Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 41

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan Jan 2004

Relationships Among Socio-Economic Status, Parenting, Academic Achievement, And Self-Esteem In Early And Middle Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study , Chiu-Hui Lan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation are threefold: first, to examine a model of how socioeconomic status, parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and adolescents' self-esteem might be causally related; second, to examine whether or not the proposed model is structurally invariant across gender and grade; and third, to determine whether family income, paternal and maternal education, and paternal and maternal occupational prestige make unique contributions to nurturant and punitive parenting, adolescents' academic achievement, and self-esteem. Structural equation results showed that socioeconomic status has a significant and positive effect on nurturant parenting and on adolescents' academic achievement, which, in turn, affect adolescent self-esteem ...


The Influences Of Sibling Relationships In Adolescence , Hsiu-Chen Yeh Jan 2001

The Influences Of Sibling Relationships In Adolescence , Hsiu-Chen Yeh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Most of the previous research has been focused mainly on the effects of parent-child relationships and marital relationships on adolescent development. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the potential impacts of the sibling relationship, another important family subsystem that also has significant influences on adolescent development, across early and middle adolescence.;Three theoretically interested models, the stress-suppressing model, the counteractive model, and the buffering model, were tested by structural equation modeling (LISREL VIII), using the three-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, target children, and siblings). Positive sibling relationships in adolescence were hypothesized to predict fewer ...


Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner Jan 2000

Maternal Depression Symptomology, Stress, And Behavioral Outcomes In Children: A One Year Longitudinal Study , Tamara Sue Hechtner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the longitudinal effects of maternal depression and stress on children's teacher-rated social skills (i.e., assertion, cooperation, and self-control) and playground observed behaviors (i.e., positive, negative, and nonsocial) in a community setting with low-income families. The current study consisted of 122 mothers and their kindergarten and/or first grade child who participated in a larger longitudinal study examining the transition of Head Start students into elementary school. Families were selected from the transition study if their incomes were less than or equal to 200% of the poverty threshold in ...


Individual, Familial, And Parental Factors Associated With Teenage Pregnancy , Kristin Elizabeth Stainer-Person Jan 1998

Individual, Familial, And Parental Factors Associated With Teenage Pregnancy , Kristin Elizabeth Stainer-Person

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of the current study was to compare parenting and nonparenting adolescent girls on individual, familial and social variables. Subjects included 96 adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 20 years (M=17 years). Of the sample, 55 were parenting teens and 41 were nonparenting teens; 60 percent white, 12 percent Black; seven percent Oriental, four percent Hispanic, one percent Native American and 10 percent others. All subjects were currently attending alternative high schools in a large Midwestern metropolitan area. All measures were self-report and retrospective;Comparative analyses, consisting of t-tests, and chi square analyses, were conducted on select ...


The Fathers Of Infants Born To Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison With Non-Parenting Male Peers And Adolescent Mothers , Stacy Dawn Thompson Jan 1998

The Fathers Of Infants Born To Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison With Non-Parenting Male Peers And Adolescent Mothers , Stacy Dawn Thompson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined social-emotional variables and views of parenting of fathers of infants born to adolescent mothers. Participants were a convenience sample of 15 fathers of infants born to adolescent mothers, 15 age-matched non-parenting male peers, and 15 adolescent mothers. Data collected included demographic information, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, social support, parenting satisfaction, and general life satisfaction. Additionally, a semi-structured interview that focused on the subjects' views about parenting was conducted. Results showed significant differences between fathers and non-fathers and between fathers and adolescent mothers. Fathers reported less support from friends and the community, lower general life satisfaction, and lower self-esteem ...


A Prospective Study Of Teen Pregnancy , Catheryn Michele Hockaday Jan 1998

A Prospective Study Of Teen Pregnancy , Catheryn Michele Hockaday

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the characteristics that may contribute to a teen becoming pregnant. The variables included self-esteem, locus of control, age-related risks, delinquency history, aspirations and expectations, family and school attitudes. Subjects, divided into a pregnant teen and comparison group, were 15-18 year-old females in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Results indicated that pregnant teens were more apt to have lower educational expectations and self-esteem, and more traditional family attitudes than the comparison group. Moreover, pregnant teens engaged in sexual intercourse, reached menarche, and drank alcohol at a younger age than the comparison ...


Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees Jan 1998

Parents' And Educators' Beliefs Regarding Their Influence On Preschool Children's Competencies , Bronwyn Sara Fees

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Traditionally, parents have been considered the primary source of influence on development in children. However many preschoolers spend substantial portions of their day in child care surrounded by peers. This study surveyed mothers', fathers', (n = 112) and early childhood educators' (n = 30) beliefs regarding their influence relative to other developmental agents (genetics, peers, siblings, and the child's own effort) on six cognitively and socially oriented child competencies. The parents' child (M = 49 months) served as the target child. All children received 30+ hours a week of nonparental care. Mother, father, and child lived within the same household. Ile child ...


Bias In Adoption Based Research: Methodological And Statistical Implications For Behavioral Genetics , Kristin Riggins-Caspers Jan 1997

Bias In Adoption Based Research: Methodological And Statistical Implications For Behavioral Genetics , Kristin Riggins-Caspers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the methodological/statistical implications of adoptive parent knowledge for adoption methods used to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences. The sample used consisted of adoptees (n = 497) whose biological parents had been identified as either alcoholic, anti-social, or as a member of a control group in which neither alcoholism nor anti-social personality were diagnosed. The original purpose of the data set was content related in that it was intended to investigate genetic and environmental determinants of alcoholism and anti-social personality, as well as the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The present study represents ...


A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang Jan 1997

A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate issues of consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time, and, prospectively, the nature of the relationship between parents and children's academic achievement. Both family status and family processes were included in the conceptual model. The model investigated how these factors affected parenting behaviors, and how, in turn, these behaviors influence children's attributes and their academic achievement. Pearson correlations and MANOVAs were used to explore consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time. Structural equation modeling was utilized to elucidate the effect ...


Korean-American Mothers' Self-Reported Parenting Patterns And Children's Social Competence , Hye-Seon Shin Jan 1996

Korean-American Mothers' Self-Reported Parenting Patterns And Children's Social Competence , Hye-Seon Shin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated parenting patterns among Korean immigrant mothers and children's social competence. Childrearing beliefs, types of control (i.e., physical punishment, material/social consequences, reasoning, scolding, and reminding), training items and family-based parental control, and preschool children's social competence were measured. Among parenting variables, the first two (i.e., childrearing beliefs and types of control) represent the typical Western cultural norms in parenting, whereas the latter two (i.e., training and family-based parental control) reflect Asian cultural values. Family-based parental control consists of two factors: concern and respect for the family, and involvement with the family. Participants ...


The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff Jan 1995

The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although play and toys have been shown in the literature to benefit children in a variety of domains, relatively little is known about the effects of specific types of toys on the behavior and attitudes of children. Chapter 1 consolidates research that has attempted to discover the relationship between children's attitudes/behaviors and war toys. Research concerning the benefits of play and toys to children is presented, followed by the opposing viewpoints of aggression theorists regarding this issue. Research supporting each side of the debate is presented. Finally, variables that are likely to affect the war toy-child aggression relationship ...


Maternal Sex-Type, Child's Sex, And Infant Affect Expression , James G. Hanson Jan 1994

Maternal Sex-Type, Child's Sex, And Infant Affect Expression , James G. Hanson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study was undertaken to investigate possible sex-different affective expressions in children ages 16- to 24-months, and to investigate the possible function of child's sex, maternal sex-type, and various demographic variables on any observed differences. The research literature maintains that children as young as 18-20 months have already acquired the first semblance of feeling state words, or the ability to understand and communicate their emotions (Bretherton, Fritz, Zahn-Waxler & Ridgeway, 1986). It was hoped this study could shed some light on the advent of any sex-difference manifestations related to the expression of affect;The subjects consisted of 30 children, 87 percent of whom were either first- or second-born children. Maternal sex-type was measured using the Personal Attribute Questionnaire (Spence & Helmreich, 1978). The affect and affect-exchanges were measured using an adaptation of the Maternal Availability Scale (Osofsky, Culp, Eberhart-Wright & Hann, 1990) and the Infant Affect Manual (Osofsky, Culp, Hann & Carter, 1988). Split-plot ANOVAs were run to investigate main effects for sex of child, sex-type of parent and episode (Baseline, Separation, and Reunion). Pearson product correlation coefficients were computed to investigate relationships between sex of child, affect expression, sex-type of mother, and various demographic variables (e.g., education of mother, family income);Significant results show girls ...


Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee Jan 1994

Older Siblings As Positive Role Models In The Development Of At-Risk Children , Edith Monica Gozali-Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to explore the sibling relationships in low-income families. This study utilized a subsample of a larger longitudinal study and included 35 Head Start and 45 kindergarten children who had older siblings. All subjects were low income. Among the kindergarten children, 29 had attended Head Start. Children were interviewed about their relationships with their older siblings. When a child had more than one older sibling, random sampling was used to select the older sibling on whom to focus the interview. There were no significant differences between Head Start and kindergarten children in their descriptions ...


Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib Jan 1992

Early Mathematics Teaching And Learning In Sudanese Families, Azza Moawia Habib

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic Hardship, Family Relationships, And Adolescent Distress , Camilla Siu-Na Ho Jan 1991

Economic Hardship, Family Relationships, And Adolescent Distress , Camilla Siu-Na Ho

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Adolescence is a period characterized by multiple life changes. Biological, psychological, and social factors interact at an accelerated rate to shape the adolescent's development. Additional life stress during this time is especially detrimental to the psychological well-being of a person. Not only is economic hardship directly harmful to the socioemotional development of the adolescent, it may exert indirect damaging effects on the adolescent through its adverse effects on the family supporting system of the adolescent. This dissertation aims to (1) examine existing literature on the relationship between life changes and stress during adolescence, (2) examine existing literature on the ...


Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta Jan 1991

Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Relatively few studies have documented the nature of mother-father-child play interactions at home, especially during the preschool years. Based on the ecological approach regarding the relationship of play behavior as a function of the playing child and the play environment (Darvill, 1982), this study investigated the play of 48 3- and 5-year-old boys and girls with their parents in their home. The mother-father-child play was videotaped for 10 minutes and later coded for child's social-cognitive play behaviors and the parental involvement of mother and father. Quality of home environment was measured using the HOME Inventory scale (preschool version);Differences ...


Parents' Perceptions Of Their Older Child's Behavior In Response To The Birth Of A Sibling , Jean Naismith Gullicks Jan 1989

Parents' Perceptions Of Their Older Child's Behavior In Response To The Birth Of A Sibling , Jean Naismith Gullicks

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' perceptions of their first-born only child's behavior in response to the birth of a second-born sibling. The following major areas were identified for study both before and after the birth of the newborn: (a) parental perceptions of sibling behaviors; (b) parental perceptions of newborn behaviors; and (c) parental perceptions of self behaviors;Subjects were 70 parent couples who were expecting the birth of their second child. The siblings, 32 girls and 38 boys, were 15 to 74 months of age. Questionnaires were completed by the couples during the last trimester ...


Sibling Relationships: Perceptions Of Four- And Five-Year-Old Children And Their Mothers , Judith Bell Bray Jan 1988

Sibling Relationships: Perceptions Of Four- And Five-Year-Old Children And Their Mothers , Judith Bell Bray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Children's perceptions of their sibling relationship with older siblings were explored in a sample of 106 4- and 5-year-old children using the interview method. Four groupings of siblings were targeted for this study: younger males with older brothers, younger males with older sisters, younger females with older brothers, and younger females with older sisters. A sibling interview and maternal rating scale were developed by the researcher to investigate sibling perceptions. Interview responses were divided into thought units and subsequently judged according to the following categories: intimacy/affection, prosocial, companionship, aggression, antagonism, dominance, irrelevant, general positive and general negative. Mothers ...


The Role Of Insight Skills In Intelligence In Young Children , Chetna Narayan Jan 1988

The Role Of Insight Skills In Intelligence In Young Children , Chetna Narayan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to test the generalizability to children of Sternberg's experiential subtheory of human intelligence which postulates that insight skills provide an important source of individual differences in intelligence. One hundred and seven 6- and 7-year-olds were administered a series of 17 insight tasks and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. The insight tasks were developed to assess three distinct though related kinds of insightful processes, which according to Sternberg, are involved in insight. Correlational and factor analyses failed to provide evidence for the construct validity of the three component insight skills. The results of analyses of ...


The Development Of The Self-Concept In Urban Chinese Children , Zemin Zhang Jan 1988

The Development Of The Self-Concept In Urban Chinese Children , Zemin Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The development of the self-concept was studied in urban Chinese children. Of 390 subjects aged 9 through 14, 207 were male and 183 were female. The "Who Am I" Test and the Sentence Completion Test served to investigate three dimensions of the self-concept of these subjects, content, structure, and self-evaluation. Information on the children's family background, such as parental educational level and occupation, and on parents' expectations towards children, was collected. The responses were analyzed using a set of coding manuals, which called for matching responses to criteria descriptions;The results supported the hypothesis that children of different ages ...


Stress And Coping Resources: A Study Of College Student Families , Barbara Jo Chaney Jan 1988

Stress And Coping Resources: A Study Of College Student Families , Barbara Jo Chaney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The differences between male and female college student families on stress and coping resources were investigated in a sample of 133 male and 195 female college students and their spouses. The relationships among perceived stress, student stress, locus of control, marital satisfaction, social support, satisfaction with leisure time and housing satisfaction were also investigated. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to measure student stress, social support, satisfaction with leisure time and housing satisfaction; standardized instruments were utilized to measure perceived stress, locus of control and marital satisfaction. Correlational analyses were used to explore the relationships among the variables. A ...


Children's Categorization Of Objects And Scenes: A Study In The Internal Structure Of Categories , Jane Harris Martino Jan 1988

Children's Categorization Of Objects And Scenes: A Study In The Internal Structure Of Categories , Jane Harris Martino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a study of the internal structure of children's natural concepts. The application of this information is basic to our understanding of cognitive development, semantics and the development of memory. The study investigated four issues. The first issue dealt with whether children of different ages differ in the number of attributes they mention at the basic and superordinate levels for objects and scenes. The second issue considered was whether children of any age list significantly more attributes for basic level categories than they do for superordinate level categories. The third issue investigated was whether the most protoypical members ...


Effects Of List Organization And Retrieval Cues On Children's Delayed Recall , Suhasini Ramisetty Jan 1987

Effects Of List Organization And Retrieval Cues On Children's Delayed Recall , Suhasini Ramisetty

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The major purpose of the study was to investigate age-related differences in recall as a function of mode of presentation (blocked vs. random), of recall condition (the pressure vs. absence of a retrieval cue at time of recall), and of time of recall (immediate vs. delayed);A total of 96 second and 96 fourth graders participated in the study. The to be recalled items consisted of 20 pictured objects from five semantic categories: furniture, transportation, food, tools, and clothing, each category represented by four objects. The subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, which were combinations of mode of ...


Early Childhood Professionals' Perception Of Their Occupational Worth , Pauline Davey Zeece Jan 1986

Early Childhood Professionals' Perception Of Their Occupational Worth , Pauline Davey Zeece

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sociological trends indicate that as more parents enter the work force, increasing numbers of children and families become involved with early childhood professionals. Little is known about the perceived occupational worth of these workers. Early childhood professionals' perception of their own and their peers' occupational worth, as measured by responses on the Occupational Worth Inventory (OWI) and career-pattern profiled were investigated;Data were collected from 104 family day care providers, 26 group day care providers, 101 day care center teachers, 26 Head Start Teachers, and 95 nursery school teachers. Results of Friedman's rank-order analyses of variance on job pay ...


Interaction And Intervention With Mothers And Their Cerebral-Palsied Infants , Jodie Redditi Hanzlik Jan 1986

Interaction And Intervention With Mothers And Their Cerebral-Palsied Infants , Jodie Redditi Hanzlik

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research presented here is a result of two related research projects developed to replicate and extend the previous research of mother-cerebral-palsied infant interaction and intervention. Experiment 1. Two groups of 20 Caucasian mother-infant pairs were videotaped during 15 minutes of free-play in their homes. The infants, 2-32 months, were nondelayed or developmentally delayed with cerebral palsy. The groups were matched according to sex and mental age. Two-tailed paired t-tests indicated that mothers of cerebral-palsied infants were more verbally and physically directive and engaged in fewer positive behaviors in their initiation and response communication patterns to their infants in comparison ...


A Comparison Of The Performance Of Intellectually Gifted And Average-Ability Children On Four Spatial Tasks , Elizabeth Edson Block Jan 1984

A Comparison Of The Performance Of Intellectually Gifted And Average-Ability Children On Four Spatial Tasks , Elizabeth Edson Block

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Twenty-one gifted (mean IQ = 143.7) 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were compared with a group of their average-ability, chronological-age matched children (mean IQ = 104.7) and with a group of their average-ability, mental-age matched children (mean IQ = 104.4) on four types of Piagetian spatial tasks (two- and three-dimensional rotation, paper-folding, and geometric cross-sections). Spatial tasks were selected to reflect Piagetian stage characteristics, so that Piagetian stage development could be assessed. The gifted children and their mental-age matches were found to perform significantly better than the chronological age-match group on the tasks involving the imagined cross-sections of geometric forms, as ...


Children's Interests In Middle Childhood , Jacqueline Ulmen Zbaracki Jan 1983

Children's Interests In Middle Childhood , Jacqueline Ulmen Zbaracki

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Little systematic inquiry has been conducted into the nature and developmental characteristics of children's interests. The purpose of this research was to develop a factored interest inventory for use with children during middle childhood. While there are adult interest inventories, there is at present no accepted children's interest inventory to be used by teachers, parents, counselors, etc. From a review of the literature and from questioning children age 9-13 years, parents of children 9-13 years, and teachers in fourth, fifth, and sixth grade with a Preliminary Children's Interest Inventory (PCII), a large pool of interest items was ...


Communicative Competency In Middle-Childhood: An Analysis Of The Social Discourse Of Popular And Rejected Third And Sixth Grade Children , Ann Marie Berghout Austin Jan 1981

Communicative Competency In Middle-Childhood: An Analysis Of The Social Discourse Of Popular And Rejected Third And Sixth Grade Children , Ann Marie Berghout Austin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two hundred-forty white, rural, third and sixth grade children were sociometrically defined as either popular, amiable, isolated, or rejected. Forty-eight target children were selected from this group for further study. This involved 12 popular children (6 boys and 6 girls) and 12 rejected children (6 boys and 6 girls) from both grades. The subjects were paired with same-sex children in two ways. The children were matched for achievement with a child whom they had chosen as a friend and who had also chosen the target child as a friend on a sociometric questionnaire. They were matched for achievement with a ...


Mothering And Postpartum Social Network Supports , Helen Holz Raikes Jan 1981

Mothering And Postpartum Social Network Supports , Helen Holz Raikes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of social network supports on mothering outcomes were examined in a sample of 42 primiparous mothers of four-month-old, fullterm, healthy infants. Social network supports were derived from a social network model. Measures were the Perceived Support Questionnaire; Perceptions of Motherhood Questionnaire; Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment, Maternal Emotional and Verbal Responsiveness Scale; Synchrony analysis of ten minutes of videotaping of the infant-mother interaction during feeding, and structured interview. One-way analyses of variance showed that mothers who had large support networks; those who had access to frequently contacted, proximal support; those who perceived themselves to be supported ...