziz Ahmed

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The impact of the farm economic crisis on the career aspiration of the Iowa farm-reared undergraduate students of Iowa State University is examined. More than half of the sample studied reported that the crisis has affected their career plans to some extent. A selected number of variables, background and attitudinal in nature, were examined to predict the students' alternative career choices. A path model was formulated and tested. The LISREL computer program was used to estimate and test several versions of the model. Results show that parents' economic status, son's ideological commitment to agricultural, and his assessment of the ...


An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer Jan 1989

An Organizational Basis For Facilitating Increased Agricultural Productivity In Central Province, Zambia , Robert E. Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is the organizational basis of increased agricultural productivity. The study reviews both the organizational structure and the effectiveness of interorganizational relations of 18 organizations which comprise the agricultural support network in Central Province, Zambia;An examination of modified Aiken and Hage scales of centralization, formalization task routineness reveal the applicability of their use cross-culturally as well as the centralized nature of most Zambian organizations. The study reveal a corporate system of administrative arrangement with policy decisions and directives originating at the center;The study also reveals that most interorganizational linkages are mandated by law and ...


Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto Jan 1989

Determinants Of Household Off-Farm Labor Activity: The Case Of Six Villages In Cimanuk River Basin, West Java, Indonesia , Andin Hadiwinarno Taryoto

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to modernization theorists, the development processes in developing countries should follow the development pattern of the now-developed countries. One of the development characteristics is the sectoral movement from agriculture to industry, services, or other nonagricultural sectors, in terms of the share of the economy and labor absorption. It remains unclear whether this movement can be best understood at the macrolevel, where the unit of analysis is the nation-state, or at the microlevel, where analysis is at the local level. By considering off-farm labor activities as an indicator of the movement, the study identified modernization processes at the village level ...


Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby Jan 1988

Power Structure And Social Participation In Community Action: A Case Study , Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Hasab-Elnaby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study identifies the community power structure and the pattern of leadership in a Midwestern city besides describing the social participation of those individuals who were active in the most important issues carried out in their community through the three years prior to 1981. The reputational approach and social exchange theory are included in the theoretical framework to guide the study. The study involves a survey performed by the Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, in 1981. Participants were selected through a snowball technique starting with ten knowledgeables in the community. The final size of the sample was 120. In ...


Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama Jan 1988

Perceptions Of Development Problems And Solutions: A Contextual Approach , Daisy Kabagarama

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Based on perceptions from two groups of experts, problems and solutions of development have been found to vary across the three Third World regions. Further, some societal conditions affect these perceptions more significantly than others.


Sociological Factors Influencing The Decisions Of Iowa Farmers To Adopt Needed Soil Conservation Practices , Donald Joseph Wagener Jan 1987

Sociological Factors Influencing The Decisions Of Iowa Farmers To Adopt Needed Soil Conservation Practices , Donald Joseph Wagener

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Public concern about soil erosion has increased in recent years. It is now a high-priority issue among rural and urban residents alike. Given the seriousness of soil erosion, both nationally and in Iowa, the question can be posed as to why many farmers have failed to adopt needed soil conservation measures. The present study examines some sociological factors that are of presumed importance for the speed with which farmers adopt needed soil conservation practices;Findings are presented in four interrelated papers. The first paper examined the "Cancian thesis," which poses a challenge to previous findings on the relationship between socioeconomic ...


Structural Change, Individual Modernity And Fertility Preference In Taiwan , Konadu Acheampong Jan 1987

Structural Change, Individual Modernity And Fertility Preference In Taiwan , Konadu Acheampong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from interviews with 973 Taiwanese women of childbearing age (15-44 years), having at least one child and living with husbands, a general theory of human fertility preference is derived and tested. Drawing from socio-structural, social-psychological and economic theories, the proposed theory posits that human fertility preference is a function of the changing socioeconomic and demographic milieu as well as some specific modal characteristics of the individual;First, the interrelationships among selected socioeconomic status and individual modernity variables are examined. Second, the individual's attitudes, her perceptions about the costs associated with childbearing, her knowledge of contraceptives and her ...


The Farm Crisis: Stress, Alienation, And The Political Orientation Of Iowa Farm Operators , Jack Mitchell Geller Jan 1986

The Farm Crisis: Stress, Alienation, And The Political Orientation Of Iowa Farm Operators , Jack Mitchell Geller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sociological discussions of the social-psychological impacts of economic hardship have focused primarily on the industrial sector. This study extends this focus by testing some social-psychological impacts on Iowa farm operators of the contemporary financial crisis in agriculture. A two-stage research design was used in the analysis;The first stage of the analysis involved a detailed examination of the relationship between economic hardship and stress. The effects of several moderator variables upon this relationship were explored using a multiple regression framework;The second stage of the analysis tested a structural model of the impacts of economic hardship on stress, alienation, and ...


Barriers To Interorganizational Relationships: A Comparative Analysis , Thomas Jefferson Hoban Iv Jan 1986

Barriers To Interorganizational Relationships: A Comparative Analysis , Thomas Jefferson Hoban Iv

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The problem of soil erosion persists despite 50 years of public programs, costing over 20 billion. This study approaches this problem by examining the frequency of interaction among organizations involved in promoting soil conservation and providing farmers with assistance. Interorganizational relationships (IOR) are thought to have an important influence on the effectiveness of local conservation programs;Relationships among four federal (USDA) agencies involved with soil conservation at the local (county) level are studied: the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), the Cooperative Extension Service (CES); the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS), and the Farmer's Home Administration (FmHA). Telephone interviews with ...


The Sociology Of Agricultural Development In West Malaysia: An Analysis Of Peasant Producers' Rural-Rural Migration Within The Context Of Integrated Agricultural Development Setting , Mohd. Isa Bin Haji Bakar Jan 1986

The Sociology Of Agricultural Development In West Malaysia: An Analysis Of Peasant Producers' Rural-Rural Migration Within The Context Of Integrated Agricultural Development Setting , Mohd. Isa Bin Haji Bakar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation employs the discriminating behavior and social integration model to differentiate the characteristics and behavior of spontaneous rural-rural migrant peasant producers from their non-migrant counterparts in West Malaysia;The data for the analysis came from the interview of 100 actual migrants currently residing in the Trans-Perak IADP area of the state of Perak and 100 non-migrants currently living in the villages of origin of the migrants in the district of Yan, the Muda area of Kedah, between January and March of 1985. The migration process took place around the year 1970;The study revealed that migrant peasants differ very ...


Science, Organization And The International Agricultural Research Centers , Hemchandra Laxman Gajbhiye Jan 1986

Science, Organization And The International Agricultural Research Centers , Hemchandra Laxman Gajbhiye

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an attempt to understand the relationship between scientific, social, ideological and organizational factors and the process of knowledge creation, evaluation, and diffusion of ideas in international agricultural research centers (IARCs). Data for the analysis came from 108 senior and middle level scientists working in two major IARCs;The dissertation follows the four article format. The first paper deals with the research problem selection. Several criteria of problem choice are examined, which include purely scientific, reward consideration and organizational priority. The results indicate that problem choice is more likely to be influenced by organizational consideration and societal problems ...


The Role And Impact Of Extension Agents In Kaduna State Of Nigeria , Thomas Kakara Atala Jan 1986

The Role And Impact Of Extension Agents In Kaduna State Of Nigeria , Thomas Kakara Atala

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of agricultural extension agents, examine the role perception, role performance, and role consensus of extension agents and develop and test the importance of a set of variables posited or presumed as explaining the differential agent role performance and the relationship between role performance and role impact;Field investigation was conducted in Zone III of the World Bank-assisted agricultural development program in Kaduna State. Respondents were the extension agents operating in this area. A structured interview instrument was used and data were obtained from 112 of the 115 extension agents in ...


Family Farming: Persistence, Decline Or Transformation ? , Curtis Warren Stofferahn Jan 1985

Family Farming: Persistence, Decline Or Transformation ? , Curtis Warren Stofferahn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a review of three major Marxist perspectives concerning the future of family farming as a form of simple commodity production and presents and tests a revised perspective within the context of Iowa agriculture. Data for the analysis come from quinquennial censuses of Iowa agriculture for the years 1940-1982;The dissertation follows the three article format. The first paper proposes two processes which exploit simple commodity producers: (1) the production of absolute surplus-value through the formal subsumption of their commodified labor and (2) the production of relative surplus-value through the real subsumption of their commodified labor. Under this ...


Impact Of Situational And Orientational Factors On Residents' Contributions To Community Field Structure: A Case Study , Mohamed Ibrahim Elezaby Jan 1985

Impact Of Situational And Orientational Factors On Residents' Contributions To Community Field Structure: A Case Study , Mohamed Ibrahim Elezaby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study is to estimate the relative importance of a series of situational and orientational variables, that are posited to explain residents' differential contributions to the formation and integration of the community field structure through participating in community action. Community field theory is adopted to conceptualize community structure and residents' contributions to that structure;Guided by Parsons' voluntaristic action theory, nine situational and orientational variables are selected. These variables include residents' sex, marital status, socio-economic status, extensity of participation in organizations, degree of contact with community leaders, level of organizations in which ones hold executive positions ...


Social Change Among The Farmers Of Zambia - From Subsistence Towards Commercial Production , Rudolph E. Stewart Jan 1985

Social Change Among The Farmers Of Zambia - From Subsistence Towards Commercial Production , Rudolph E. Stewart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The transformation of the peasant mode of production among the majority of Zambia's subsistence farmers is crucial to rural development in general, and a market oriented agricultural development perspective in particular;A number of factors either constrain or facilitate the transformation process--economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural and psychological among others. Unfortunately, the socio-cultural variables and their independent effects have been submerged or, at best, obscured by a preponderance of economic factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the factors indispensable to the farmer becoming increasingly market oriented. It examines the relationship of social cultural and social psychological variables to ...


Correlates Of The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices By Iowa Farmers , Boyejo Oludaisi Adefuye Jan 1985

Correlates Of The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices By Iowa Farmers , Boyejo Oludaisi Adefuye

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Factors important to farmers' differential adoption of soil conserving practices have been well studied. But one factor that has received surprisingly little attention is the tenure status of the operator i.e., whether an owner-operator, part-owner, or tenant. The few studies that have tested for the importance of tenure have often reached contradictory conclusions. The present study tests for differences in the relative adoption of soil conservation practices by three tenure groups;Three measures of adoption--behavioral adoption, psychological adoption of recommended mechanical plans, and psychological adoption of recommended vegetative plans--were used in this study. Farm operators were classified into three ...


A Causal Model Of Integrated Pest Management Adoption Among Iowa Farmers , Fouad Abdel-Latif Salama Jan 1983

A Causal Model Of Integrated Pest Management Adoption Among Iowa Farmers , Fouad Abdel-Latif Salama

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A primary objective of this study was the development and testing of a set of variables that were posited as explaining the differential rapidity with which farmers adopt integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Especially important to the study was the treatment of explanatory variables in a systems perspective which entailed use of path analysis;In the application of social action theory as a general framework, age and educational attainment were included to measure actor characteristics. Farm size, farm income, IPM availability and IPM diffusion were used to measure "situational elements." Finally, opinion leadership, adoption orientation, chemical attitudes and awareness of ...


Farmer Motivation Patterns In Participating In Adaptive Crop Research Trials/ Demonstrations In Sierra Leone , Amadu Muhamed Bangura Jan 1983

Farmer Motivation Patterns In Participating In Adaptive Crop Research Trials/ Demonstrations In Sierra Leone , Amadu Muhamed Bangura

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Agricultural development programs in many developing countries are failing to achieve the goal of self sufficiency in food because farmers have negative attitudes toward the programs or recommended practices. Farmers may resist new practices due to their inappropriateness and the cultural, social, psychological, economic, and bureaucratic constraints within the community. Unfortunately, research on the adoption and diffusion process has been largely confined to developed countries. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify factors affecting farmers' participation in agricultural development programs in a developing country situation. The theoretical model emphasizes farmer motivation for participating in and adopting recommended practices;The ...


Macroscopic Analysis Of Human Fertility: Theoretical Methodological Assessments , Mahmoud Mesbah Abdel-Rahman Jan 1982

Macroscopic Analysis Of Human Fertility: Theoretical Methodological Assessments , Mahmoud Mesbah Abdel-Rahman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The major objective of this study is to test the applicability of demographic transition theory to developing countries in general and under various cultural conditions. A literature review identifies the theoretical and methodological limitations associated with demographic transition research;The basic tenets of the theory are spelled out in a causal model of human fertility and applied to 67 developing countries in three distinctive cultural settings: Catholic, Islamic, and Buddhist countries. Eleven concepts are hypothesized to be directly or indirectly related to human fertility: (1) availability of land, (2) industrialization, (3) economic development, (4) urbanization, (5) education, (6) children in ...


The New Ecological Paradigm: An Exploration Into The Nature And Correlates Of Iowan's Environmental Orientations , Don E. Albrecht Jan 1982

The New Ecological Paradigm: An Exploration Into The Nature And Correlates Of Iowan's Environmental Orientations , Don E. Albrecht

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Historically, western societies have emphasized the virtues of growth and resource exploitation for meeting the needs of their populations. This emphasis partly springs from a strong anthropencentric tradition in these societies in which humans have been seen as being apart from nature and as somehow immune from ecological constraints. Man's arrogance toward nature has been attributed to numerous factors, including European expansion into the Western Hemisphere during the 17th century and the rapid development of science and technology. Catton and Dunlap (1980) maintain that these factors were important in producing a unique set of values in western societies, which ...


Organizational Effectiveness Of Cooperatives Using Error-In-Variables And A Factor Analytic Approach , Leonidas Theodoros Kazakopoulos Jan 1980

Organizational Effectiveness Of Cooperatives Using Error-In-Variables And A Factor Analytic Approach , Leonidas Theodoros Kazakopoulos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Application Of A Conventional Adoption-Diffusion Model To The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices By Iowa Farmers: The Interface Of Technology, Social Change And Development , Ajaga Nji Jan 1980

The Application Of A Conventional Adoption-Diffusion Model To The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices By Iowa Farmers: The Interface Of Technology, Social Change And Development , Ajaga Nji

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A major negative effect of the development of American agriculture is increased rates of soil erosion. The problem of soil erosion in Iowa thus can be seen as the interface of technology, social change and development. Its resolution behooves agricultural scientists and kindred professionals to work together to facilitate an understanding of the seriousness of the problem and enhance the rapid adoption of appropriate soil conservation practices or technologies;The purpose of this dissertation, then, is to attempt to apply a conventional adoption model to predict the adoption of soil conservation practices in Iowa, using the structural-functional conceptual framework. Thus ...


Patterns In A Rural Community Power Actor Pool , Janet Lynn Bokemeier Jan 1978

Patterns In A Rural Community Power Actor Pool , Janet Lynn Bokemeier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption Of Agricultural Technology In Less Developed Countries: Iran , Jaleh Shadi-Talab Jan 1977

Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption Of Agricultural Technology In Less Developed Countries: Iran , Jaleh Shadi-Talab

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Indicators Of Social Development: Conceptual And Methodological Considerations In Monitoring The Health Sector , John Oliver Callaghan Jan 1974

Indicators Of Social Development: Conceptual And Methodological Considerations In Monitoring The Health Sector , John Oliver Callaghan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.