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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Technology Adoption, Firm Size, Wages And Human Capital, Li Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the interrelationships between multiple technology adoptions, firm size, wages and human capital. The application is to four surveys of producers and employees in the US hog industry in the last two decades.;The first chapter investigates the size-wage premium in the competitive hog market. Particular attention is paid to the matching process by which workers are linked to farms of differing size and technology mix, and to whether the matching process can explain differences in wages across farms. The sector is characterized by large wage premia paid to workers on larger and more ...


Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu Jan 2008

Three Essays On Contingent Valuation Method, Chih-Chen Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to examine some incentive and informational properties of contingent valuation surveys and provide some suggestions in survey design. The contingent valuation method uses survey questions to elicit individuals' preferences for nonmarket goods. The essential task of a contingent valuation exercise is to design a questionnaire which elicits respondents' preference for the good being valued.;This dissertation includes three essays that contribute to the contingent valuation literature. The contingent valuation method is widely used in estimating the economic value of nonmarket goods. The first essay offers an empirical test of a theoretical result in the ...


Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


Essays On Food Assistance Program Participation And Demand For Food, Ariun Ishdorj Jan 2008

Essays On Food Assistance Program Participation And Demand For Food, Ariun Ishdorj

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Household food demand and choices over food products are constantly evolving. Therefore better understanding of the relationship among household socioeconomic characteristics, expenditures, foods and nutrient choices of consumers and food prices is important to food producers, health professionals, policymakers and educators. This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to consumer behavior. The first two papers explore two important issues related to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program that have not been extensively addressed in the past. First, although the WIC program is primarily devised with the intent ...


Essays In Macroeconomics, International Trade And The Environment, Shiva Sikdar Jan 2008

Essays In Macroeconomics, International Trade And The Environment, Shiva Sikdar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the problem of optimal recapitalization of banking sectors after banking crises and analyzes the effect of trade liberalization on environmental policy and welfare in a strategic setting in the presence of transboundary pollution.;Government-financed bank restructuring programs, occasionally costing up to 50% of GDP, have commonly been used to resolve banking crises. In Chapter 2 analyze the Ramsey-optimal paths of bank recapitalization programs that weigh recapitalization benefits and costs under different financing options. In our model bank credit is essential, due to a working capital constraint on firms, and banks are financial intermediaries that borrow from households ...


The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu Jan 2007

The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This paper first sets up a theoretical model to describe a credit rating agency's (CRA) two roles, namely rating and monitoring. Through CRA's monitoring role, bonds no longer represent loan contracts without monitoring. In the model, bond issuers have to decide whether to go through CRA or borrow directly, and whether to take action to prevent future risk or not. CRA's monitoring ability is shown to be crucial. If CRA can observe creditworthiness changes more accurately so as to offer ratings with less noise, there will be more issuers willing to signal their qualities and take action ...


A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger Jan 2007

A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, veterinarian organizations in the United States recommend the control and eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Cow-calf producers comprise 35% of U.S. cattle; however, research on the effects of BVDV in these herds is limited. To gain a better understanding of the pathology of BVDV in cow-calf producers, a stochastic simulation model was developed in C++ to measure epidemiological and financial outcomes. Additional simulations were run to evaluate changes in producer profit for several test and cull strategies. Introducing a PI animal decreased profit by an average of {dollar}13,971 over 10 years. When a second ...


Three Essays On Risk And Uncertainty In Agriculture, Nicholas David Paulson Jan 2007

Three Essays On Risk And Uncertainty In Agriculture, Nicholas David Paulson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The general theme of this dissertation is risk and uncertainty in agriculture, with each chapter addressing a specific topic related to agricultural risk and uncertainty. Chapter 2 examines the effects of production uncertainty on the types of contract structures used in specialty grain markets. A theoretical model of a contractual relationship between a monopsonistic processor and risk-neutral producers is presented. Two common contract structures, and their resulting effects on the sharing of production risk between buyer and seller, are compared. The spatial structure of yields and farm-level yield volatility are shown to have significant impacts on the processor's preferred ...


Three Essays On Child Labor, Schooling Outcomes And Health, Chanyoung Lee Jan 2007

Three Essays On Child Labor, Schooling Outcomes And Health, Chanyoung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the interrelationships between child labor, schooling and health, using nationally representative data from the United States and from Brazil. In developing countries, child labor can begin at an early age. However, child labor can be found in developed countries as well, particularly in the teenage years. This dissertation examines (1) whether and how much current state child labor legislation affects the employment and schooling decisions of U.S. high school students; (2) whether there is a cumulative effect of teen work on schooling outcomes; and (3) whether adults who worked as children experience increased incidence of illness ...


Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu Jan 2007

Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contract farming in China has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. The first part of this dissertation examines the evolution of contract farming, and explores the incentives to engage in contract farming, preferred contract provisions, and contract performance from the perspective of both Chinese farmers and contracting firms. Firm and household perceptions of contracting are assessed using data obtained from village and firm level surveys. Farmers identify price stability and market access as the key advantages to contracts, while firms consider improved product quality as the primary incentive to use contracts.;In Part II, the survey data are used ...


Four Essays On Environmental Policy Under Uncertainty With Applications To Water Quality And Carbon Sequestration, Sergey S. Rabotyagov Jan 2007

Four Essays On Environmental Policy Under Uncertainty With Applications To Water Quality And Carbon Sequestration, Sergey S. Rabotyagov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I present four essays that deal with several diverse issues in environmental economics, ranging from soil carbon sequestration, to a design of a pollution permit trading program, to proposing watershed-scale solutions to water quality problems, both on state and regional scale.;The first essay is titled "Environmental policy under benefit and cost uncertainty: application to soil carbon offsets". I characterize an optimal spatial allocation of land parcels to specific environmental practices explicitly dealing with uncertainty in both the benefits and program costs. The results provide a magnitude of uncertainty discount for soil carbon offsets and the margin ...


Three Essays In Macroeconomics, Xue Qiao Jan 2007

Three Essays In Macroeconomics, Xue Qiao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is concentrated on two different economic topics: unemployment insurance (UI) and longevity. The first two chapters examine how a government UI program affects individuals' behavior and the labor market performance. The last chapter investigates the role of the interaction between public health expenditure and private health investment in promoting a longer lifetime span.;In the first chapter, I study the effects of a publicly funded unemployment insurance (UI) system on a firm's decision to terminate employment contracts in a dynamic moral hazard model. It is shown that the optimal employment contract involves termination of both sufficiently rich ...


The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr. Jan 2007

The Effects Of Graduate-Student Unionization, Tom Schenk Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Beginning in the 1970s, graduate assistants have organized labor unions. Presently, 36 universities have a graduate-student union. However, the effect graduate-student unions have on wages, wage variance, health benefits, and organizational structure is unknown. This study uses data from the Chronicle of Higher Education and government data to estimate the economic effects of unionization. By using a multilevel model is used to control for intra-university correlation of wages, this study concludes graduate unions are effective at raising stipends, but ineffective at lowering fees, providing health-care coverage, and lowering intra-university wage variance.


Three Essays On The Economics Of Innovation And Regional Economics, Oleg Yerokhin Jan 2007

Three Essays On The Economics Of Innovation And Regional Economics, Oleg Yerokhin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays in economics of innovation and regional economics. The first two essays of my dissertation attempt to fill gaps in the theoretical analysis of the optimal incentive structure when innovation is sequential and cumulative. In particular, the models studied in these chapters feature infinite horizon races with prizes collected continuously and study the effects of the research exemption provision on the incentives for sequential innovation.;In the first essay I develop a dynamic model of duopoly in which firms engage in research and development competition to improve the quality of a final good. The innovation ...


Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue Jan 2006

Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Product quality and product differentiation have become increasingly important to producers and policymakers for explaining consumer choice over food products. Consumers are often willing to pay large price premiums for products with preferred attributes. Heterogeneity in quality increases the diversity of goods for consumers and can improve welfare. However, variation in quality also leads to higher transaction costs for consumers, producers and policymakers because quality attributes are hard to identify precisely and vary when the state of the world changes. The first essay addresses the issue of food-quality attributes driven by protectionist policy that inhibits exchange between two countries. Technical ...


The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali Jan 2006

The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many countries claim that foreign cultural goods threaten their national identities and culture and engage in protectionism. In this dissertation, I analyze the economics of trade protection in cultural services, focusing on domestic cultural content protection in terrestrial television and radio broadcasting, and cultural tariffs in the movie industry. My the first essay considers the impact of cultural quota imposed of radio stations in increasing consumption of domestic programs. Domestic content requirement may reduce (increase) consumption of domestic programs when consumer's demand is highly elastic (inelastic), the degree of preference for foreign content over domestic content is high (low ...


Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang Jan 2006

Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality ...


Essays On Private Information And Choice , Dzmitry Asinski Jan 2006

Essays On Private Information And Choice , Dzmitry Asinski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I provide new evidence on the existence and nature of imperfect information in health insurance markets. Empirical research has traditionally concentrated on testing for positive correlation between coverage and risk predicted by standard moral hazard and adverse selection models. Recent theoretical advances demonstrate that the lack of such correlation is consistent with more complex models with unobserved risk-aversion. I test for selection on more than one type of latent information by specifying a hybrid endogenous treatment model and estimating it using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. I use data from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which contains a set ...


Micro-Level Econometric And Water-Quality Modeling: Simulation Of Nutrient Management Policy Effects , Christopher Sean Burkart Jan 2006

Micro-Level Econometric And Water-Quality Modeling: Simulation Of Nutrient Management Policy Effects , Christopher Sean Burkart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Large surface areas of lakes and streams are impaired by nutrient contributions from agricultural nonpoint sources. This research develops a fully integrated economic and water quality model of an actual watershed to assess alternative nutrient abatement polities in terms of their economic efficiency and water quality effects. The policies examined include fertilizer taxes, application rate caps, uniform reductions, and a cap-and-trade fertilizer application right trading scheme. A micro-econometric field scale model of nutrient application is estimated using USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data combined with prices and spatially detailed soil data. Estimation results are interfaced with the Soil and ...


Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun Jan 2006

Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To facilitate the U.S. wholesale electric power restructuring process and promote competitive market outcomes, in April 2003 the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) proposed a complicated market design called the Wholesale Power Market Platform (WPMP) for common adoption by all U.S. wholesale power markets. Despite the fact that versions of the WPMP have been widely implemented in many states, strong opposition to the WPMP persists among some industry stakeholders due largely to a perceived lack of adequate performance testing. In this dissertation, I apply analytical, statistical and agent-based computational simulation tools to analyze and test financial ...


Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga Jan 2006

Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I have studied farmland lease contracts in U.S. agriculture. Using the data from the 1999 Agricultural Economics and Land Ownership Survey, I investigated the empirical determinants of contract design from the perspective of the principal-agent framework, which emphasizes the role of incentives. In the empirical analyses, I found evidence that incentives indeed play an important role in contract design. In chapter 2, I investigated the role of risk, transaction costs, and endogenous matching between the landlord and tenant in contract choice. I found that both risk and transaction costs affect contract choice. Furthermore, I found evidence ...


The Cattle Crush Strategy: Trading Opportunities For Cattle Producers, Nicolas Acevedo Velez Jan 2006

The Cattle Crush Strategy: Trading Opportunities For Cattle Producers, Nicolas Acevedo Velez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research shows that it is possible for cattle feeders to obtain additional profits if a consistent technical strategy for trading is applied to the cattle crush spread. However, when trading costs are introduced, the likelihood of obtaining profit from trading the crush reduces considerably. It also shows that the level of gains from the cattle crush is related to the month the cattle are marketed. When the crush is used as a hedging strategy it decreases the profit from the feeding operation and reduces the volatility of those returns, helping producers to transfer part of the price risk associated ...


Economic Efficiencies Of The Energy Flows From The Primary Resource Suppliers To The Electric Load Centers , Ana Margarida Quelhas Alves De Freitas Jan 2006

Economic Efficiencies Of The Energy Flows From The Primary Resource Suppliers To The Electric Load Centers , Ana Margarida Quelhas Alves De Freitas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The economic efficiency of the electric energy system depends not only on the performance of the electric generation and transmission subsystems, but also on the ability to produce and transport the various forms of primary energy, particularly coal and natural gas. However, electric power systems have traditionally been developed and operated without a conscious awareness of the energy system-wide implications, namely the consideration of the integrated dynamics with the fuel markets and infrastructures. This has been partly due to the difficulty of formulating models capable of analyzing the large-scale, complex, time-dependent, and highly interconnected behavior of the integrated energy system ...


An Analysis Of The Iowan Angler's Fishing License Renewal Decision, Ryan R. French Jan 2006

An Analysis Of The Iowan Angler's Fishing License Renewal Decision, Ryan R. French

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of annual fishing licenses sold in Iowa has been in decline for two decades and has limited the amount of funds available to the Iowa Department of Natural Resources for fisheries management. The Iowa DNR is focused on reversing this trend through targeted marketing and efficient management of fishing resources. An analysis of Iowa anglers is performed with these goals in mind using past surveys and current customer data. The product of this analysis is a model which predicts whether a past customer will renew their license in the upcoming year. A logit model is developed using license ...


Four Essays On Technology Adoption And Returns To Skill In The Us , Moohoun Song Jan 2005

Four Essays On Technology Adoption And Returns To Skill In The Us , Moohoun Song

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We investigate two plausible factors that may have affected changes in wage inequality: returns to higher education and returns to new technologies. The first two chapters examine the role of mathematics and verbal ability in estimating returns to advanced degrees. When average abilities within the major are treated as missing variables, we found that OLS estimates of returns to graduate education are underestimated. When average ability in the major is treated as part of an endogenous decision regarding whether to attend post-graduate degree programs, we find that students in majors with higher average mathematics skills are less likely to progress ...


Investment In The Stock Market And Value-Added Agricultural Businesses As Portfolio Investment Alternatives To Farm Expansion, Joshua David Roe Jan 2005

Investment In The Stock Market And Value-Added Agricultural Businesses As Portfolio Investment Alternatives To Farm Expansion, Joshua David Roe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the past decade, farmers have increasingly invested in value-added agriculture. Analysis of these investments compared to farm expansion by farmers was conducted from a portfolio optimization standpoint. Farms with similar investment patterns were identified by cluster analysis. When individual farm characteristics were analyzed to determine how these attributes affected investment choices, clear influences were found. In general, value-added agricultural investments were found to be an efficient investment alternative to farm expansion. Because of their larger risk, stock market investments play a smaller role in an optimized producer portfolio.


The Effects Of Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights On Developing Countries, Michael Yeboah Jan 2005

The Effects Of Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights On Developing Countries, Michael Yeboah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

An important hallmark of the 1994 Uruguay round of trade talks was the inclusion of the protection of the intellectual property rights across international borders by the WTO. This piece of legislation has helped put pressure on countries to reduce piracy in goods such as computer software. Yet it has had unintended adverse effect on developing countries especially the least developed countries. This paper uses price discrimination among countries as a way of solving lack of access to essential patented goods such as pharmaceuticals. One of the goals of World Trade organization (WTO) is to accelerate economic development in developing ...


Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz Jan 2005

Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to economic growth in rural America. The first paper explores the problem of defining rural and the implications for measuring rural growth. It discusses the sample selection problem inherent in using classification methods based on population that change over time. Fast growing rural areas grow out of their rural status, so using the most recent definition of rural in an analysis of growth excludes the most successful places. The findings demonstrate that average economic performance of the areas remaining rural significantly understates the true performance of ...


Essays On Vertical Product Differentiation , Yong-Hwan Noh Jan 2005

Essays On Vertical Product Differentiation , Yong-Hwan Noh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores models of heterogeneous product markets that rely on the "vertical product differentiation" formulation, where products differ in their quality levels and consumers differ in their willingness to pay for quality. The demand structure applied here is the covered-market configuration under the vertical product differentiation. With this specification, product market equilibria of the monopoly and duopoly market are derived. In particular, parameter restrictions on the degree of relative consumer heterogeneity associated with the covered-market setting are identified and used to interpret analytical results. Based on the specified demand structure, I revisit two industrial organization topics from the perspectives ...