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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga Jan 2006

Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I have studied farmland lease contracts in U.S. agriculture. Using the data from the 1999 Agricultural Economics and Land Ownership Survey, I investigated the empirical determinants of contract design from the perspective of the principal-agent framework, which emphasizes the role of incentives. In the empirical analyses, I found evidence that incentives indeed play an important role in contract design. In chapter 2, I investigated the role of risk, transaction costs, and endogenous matching between the landlord and tenant in contract choice. I found that both risk and transaction costs affect contract choice. Furthermore, I found evidence ...


Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz Jan 2005

Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to economic growth in rural America. The first paper explores the problem of defining rural and the implications for measuring rural growth. It discusses the sample selection problem inherent in using classification methods based on population that change over time. Fast growing rural areas grow out of their rural status, so using the most recent definition of rural in an analysis of growth excludes the most successful places. The findings demonstrate that average economic performance of the areas remaining rural significantly understates the true performance of ...


The Impact Of Improved Nutrition On Labor Productivity And Gdp Growth Rate In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Majd Abdulla Jan 2004

The Impact Of Improved Nutrition On Labor Productivity And Gdp Growth Rate In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Majd Abdulla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of nutrition on the growth rate of country economies over time. Previous studies on this topic have resulted in debates among researchers over how significant nutritional effects are on individual country economies. For this study, data were collected for four decades (1960s, 1970, 1980s, and 1990s) for 43 low- and middle-income countries. The data were analyzed to determine the effect of nutrition, represented by dietary energy supply (DES), on the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) per worker and on labor productivity. The research utilized ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, and random effects regressions ...


Supply Chain Management Of Differentiated Agricultural Products Under Imperfect Information , Miguel Alberto Carriquiry Jan 2004

Supply Chain Management Of Differentiated Agricultural Products Under Imperfect Information , Miguel Alberto Carriquiry

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Participants in a supply chain of agricultural value added products face two significant challenges. First, many of the costly distinctive traits being desired by consumers are difficult (if not impossible) to observe even after consumption. In order for markets for these classes of goods to develop, firms touting the quality of the product need to be trusted. Hence, maintaining an excellent reputation is essential for firms to keep their customers' good will. Secondly, production is conducted in an environment of yield uncertainty, making it impossible for producers and processors to predict with certainty either the quantity or the quality of ...


The Food Chain Of Sheep And Policy Implications On The Sheep Sector In Syria In Highlight Of International Arrangements, Samir Grad Jan 2004

The Food Chain Of Sheep And Policy Implications On The Sheep Sector In Syria In Highlight Of International Arrangements, Samir Grad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The sheep sector in Syria is considered as one of the most important sectors in animal production because it is the first source of meat, the second source of milk, and an export-oriented sector. Therefore, the need has emerged to study its supply chain in order to identify its weaknesses and bottlenecks and make suggestions for improvement. Accordingly, the theoretical background of food marketing is briefly presented including the functions and tools used by analyzing the marketing process. Hereby, the focus is on the approaches used by analyzing the food chains from various perspectives. In this context, the major actors ...


Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan Jan 2002

Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among food security, food away from home and welfare program participation is examined in the dissertation. Current Population Survey data are used to identify and compare the effects of family structure, income sources, and demographic information on food stamp program participation and food consumption based on different food security status. In addition, Iowa administration data are used to compare the effects of local socioeconomic situation on family investment program participation between rural and non-rural areas. Analysis in the first paper uses a bivariate ordered probit model and the results show that the effects of family structure, income sources ...


Expected Returns From Starting A Large Scale Closed Dairy Cooperative Under Price And Biological Uncertainties , Marty James Dreischmeier Jan 2002

Expected Returns From Starting A Large Scale Closed Dairy Cooperative Under Price And Biological Uncertainties , Marty James Dreischmeier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this paper is to determine if it is economically feasible to form a large-scale closed dairy cooperative in the upper Midwest. Simulations were performed for both price and biological variables to calculate the cash flows for a large-scale closed dairy cooperative over the 1st 10 years of operation. The cash flows were calculated using a farm level financial model that was developed to incorporate the biologically driven production process into the cash flow model. The distribution of returns for the cooperative members were estimated and reported for different starting equity levels and different production growth paths. In ...


Three Essays On Environmental Incentives: Dynamics, Asymmetric Information, And Dual Policy Goals , Hongli Feng Jan 2001

Three Essays On Environmental Incentives: Dynamics, Asymmetric Information, And Dual Policy Goals , Hongli Feng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation has three essays. In the first essay, we develop a dynamic model to investigate the optimal time paths of carbon emissions, sequestration and the carbon stock. We show that carbon sinks should be utilized as early as possible, and carbon flow into sinks should last until the atmospheric carbon concentration is stabilized. We rule out any cyclical patterns of carbon sequestration and release. We propose and assess three mechanisms to efficiently introduce sequestration into a carbon permit trading market: a pay-as-you-go system, a variable-length-contract system and a carbon annuity account system. Although the three mechanisms may not be ...


Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen Jan 2000

Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in Mexico's domestic agricultural policy (PROCAMPO) and continued liberalization of trade through GATT and NAFTA have had strong effects on Mexico's agricultural production, consumption, and trade with the United States. The main objective of this study is to analyze these effects in Mexico's grain and livestock sectors. Policies within the NAFTA and GATT international trade agreements may overlap to some degree, and Mexico's domestic agricultural liberalization program (PROCAMPO) may include policies that overlap those in one or both of the international trade agreements. This study analyzes the effects of PROCAMPO, NAFTA, and pre-GATT policies compared ...


The Theory And Practice Of Green Insurance: Insurance To Encourage The Adoption Of Corn Rootworm Ipm , Paul David Mitchell Jan 1999

The Theory And Practice Of Green Insurance: Insurance To Encourage The Adoption Of Corn Rootworm Ipm , Paul David Mitchell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Best management practices exist that increase profit and improve the environmental performance of agriculture by increasing input use efficiency. Nevertheless, few producers adopt these best management practices. The risks involved with the adoption and use of these new best management practices are often thought to contribute to this low adoption rate. This dissertation theoretically and empirically analyzes the potential for best management practice insurance---green insurance---to provide insurance coverage against the failure of the practice, thus substantially reducing the risks involved with its adoption and use. Best management practice insurance removes, or at least reduces, a potentially significant factor hindering the ...


Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova Jan 1999

Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation consists of three essays that analyze relative growth of subsidiary farming and a decline in the production of collective farms in post-Soviet Ukraine. The first two essays consider the change in the production shares of the collective and subsidiary sectors as two interrelated phenomena. The analysis is built on the observation that all the employees of the collective farms have access to subsidiary plots. We analyze whether a shift of labor from collective farming towards subsidiary farming may be explained by a rational reaction of households to income uncertainty (the first essay) and to a decline in wages ...


Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart Jan 1999

Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using two different approaches, the relationship between a firm's investment and its financial variables is examined. Imperfections in the credit market such as asymmetric information have led researchers to explore these relationships. This study incorporates the 5 Cs of lending (character, capacity, collateral, credit rating, and capital) into the farmer's investment decision and explores the impacts of these variables on a basic data set. The data set is composed of 590 Iowa farms that are members of the Iowa Farm Business Association and have reported farm level financial and production data from 1991 to 1995;The first approach ...


Rural And Urban Fiscal Patterns, Maria Alicia Failde Jan 1996

Rural And Urban Fiscal Patterns, Maria Alicia Failde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson Jan 1996

Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cooperative agricultural activity has existed in Vietnam in various forms for many decades. Under central planning, cooperative institutions provided a means for the government to extract surplus from agriculture for the development of the industrial sector. Now, under policies promoting market liberalization in agriculture, household farming units are no longer obliged to transact with the cooperative. The focus of this dissertation is on the interaction between autonomous household production units and cooperative institutions;Collective action around irrigation represents one economic motive for coop participation. Recent developments in club theory provide a conceptual framework within which analysis can be conducted. The ...


Development Of A Price Visualization Procedure Of Cash Grain Markets Using Gis, Attila Konkoly Jan 1996

Development Of A Price Visualization Procedure Of Cash Grain Markets Using Gis, Attila Konkoly

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic Feasibility Of Growing Herbaceous Biomass Energy Crops In Iowa , Young-Woo Park Jan 1996

Economic Feasibility Of Growing Herbaceous Biomass Energy Crops In Iowa , Young-Woo Park

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Depletion of natural energy resources and environmental degradation caused by current energy resources (fossil fuels) have rekindled interest in energy availability and developing environmentally benign and renewable alternative energy resources. In addition, the reduced productive capacity of soil and environmental problems in rural areas caused by the loss of topsoil has created interest in ways to conserve soil;These concerns have generated considerable attention on the production of herbaceous energy crops on marginal land as a possible solution to meeting future energy demands, addressing environmental concerns, and reducing soil erosion;This research suggests that herbaceous energy crops, especially switchgrass, can ...


Self-Insurance And Self-Protection In Weed Control: Implications For Nonpoint Source Pollution, David Walter Archer Jan 1995

Self-Insurance And Self-Protection In Weed Control: Implications For Nonpoint Source Pollution, David Walter Archer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates producer's weed control decisions in three papers. Using an endogenous risk framework, the papers model weed control decisions as they are affected by uncertainty and as they are affected by policies aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution;The first paper adapts the theory of self protection and self insurance to weed control decisions in order to model substitutions between fertilizer and herbicides. Our results suggest that an increase in the probability of weed damage will generally decrease both herbicide and fertilizer application rates. We also show that increased probability of weed damage leads to use of ...


Essays In The Measurement Of Consumer Preferences In Experimental Auction Markets , John Andrew Fox Jan 1994

Essays In The Measurement Of Consumer Preferences In Experimental Auction Markets , John Andrew Fox

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis applies a relatively new technique, laboratory experimental auctions, to examine consumer preferences for food products which have not yet reached the market. The auction used is a second-price (Vickrey) auction in which the highest bidder pays an amount equal to the second-highest bid. This auction has been shown to accurately reveal preferences because it eliminates the incentive to underbid true value which is present in a first-price auction;The experimental auction is used to examine preferences for two products; milk from cows treated with bovine somatotropin, and pork treated with irradiation. The applications feature real products, real money ...


Macro And Microeconomic Models Of Investment Of Rural Development In The Tshikapa Diamond Producing Areas Of Zaire, Wang Ndakaba Lungwangu Jan 1994

Macro And Microeconomic Models Of Investment Of Rural Development In The Tshikapa Diamond Producing Areas Of Zaire, Wang Ndakaba Lungwangu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Forecasting Live Hog Futures Using Technical Analysis, John William Hales Jan 1994

Forecasting Live Hog Futures Using Technical Analysis, John William Hales

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Agricultural Policy And Trade Model For Morocco , Mohamed Jaouad Jan 1994

An Agricultural Policy And Trade Model For Morocco , Mohamed Jaouad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The properties of duality were exploited in developing an integrated system consistent with endogenous behavior of producers, consumers, and government for Moroccan agriculture. A multi-output, multi-input normalized quadratic profit function was used to derive product supply equations for crops and livestock products and variable input demand equations for fertilizer, grain feed, and other feed products. For domestic demand and import share equations, an AIDS framework was applied to derive demand elasticities. As an alternative to the traditional excess demand approach, and to represent the outcomes of a reformed and open cereal sub-sector in Morocco, the study introduces a module that ...


Food Consumption Patterns In Rural Pakistan , Khalid Riaz Jan 1994

Food Consumption Patterns In Rural Pakistan , Khalid Riaz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Assessing the impact of government policies on food consumption behavior requires knowledge of demand system parameters. In Pakistan where regional consumption habits differ considerably, estimating such a system requires careful modeling of habitual behavior. Previous demand studies have not handled the regional heterogeneity of consumption patterns in a satisfactory manner. Also, some of these studies relied on restrictive assumptions regarding consumer preferences. As a result, there is little consensus on values of demand elasticities for even the key food commodities;This study proposes the hypothesis that regional consumption patterns differ because of habits induced by long-term relative prices. Differences in ...


Modeling China's Household Food Demand In The Transition Toward A Market Economy , Qingbin Wang Jan 1994

Modeling China's Household Food Demand In The Transition Toward A Market Economy , Qingbin Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Since 1978 China has moved gradually from a centrally planned to a mixed economic system of planning and markets. Under the new economic system consumers play more important role in determining China's food production and trade. Therefore, it is important for China's policymakers to understand household food demand because the effects of alternative food policies are conditioned by consumer demand. Information on China's food demand is also important for modeling the world food markets where China has been a major trader. Furthermore, China's long history of consumption rationing and gradual movement to a market economy provide ...


Dynamic Structural Agricultural Price Stabilization Policy Models For Producers , Taeho Lee Jan 1994

Dynamic Structural Agricultural Price Stabilization Policy Models For Producers , Taeho Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, using dynamic models, we have criticized conventional static price stabilization models. Since dynamic intertemporal resource allocation instruments such as physical storage and financial assets are most powerful means for producers to stabilize their price or income, we cannot understand producers' behavior against instability without these instruments;First, we criticize the Waugh-Oi-Massel model by introducing dynamics in the model;Second, we emphasize the importance of economic instruments such as physical storage or futures market in a supply response model. Using storage instead of futures market, we investigate the possibility of extending the separation result to commodities which are ...


Papers On The Role Of Natural Resources In International Trade , Edward Osei Jan 1994

Papers On The Role Of Natural Resources In International Trade , Edward Osei

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this work we present three papers that consider the economic implications of international trade in goods when exhaustible natural resources are used as inputs in the production process. In the first paper we investigate the possibility of violation of the static trade theorems when natural resource intensities in two goods are different. In this and the second paper we build on the generalized H-O framework of Kemp and Long (1984). The second paper analyzes the dynamic implications of incorporating natural resources into trade models. Issues relating to production and trade patterns and natural resource extraction rates are investigated under ...


Targeting Food Subsidies To Food-Poor Households In Zambia, Brian Gilmore Luckett Jan 1994

Targeting Food Subsidies To Food-Poor Households In Zambia, Brian Gilmore Luckett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic Comparison Of Alternatives To Sulfamethazine Drug Use In Pork Production, Sumit Manchanda Jan 1994

Economic Comparison Of Alternatives To Sulfamethazine Drug Use In Pork Production, Sumit Manchanda

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Financial Analysis Of Grain Marketing And Production Supply Cooperatives, 1985-1991, Fredrick Neal Hopp Jan 1994

A Financial Analysis Of Grain Marketing And Production Supply Cooperatives, 1985-1991, Fredrick Neal Hopp

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Oil Price On Food Security In The Algeria, Iran, And Saudi Arabia: Cointegration, Vector-Error Correction Model, Dynamics, And Causality Analysis , Ahmad Yazdanpanah Jan 1994

The Impact Of Oil Price On Food Security In The Algeria, Iran, And Saudi Arabia: Cointegration, Vector-Error Correction Model, Dynamics, And Causality Analysis , Ahmad Yazdanpanah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The geo-political economy of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries in general and for oil exporting countries in the region in particular is dominated by three factors: little rain, much oil, and rapidly growing population. With limited agricultural resources, and an historical bias against the agricultural sector the region is unable to produce enough food. Nearly all countries in the region face a food production-consumption gap. Oil export earnings are used not only to finance food imports to close the gap but also to promote self-sufficiency policy;The variation of oil prices, especially since the first oil price shock ...


Agricultural Political Economy And Emerging Biotechnologies: An Economic Evaluation , Sudhir Chaudhary Jan 1994

Agricultural Political Economy And Emerging Biotechnologies: An Economic Evaluation , Sudhir Chaudhary

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study comprises of three research papers. Paper I constitutes an illustration of PERT and PEST policies in analyzing the potential economic impacts of bST adoption and dairy protectionistic patterns across OECD countries. The results from OLS, PCSTS and PROBIT analysis indicate that the dairy producer protection levels across these countries are significantly influenced by the GNP per capita, group-size of dairy producers, and the share of food in consumers' household expenditures. In the theoretical framework, the ex-ante analysis incorporates a producers' political resource constraint indicative of their lobbying contributions. The bST is introduced in the ex-post framework via a ...