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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui Jan 2007

Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Guided by family ecological theory, this paper empirically explored how family demographic, socioeconomic, and community characteristics, as well as public and government factors, are related to changes in a family's food insecurity status. Using 2001 and 2003 data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a multinomial logit model of food security status was estimated. About 33.16% of the families with children under age 18 that were food insecure in 2001 became food secure in 2003. Meanwhile, about 4.48% of the families who were food secure in 2001 became food insecure in 2003. Although the average ...


Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn Jan 2006

Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to synthesize evidence concerning welfare participation behavior and the consequences of the behavior, both for participants and non-participants. Following the life-course theory view of family life, this study incorporates a dynamic model of family process and elaborates historical events into this model. Analyzing data from the NLSY79 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth), which provides a history of labor force participation and information related to job and family relationships, this study finds that low-income families reach self-sufficiency mostly through marriage, getting a higher wage job, and working longer hours;In terms of determinants of ...


Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga Jan 2006

Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study predicted that community ethnic heterogeneity (controlling for community poverty), family adversity (i.e., family economic hardship and non-intact two-parent family/single parenthood), family social resources (i.e., parent-adolescent relationship, parental control, parental warmth, parental knowledge), and individual traits (i.e., racial minority status and gender) would influence adolescent problem behavior trajectories both additively and multiplicatively. In addition, the study predicted that there would be racial/ethnic and gender differences in problem behavior over time. An effective analysis of community influence on individual outcomes requires a multilevel analysis that includes community-level, family-level, and individual-level variables. This multilevel analysis used ...


Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman Jan 2006

Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate allegations of abuse related to the United States' bankruptcy system. This study used data on bankruptcy and financial problems from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to estimate a model of consumer bankruptcy abuse. The focus of this study was the extent to which consumers were abusing the right to file for bankruptcy protection;Specifically, this study used a cross-sectional, time-series model of bankruptcy and financial problems and assessed the relative importance of different personal and financial variables in predicting bankruptcy. This study sought to investigate (1) if households in this ...


A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl Jan 2006

A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Risk and protective factors of the family and individual microsystems associated with early sexual intercourse among a sample of low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory in combination with a risk and resiliency framework. The risk factors examined were adolescent race, gender, family structure, low maternal education, family welfare receipt, income, and delinquent behaviors. Protective factors explored included family routines, parental monitoring, parent-child relationships, father involvement, academic achievement and academic aspirations. Waves 1 and 2 of the Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, ages 10 to 14 years). Relationships between early sexual activity and sexual ...


The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley Jan 2006

The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate gender and age differences in dealing with a romantic relationship breakup, as well as to investigate the role that distal (childhood events and childhood attachment) and proximal (personality, perceived stress, coping, and adult attachment) influence one's adjustment to an ended romantic relationship. Participants for this study included 252 (160 women and 92 men) college students, with age ranges from 18 to 39. Two (Age) X Two (Gender) analyses of covariance were computed to assess mean differences for all variables. Women reported higher Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness scores than men, whereas ...


A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall Jan 2006

A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was on the mechanisms or resources that older individuals draw upon to adapt to the normative decrepitude of advanced age. To date, no studies have been found that systematically investigate the structural inter-relationships of the self-reported resources (i.e., social, economic, mental, physical, and functional) assessed by the Duke Older American Resources and Services (OARS) instrument among older adults. In particular, because the centenarian group typically struggles with increased hearing, vision, and functional health losses, social resources are especially salient for positive adaptation to these age-related losses. Because social resources has been specified as an ...


Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson Jan 2006

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore multiple methods of assessing early childhood programs and to investigate children's individual experiences and activities in inclusive early child care and education settings. Specifically, this research investigated if individual play/learning experiences in early childhood programs differed for children with and without disabilities and the relationship between global quality of early childhood care and education programs and individual play/learning experiences of individual children with or without disabilities;Early care and education quality is a complex phenomenon influenced by variables that exist on a number of levels including overall program quality ...


Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago Jan 2005

Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of international students continues to grow in the United States, especially students from the Asian continent. However, research continues to show that Asian international students tend to under-use therapeutic services, even though they experience many of the common problems that all students face entering college. Before mental health practitioners and therapists can effectively work with these students, they need to understand international students in terms of their attitudes toward seeking professional therapeutic help and various proximal variables that may influence their attitudes.;The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity, spirituality, acculturation, and racism with attitudes toward ...


Interpersonal And Spiritual Resources In Late-Life Adaptation And Well-Being: A Study Of Elderly Men And Women Religious Residing Within Monastic Religious Communities , Alexander John Bishop Jan 2005

Interpersonal And Spiritual Resources In Late-Life Adaptation And Well-Being: A Study Of Elderly Men And Women Religious Residing Within Monastic Religious Communities , Alexander John Bishop

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to investigate how interpersonal and spiritual resources influence well-being in a sample of older men and women residing in religious monastic communities. Participants for this study included 235 (164 women and 71 men) individuals, age 64 and older, from the Religious Order of St. Benedict. Two (Age) X Two (Gender) Analyses of Variance were used to analyze mean differences. Young-old persons had higher mean scores on close friendship, coping behaviors, and personal growth than did old-old individuals. However, old-old individuals had higher average scores on religious coping behaviors and depression than did young-old ...


What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain Jan 2005

Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research utilized data from Reconnecting Youth in Iowa, a positive youth development program for at-risk students, to assess the relationship between two Adlerian psychology constructs: encouragement and social interest. Relevant survey questions utilized in outcome studies for the program were clustered into the theoretical constructs. Pearson product moment correlations revealed broad correlations between indicators of encouragement and social interest. Analysis of variance revealed there were significant difference between high, moderate, and low levels of encouragement on most social interest indicators. Implications for helping professionals and programmatic efforts are discussed.


Acceptability Of Violence, Gender, And Dating Violence , Shelby Annette Kaura Jan 2005

Acceptability Of Violence, Gender, And Dating Violence , Shelby Annette Kaura

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study contains two separate, yet related research projects. The first is a study on dating violence perpetration, with the associations of relationship commitment and jealousy on dating violence perpetration examined. Acceptability of violence, another variable related to violence perpetration, was examined as a potential moderator of relationship commitment and jealousy on dating violence perpetration. Using a sample of 155 male and 417 female college students, t-tests showed that women reported higher perpetration levels than men. Hierarchical regression analyses found that only jealousy was associated with dating violence perpetration---and only for women. Neither relationship commitment nor acceptability of violence was ...


Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue Jan 2005

Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Systems theory was used to link family functioning in the task of boundary regulation to adolescents' academic performance. Boundary regulation, a family task defined in terms of proximity and generation hierarchy, is believed to be the most critical to family functioning because it sets a precondition for the execution of other family tasks. Data from Wave II of the National Survey of Families and Household (NSFH) were used to identify family interaction patterns that reflect proximity and generation hierarchy aspects of boundary regulation, utilizing both parent and adolescent responses. Proximity was measured by items representing physical and emotional closeness of ...


Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten Jan 2005

Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores both factors influencing obesity among adolescents as well as social and mental health consequences of obesity in young adulthood. Specifically this study investigates the influence of structural community adversity, family, and individual factors on parental general physical health and adolescent obesity. The findings generally support the hypothesized additive and multiplicative association of these factors with parental physical health outcomes and adolescent obesity. Community and family disadvantages uniquely influence the risk of poor general physical health among parents. Poor parental general health in turn is associated with adolescent obesity. Findings also suggest that the influence of community adversity ...


The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh Jan 2005

The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, scholars and politicians have debated the socioeconomic effects of adolescent pregnancy for individuals, families, and society. Pregnant and parenting adolescents often must cope with a lack of resources as they struggle to negotiate the tasks of motherhood and adolescence. Previous research has determined that young mothers have an increased rate of depression when compared to older mothers (Sarri & Phillips, 2004).;In this study, self-perceived resource adequacy, income, and education at approximately six months after birth were investigated as predictors of depression at approximately 14 and 36 months after birth in adolescent mothers (N = 523). It was hypothesized that increased ...


Factors Affecting Housing Satisfaction Of Asian And Pacific Islander Households In The United States , Dongwang Liu Jan 2005

Factors Affecting Housing Satisfaction Of Asian And Pacific Islander Households In The United States , Dongwang Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 12.5 million Asian and Pacific Islanders living in the United States in March, 2002 accounting for 4.4 percent of America's total population. This study looked into the housing satisfaction among the Asian and Pacific Islander group in comparison to the non-Hispanic White group.;Since many Asian and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. are foreign-born, it is expected that their housing perception will be influenced by their experience with housing in their home countries. Using Morris and Winter's housing adjustment theory, the study investigated the effect of ...


An Investigation Of The Relationships Between Quality Of Life And Residential Environments Among Rural Families , Seongyeon Auh Jan 2005

An Investigation Of The Relationships Between Quality Of Life And Residential Environments Among Rural Families , Seongyeon Auh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of two manuscripts prepared for submission to academic journals. The articles relate broadly to quality of life and residential environments among rural families. The first manuscript is a quantitative study using rural household data from the Life in Iowa project. The second manuscript is a qualitative study using the data drawn from the 13 family interviews from the Family Well-being and Welfare Reform in Iowa Project. The general purpose of this research was to investigate the community and housing of rural families and the associated effects on quality of life.;The first article discusses the complex ...


Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan Jan 2004

Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation are threefold: first, to examine a model of how socioeconomic status, parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and adolescents' self-esteem might be causally related; second, to examine whether or not the proposed model is structurally invariant across gender and grade; and third, to determine whether family income, paternal and maternal education, and paternal and maternal occupational prestige make unique contributions to nurturant and punitive parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and self-esteem. Structural equation results showed that socioeconomic status has a significant and positive effect on nurturant parenting and on adolescents' academic achievement, which, in turn, affect adolescent self-esteem ...


Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon Jan 2004

Longitudinal Relations Of Maternal Supportiveness And Child Task-Approach Behavior To Early Cognitive Development Of Children With Developmental Risks , Hyun-Joo Jeon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of study was to investigate the longitudinal relations among maternal supportiveness, child task-approach behavior, and cognitive development for children with developmental risks. The participants (N = 400) in this study were a subset of the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. The current study used structural equation modeling analyses including growth-curve models.;Findings are that maternal supportiveness was moderately stable from the time the children were 14 to 36 months of age, but stability of child task-approach behavior was weak between 14 and 24 months of age. Child task-approach behavior became stronger as children grew older. Earlier ...


The Influence Of Individual Characteristics And Parenting Behaviors On Adolescent Academic Performance , Keren M. Zuniga Jan 2004

The Influence Of Individual Characteristics And Parenting Behaviors On Adolescent Academic Performance , Keren M. Zuniga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to discover the effects of adolescent autonomy, parental academic involvement and parental academic expectations as they link gender, age, ethnicity, and immigrant generation to adolescent academic performance. A selected sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data set (Add Health) was used to examine these relationships specifically for Latino/as with comparisons drawn to White, African American, and Asian adolescents. Special emphasis was also placed on gender differences for each ethnic/racial group. The outcome variable of adolescent academic performance was assessed using the adolescent's reported grade point average (GPA). The ...


Use Of The Oral History Interview To Assess Communication And Marital Satisfaction In Later-Life Couples , Daniel James Harkness Jan 2004

Use Of The Oral History Interview To Assess Communication And Marital Satisfaction In Later-Life Couples , Daniel James Harkness

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A study was designed to explore the content and process of marital history storytelling in later life couples and the relationship of storytelling content and process to marital satisfaction. Fifty-six Caucasian couples ranging in age from 47--83 years were recruited for participation in the study. Each spouse completed the Satisfaction subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; Spanier & Cole, 1974) and couples participated in an Oral History Interview (Buehlman, Gottman, & Katz, 1992) designed to elicit their marital history story. Research team members viewed each interview and obtained consensus scores for each couple using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning (GARF; APA, 1994). All interviews were transcribed and data was segmented into thought units and speeches. The Relationship Path Coding System (RPCS) was designed to code thought units in marital stories according to content and process variables. Content variables included amount of detail ...


Parents' Relationships With And Parenting Of Their Adolescents Following The Anasazi Foundation Experience , Martin John Erickson Jan 2004

Parents' Relationships With And Parenting Of Their Adolescents Following The Anasazi Foundation Experience , Martin John Erickson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores parents' experiences with the Anasazi Foundation, a wilderness behavioral treatment program for adolescents and their parents. Other research has studied the effectiveness of wilderness treatment, but very little has been conducted formally with the parents of those adolescents. I sought to find out what has been the nature of these parents' relationships with and parenting of their adolescent after having experienced the Anasazi program. Second, I wanted to know what specifically made the difference, and what made the changes they experienced possible. Third, I inquired about the role of predominant cultural expectations and discourses in their parenting ...


Predicting The Timing Of Marital Dissolution For Long-Time Married Couples By Dyadic Variables , Shu-Ann Fang Jan 2004

Predicting The Timing Of Marital Dissolution For Long-Time Married Couples By Dyadic Variables , Shu-Ann Fang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Based on Pearlin and colleagues' Stress Process Theory and Levinger's social psychological perspective on marital dissolution, this study examines the chronic nature of certain dyadic properties of couples in determining the timing of marital dissolution. Three hundred and seven couples, who had been married for almost 20 years, participated in the Iowa Youth and Families Project and the Midlife Transitions Project. The results of the log-normal accelerated failure time model showed that a chronically high level of marital quality and commitment is beneficial, but a chronically high level of hostility is detrimental, to the survival of marriages. Dissatisfaction with ...


The Meaning, Experience And Ecology Of African Christian Marriages And Familial Relationships: A Phenomenological Study At Makumira University College, Tanzania , Wayne L. Nieminen Jan 2004

The Meaning, Experience And Ecology Of African Christian Marriages And Familial Relationships: A Phenomenological Study At Makumira University College, Tanzania , Wayne L. Nieminen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research on African Christian marriage and family life has lacked a critical focus on the experience and meaning of marriage between husbands and wives as couples. The intention of this phenomenological investigation is to enrich the international family therapy field's understanding of the complexity and wider ecology (economic, religious, historical, feminist, educational) of African marriage and family life, specifically in the Christian population. Research took place at Makumira University College in Tanzania, a seminary of the Tumaini University system of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania, interviewing students, faculty and their spouses in a variety of formats (couple, individual ...


Narrative Group Therapy With Outpatient Adolescents , David Charles Kaptain Jan 2004

Narrative Group Therapy With Outpatient Adolescents , David Charles Kaptain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent substance abuse remains a major public health concern. The comprehensive, detrimental effects of teenage drug use, coupled with troubling relapse rates, highlight the need for innovative, effective, and helpful treatment interventions. Adolescents in treatment and the adults that work with them are subject to often negatively influential societal discourses that limit treatment effectiveness as well as the development of adolescent treatment satisfaction and therapeutic alliance. Narrative therapy is promoted in theoretical and clinical literature as a viable way of addressing these problems.;Preliminary work has been done in the area of narrative therapy with adolescents, and particularly with substance ...


Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn Jan 2004

Distance Education From The Inside Out: Experiences Grounded In The Real World Contexts Of Participants , Sherry June Washburn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In order to understand the distance education learning experience of those individual and collective participants (remote site students, origination site students, and faculty), using Bronfenbrenner's human bioecological theory as a base, I sought answers to the question "What impact does a distance learning environment have on both students and faculty?" Methods I used to gather data included small group interviews and individual in-depth interviews with both students and faculty. The data I received was anecdotal, personal experience data from the participants. I analyzed the data using qualitative methods, specifically Tesch's Steps for Developing an Organizing System for Unstructured ...


Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz Jan 2004

Understanding The Outdoor Play Environment For Preschool Children In Child Care: Should We Just Let 'Em Go? , Kelly Ross Kantz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the outdoor play environment provided for preschool children in an inclusive early care and education center. This qualitative examination sought to determine what children and teachers do when they are outside and how the indoor and outdoor curricula are integrated. Supports and barriers for a quality outdoor play environment were identified. In addition, opportunities for development of self-determination in the outdoor environment were studied. This research sought to determine the opportunities children are provided to make choices, practice overcoming challenges, and develop friendships during outdoor play and learning.;The importance of an ...


An Examination Of Parent-Child Play As Influential In The Development Of Aggression In Preschool Boys , Becky Renae Davenport Jan 2004

An Examination Of Parent-Child Play As Influential In The Development Of Aggression In Preschool Boys , Becky Renae Davenport

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Children displaying high levels of aggression have repeatedly been shown to be at significant risk for continued behavior problems and other social and emotional challenges throughout their lifetimes. The current project includes two papers that examine factors contributing to the development and maintenance of aggression in preschool-aged children, especially focusing on preschool boys. The first paper reviews theoretical and empirical literature addressing the development of aggressive behavior problems. Specific attention is given to influences within the child's family environment, including positive parental involvement, harsh discipline practices, and play activities of the child both individually and jointly with his or ...


Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins Jan 2003

Student Loan Debt: Insight Into Economic Well-Being Issues , Ann M. Perkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate economic well-being issues related to student loan debt. The sample used for this study was extracted from the Baccalaureate and Beyond survey. The focus of the study is the extent to which repayment of student loan debt is a financial hardship for graduates. Two debt-to-income ratios of (1) total monthly debt payments over total monthly household income and (2) total educational debt payments over total monthly household income are used as outcome variables. How students pay for a higher education is a critical component of family and public policy. The purpose is ...