Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Computer-Mediated Communication In Higher Education: An Exploration Of Knowledge Construction , Mustafa Tuncay Saritas Jan 2006

Computer-Mediated Communication In Higher Education: An Exploration Of Knowledge Construction , Mustafa Tuncay Saritas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Constructivist theories about knowledge construction emphasize that knowledge construction is more powerful and meaningful when it is actively built up by students through engaging in equilibrated exchanges and experiencing cognitive disequilibrium. From this perspective, knowledge construction is thought to be effective in learning environments where intense interactive discussions can take place, deeply held values are shared, and complex issues examined from multiple perspectives (Harasim, 1990). Computer-mediated communication, more specifically computer conferencing systems (CCS), has captured the interest of educators as an ideal tool to create this type of learning environment, featuring active, participative, and reflective learning;This study developed a ...


Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal Jan 2005

Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Malaysia is confronting a problem of increased adolescent delinquency. Despite these situations, there is very little research on adolescent delinquency. Some researchers have suggested that family functioning dimensions may become risk factors to the development of risky behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine perceived family functioning dimensions (problem solving, affective involvement, affective response, roles, communication, behavior control, general functioning, family time, religious belief, and religious practice) and their effect on the occurrence of adolescent delinquency. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on total delinquency scores of this group ...


Eleanor's Story: Growing Up And Teaching In Iowa: One African American Woman's Experience , Kay Ann Taylor Jan 2001

Eleanor's Story: Growing Up And Teaching In Iowa: One African American Woman's Experience , Kay Ann Taylor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eleanor's story is oral history biographical narrative research about the remarkable life of an 81-year old African American woman who was born and raised in Des Moines, Iowa. The study is rich with primary document artifacts from Eleanor Rebecca Powell Archer's personal collection. Primary documents are interspersed within the chapters and in three galleries. Fourteen interviews averaging two and one-half hours in length each were conducted over one year's time.;The Introduction provides a historical overview of the State of Iowa and sets the context for the state into which Eleanor's ancestors migrated and settled. The ...


Tool Of Transformation: The Ideological Role Of Computer Technology In Education , Lowell Wayne Monke Jan 1999

Tool Of Transformation: The Ideological Role Of Computer Technology In Education , Lowell Wayne Monke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Computer technology is usually evaluated according to its effectiveness in aiding learning. What is generally ignored is the impact of the ideology embedded in the computer on the very structure of education. This philosophical dissertation consists of four essays which examine the relationship of this ideology to the learning enterprise. The first essay develops the character of that ideology and its general influence on learning. It is argued that the ideology embodied in the computer is congruent with the ideology of technology that has developed in Western civilization over the last 300 years. As a result, the computer furthers a ...


Constructivist Learning Environments Inviting Computer Technology For Problem Solving: New Junctures For Female Students , Sally Rapp Beisser Jan 1999

Constructivist Learning Environments Inviting Computer Technology For Problem Solving: New Junctures For Female Students , Sally Rapp Beisser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

While complex problem solving has been traditionally an area in which females have not excelled, there is increased emphasis in the development of problem solving for all learners in the Information Age. Concern exists regarding the gap between male and female competencies in using computer technology. Therefore, the possibility of intervention using computer technology as a tool for learning holds promise for females to develop competencies necessary to become better problem solvers. Interventions assisting female students in using technology to restructure or alter their conceptions of problem solving may prove to be effective in developing of problem-solving skills and computer ...


Moving In A Man's World: Three Qualitative Case Studies Illustrate How Women Can Survive In Male-Dominated Work Environments , Candace Anne Strawn Jan 1999

Moving In A Man's World: Three Qualitative Case Studies Illustrate How Women Can Survive In Male-Dominated Work Environments , Candace Anne Strawn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influencing women's decisions to enter male-dominated work environments, specifically the fields of academia, law, and Computer Sciences; In order to encourage more women to pursue nontraditional careers, it is necessary to determine the types of support and environments required for women to succeed in these areas. Therefore, qualitative, interpretive research within a feminist theoretical framework was used to assess the impact of family background, educational opportunities, and cultural expectations on the respondents' career choices. How the respondents negotiated the imaginary line between their personal and private lives, and how ...


Computers, Critical Literacy, And First-Year Composition: Modestly Re-Thinking Some Comfortable Thoughts , Barbara Blakely Duffelmeyer Jan 1999

Computers, Critical Literacy, And First-Year Composition: Modestly Re-Thinking Some Comfortable Thoughts , Barbara Blakely Duffelmeyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this critical qualitative research project, students in six sections of First-Year Composition at Iowa State University and the researcher attempted to determine how cultural assumptions about computer technology influence their development of critical computer literacy in FY Comp. Beginning with students' baseline perspectives on digital technology, the study examined the formative experiences and patterns of engagement students relate and characteristic expressions they use to talk about technology. The study followed students as they were invited to re-think their previous attitudes about the computer. The study presents and analyzes the distinctive ways that students re-thought (or failed to re-think) these ...


The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich Jan 1997

The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the influence of educational psychology on contemporary art education. The century-old debate in art education between those wanting more scientific methods of teaching and assessment and those wanting a more child-centered education appears in contemporary version in the work of Howard Gardner and Elliot Eisner. In this contemporary setting it is the educator, Eisner, who wants more discipline-oriented curricula, while the cognitive scientist, Gardner, calls for more child-centered education. By examining the writings of Howard Gardner, a cognitive scientist, and Elliot Eisner, an art educator, and comparing the art education programs overseen by them, i.e., Arts ...


A Comparison Of Incidence Of Injury And Recovery Profiles Of Intercollegiate Women Basketball Players Sustaining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures , Alice Mcneill Mclaine Jan 1997

A Comparison Of Incidence Of Injury And Recovery Profiles Of Intercollegiate Women Basketball Players Sustaining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures , Alice Mcneill Mclaine

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in women basketball players have come under recent scrutiny as it has become apparent that women athletes sustain more ACL injuries than their male counterparts. The purposes of this study were to examine (a) the effectiveness of intervention techniques in relation to sport return rates among women basketball players, (b) the effectiveness of injury prevention tactics in limiting anterior cruciate ligament injury rates, and (c) differences in these factors among NCAA Divisions I, II, and III;Data were collected from certified athletic trainers at forty-eight institutions across the nation. Representation was equally spread ...


An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren Jan 1997

An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the impact of state mandates on teachers' levels of use of the National Standards for United States History (hereafter referred to as the "Standards"). Exploring relationships between factors which may affect teachers' use of the Standards and teachers' levels of use of the Standards, this study surveyed ninth through twelfth grade United States history teachers in Iowa and Oregon. The research method to determine teachers' levels of use of the Standards was informed by the Levels of Use dimension of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model;The survey questionnaire consisted primarily of sections describing teachers': social and demographic characteristics ...


Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes Jan 1997

Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research study analyzed the growth of the cognitive critical thinking skills of college calculus students from six sections of Calculus 165 at Iowa State University. For one semester subjects from three experimental sections learned calculus in a consistently facilitated active learning environment. Subjects from three comparison sections learned the same material in a traditional passive learning environment. Fidelity of treatment--i.e. adherence to an active learning format, was verified by direct observations. The main difference between any active and passive learning environment is the amount of time spent on instructor activities (passive learning) versus the amount of time spent ...


Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott Jan 1997

Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to document equity attitudes of public school stakeholders (PSS) and compare them to attitudes of Americans in general. In all, 1014 PSS (school board members, district superintendents, school principals, teachers, and parents) representing 323 school districts responded via a 67-item questionnaire. Major areas were affirmative action, opportunity perceptions, reasons for poverty and wealth, and redistribution of income. Sample: stratified random selection of 683 public school districts in 41 states representative of the nation. Hypotheses. (1) no statistically significant differences between stakeholders and the general public, and (2) no such differences among stakeholder groups. Hypothesis 1 was ...


The Human-Animal Bond's Role With The Abused Child , Linda Jean Nebbe Jan 1997

The Human-Animal Bond's Role With The Abused Child , Linda Jean Nebbe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate adults who were abused as children and the mediative impact of human and animal supportive relationships on the self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger/aggression of the abused child as both a child and an adult;One hundred and one adult subjects completed the inventory. The inventory was a compilation of specifically designed questions by the researcher including continuum rating scales of the subject's perception of his/her childhood levels of self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger; and assessment instruments for self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger as an adult. In addition, questions concerning ...


The Impact Of Enhancing A Behavioral Program For Children With Severe Behavioral Disorders By Promoting Parents' Coherent Life Story , Susan Kathryn Schiltz-Day Jan 1996

The Impact Of Enhancing A Behavioral Program For Children With Severe Behavioral Disorders By Promoting Parents' Coherent Life Story , Susan Kathryn Schiltz-Day

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of enhancing an already existing day treatment program for youth with severe behavior disorders. The intervention consisted of a short-term parent therapy group which operationalized elements of attachment theory and narrative therapy and then compared this to the program's regular treatment. This group focused on assisting parents (1) to review their past for a coherent story, (2) to identify and utilize a parenting strength, and (3) to voice their hopes and fears to their child with an emphasis on the child's potential. The effectiveness of this pilot group ...


Identifying, Attributing, And Dispelling Student Misconceptions In Electrochemistry , Michael James Sanger Jan 1996

Identifying, Attributing, And Dispelling Student Misconceptions In Electrochemistry , Michael James Sanger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation contains six chapters. The first chapter is a review of the chemical education literature concerning suggestions or personal opinions promoting one pedagogical method of teaching oxidation-reduction reactions or electrochemistry, descriptions of real world examples of oxidation-reduction reactions or electrochemistry, and empirical data aimed at identifying student difficulties or misconceptions related to oxidation-reduction reactions or electrochemistry. The second through fifth chapters contain the results of my research on student misconceptions in electrochemistry as they were submitted for journal publication. The sixth chapter contains an opinion paper concerning the possible mismatch between Science-Technology-Society/ChemCom-based high school chemistry courses and traditional ...


Feasibility Study And Design Of A Merit Pay Plan For Principals , Lawrence Edward Sessions Jan 1996

Feasibility Study And Design Of A Merit Pay Plan For Principals , Lawrence Edward Sessions

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Merit pay has been around for almost a century in American education. Most school districts attempting merit pay have discontinued those plans after a few years. The apparent failures might be partially the result of poor design or implementation;The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a feasibility study and to design a model merit pay plan for principals that will be acceptable to principals, upper-level administrators, and school boards. The intent of this plan is to improve principal effectiveness in school leadership while indirectly increasing student performance;Qualitative research and case study methods were used to conduct ...


Limitations Of Women's Freedoms: A Comparison Study Between Two Societies , Ruth Ann Johnson Jan 1996

Limitations Of Women's Freedoms: A Comparison Study Between Two Societies , Ruth Ann Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There were two objectives for this research. The first objective was to look specifically at the differences of expression of safety behaviors between men and women in Scotland. The second objective was to compare experiences and perceptions of freedom of movement by women in the US with those of women in Scotland. Both studies used the Public Behaviors Questionnaire (PBQ) as an assessment tool;First, a comparative study was done with women and men in Scotland to determine if women experience and perceive the same freedom of movement in Scottish society that men do, in relation to nonacademic activities, transportation ...


Authenticity And Technology: Constructing Meaning From An E-Mail Activity, Dawn Marie Sleger Poole Jan 1996

Authenticity And Technology: Constructing Meaning From An E-Mail Activity, Dawn Marie Sleger Poole

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated 28 preservice teachers' involvment in a ten-week long e-mail project linking them with elementary students in a mathematical problem solving activity. The preservice teachers sent mathematical problems each week to their student groups via e-mail. The elementary students solved the problems and responded with their solution and an explanation of their process. Of the college students, three preservice teachers with high levels of mathematics anxiety and three with low levels of anxiety were selected to be examined in case studies. Interviews with the case study participants, as well as data collected from all of the class members ...


Computational Science Projects And The Development Of Mathematical Problem Solving Skills In Secondary Students , Stephen Andrew Fyfe Jan 1995

Computational Science Projects And The Development Of Mathematical Problem Solving Skills In Secondary Students , Stephen Andrew Fyfe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The computer has great potential as a tool for the teaching of Mathematics; Two tools that can be used to guide the use of the computer in a mathematics classroom are the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Curriculum and Evaluation Standards and situated cognition theory. This dissertation will summarize recent research on four computer-based tools in the mathematics classroom: computer simulation, programming, spreadsheet and graphing software, and computer networks. The existing research in each of these areas will be related to the NCTM standards and situated cognition theory. In addition, high performance computing tools and computational science projects will ...


Factors Related To The Adoption Of A Two-Way Interactive Distance Education Technology: Instrument Development, Instrument Validation, And Causal Model Testing , Sanaa Ibrahim Abou-Dagga Jan 1995

Factors Related To The Adoption Of A Two-Way Interactive Distance Education Technology: Instrument Development, Instrument Validation, And Causal Model Testing , Sanaa Ibrahim Abou-Dagga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to identify the factors related to teachers' perceived likelihood of using a state-wide two-way interactive distance education technology, the Iowa Communication Network (ICN). The research model was developed using existing models in the diffusion of innovation literature, as well as in the attitude-behavior literature. The predictor variables developed from constructs in the literature, were habit of using innovative technologies, general attitude toward the ICN, utilitarian outcomes, normative outcomes, self-identity outcomes, attitude toward using the ICN for classroom instructional activities, and teachers' likelihood of using the ICN if it were available;The data were collected ...


Assessment Of The Perceptions And Attitudes Of Construction Aggregate Mine Operators And County Regulatory Officials Regarding Aggregate Mining , Joseph Patrick Mcguire Jan 1995

Assessment Of The Perceptions And Attitudes Of Construction Aggregate Mine Operators And County Regulatory Officials Regarding Aggregate Mining , Joseph Patrick Mcguire

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aggregate is the general name given to sand, gravel, limestone or other crushed stone materials. Crushed stone, in one form or another, is used in nearly every construction project. However, for a variety of reasons, the average citizen does not realize the importance or need for construction aggregate. As a result, individuals or groups who feel they may be negatively affected by the presence of an aggregate mine, frequently organize to oppose granting the permits required to operate them;A review of the literature suggests obtaining the permits required to mine and process construction aggregate is becoming a more difficult ...


Self-Efficacy Of Teacher Education Students: A Study Based On Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory , Mary Jo Anderson Lively Jan 1994

Self-Efficacy Of Teacher Education Students: A Study Based On Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory , Mary Jo Anderson Lively

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study of teacher education students' self-efficacy was based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A critical review of the literature about self-efficacy and teachers explores its "fit" with Bandura's theoretical model. Particular attention is given to the widely used and adapted two factor teacher efficacy scale developed by Gibson and Dembow. The controversy over definitions and interpretations of the constructs is evidence of need for further study. Overall, it appears there is not a very good fit between Bandura's self-efficacy theory and its application in current education research. Differences in definitions, lack of attention to salient features of ...


Faith Development And Higher Education , John Henry Bolen Jan 1994

Faith Development And Higher Education , John Henry Bolen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been a growing interest in the faith and spirituality of the college student. James Fowler introduced his theory of faith development in 1978 claiming that every person has a faith which develops in ways similar to other forms of human development. Does James Fowler's theory provide significant information for a further understanding of the spiritual development of the college student? Does higher education need to be concerned with the faith development of its students?;This dissertation is made up of four articles dealing with each question. The study begins with an article presenting the ...


A Study Of Selected Variables Associated With Projected Voting Behavior In A Community College Tax Referendum , Kathleen Marie Brock Jan 1994

A Study Of Selected Variables Associated With Projected Voting Behavior In A Community College Tax Referendum , Kathleen Marie Brock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted at Northwest Iowa Community College (NCC), located in Sheldon, Iowa. Northwest Iowa Community College serves a 4 1/2 county rural area. In December of 1992 NCC placed a seven million dollar bond issue before the voters. This referendum which needed a 60% plus one voter approval received a 36.41% approval. Campaign strategies for the 1992 referendum included a targeting of possible affirmative voters. This research identified six subgroups of constituents--five subgroups affiliated with the college (college advisory committee members, credit students and alumni, employees, continuing education participants and senior citizens who had taken classes ...


Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call): The Effect Of Esl Students' Use Of Interactional Modifications On Listening Comprehension , Jing-Fong Jane Hsu Jan 1994

Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call): The Effect Of Esl Students' Use Of Interactional Modifications On Listening Comprehension , Jing-Fong Jane Hsu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Theory and research on second language acquisition (SLA) indicates that modification in the interactions between second language (L2) students and native speakers may have a positive influence on their acquisition of language (Long, 1983; Allright, 1991; Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991). However, there is not enough opportunity for interactional modifications in the L2 classroom because there is only one native speaker for many students, making it impossible for teachers to engage in numerous interactional modifications with individual students.;CALL developers claim that CALL offers an environment in which an L2 student can participate in interactive learning (Ahmad, 1985; Kenning, 1990). In particular some computer software provides comprehension tools which allow L2 students to request modification of the input they receive in order to aid their comprehension. In theory, such tools are ideal for SLA; however, in practice, little is known about ...


A Description Of The Faith Development Of Five Students Attending A Church-Related College , Dennis Alonza Haggray Jan 1993

A Description Of The Faith Development Of Five Students Attending A Church-Related College , Dennis Alonza Haggray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the perceived faith development of selected students attending a midwestern church-related college. The research question that provided direction for the study was: What do the respondents in this study say about their faith development? James Fowler's (1981) theory of faith development and his Faith Development Interview Guide (FDIG) were used to collect and analyze the data. The methods of inquiry in this study were qualitative. The primary data were generated through interviews with each of five respondents (two males and three females). Secondary data from document analysis ...


Computer Simulations, Reflective Journals, Peer Group Interactions, And Conceptual Change About Electricity With Preservice Teachers , Constance Phyllis Hargrave Jan 1993

Computer Simulations, Reflective Journals, Peer Group Interactions, And Conceptual Change About Electricity With Preservice Teachers , Constance Phyllis Hargrave

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research on how students learn science concepts suggests that often students develop naive theories (or misconceptions) to explain natural phenomena. Students at various grade levels possess misconceptions about electricity; moreover, students use these misconceptions to explain the flow of electrical current within a circuit;Because students tend to use their misconceptions about science concepts to understand new concepts, the development of instructional strategies that assist students in changing their science misconceptions could greatly improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to operationalize and test the conceptual change model of learning to alter students' misconceptions about electricity. This study ...


A Comparison Study Of Student Test Scores On The Iowa Test Of Basic Skills And The Cognitive Abilities Test: Developmental Kindergarten Students And General Student Population In The Ankeny Community Schools, Nancy Sue Moorhead Jan 1992

A Comparison Study Of Student Test Scores On The Iowa Test Of Basic Skills And The Cognitive Abilities Test: Developmental Kindergarten Students And General Student Population In The Ankeny Community Schools, Nancy Sue Moorhead

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Fifty-One Computer Modules Designed To Enhance The Knowledge, Skills, And Attitudes Needed By Teacher Education Students , Patricia Crenshaw Elmore Jan 1991

An Analysis Of Fifty-One Computer Modules Designed To Enhance The Knowledge, Skills, And Attitudes Needed By Teacher Education Students , Patricia Crenshaw Elmore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes and reports the findings of student reactions to a set of 51 computer modules called Performance Element Modules (PEMs). These modules focused on selected knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by teacher education students at a midwestern university. The major purpose of the study was to assess whether students will accept the 51 computer-assisted modules as viable instructional tools;The questionnaires were designed to collect forced-choice and open-ended data as well as demographic data. Students rated the forced-choice items on a scale of 1 to 10. The higher the number, the more the students agreed with the statement ...


An Investigation Of The Educational Environment In The Homes Of Third, Fourth, And Fifth Grade Students And Its Relationship To Pertinent Variables , Drusilla Charity Caudle Jan 1991

An Investigation Of The Educational Environment In The Homes Of Third, Fourth, And Fifth Grade Students And Its Relationship To Pertinent Variables , Drusilla Charity Caudle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated several dimensions of the educational environment in the homes of third, fourth, and fifth grade students and their relationship to pertinent variables. The instrument used to measure the educational environment in the homes of third, fourth, and fifth grade students was a modified version of the Index of Educational Environment developed by Dave in 1963;The sample in the study consisted of 459 parents and their third, fourth and fifth grade children attending elementary schools located in north central Iowa. There were two objectives in the study: (1) to examine whether or not there is more than ...