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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 119

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The U.S. Broadcast News Media As A Social Arena In The Global Climate Change Debate, Adam Jeremy Kuban Jan 2007

The U.S. Broadcast News Media As A Social Arena In The Global Climate Change Debate, Adam Jeremy Kuban

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The continuous rise in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change has been subjected to exiguous coverage and the competing claims of numerous sources cited in the broadcast news transcripts. This content analysis utilizes social arena theory to examine the coverage of network television news (ABC, CBS and NBC) about global climate change during the six-year period between January 2000 and December 2005. Results revealed that the networks' coverage of global climate change periodically augmented from a compilation of events, statements, scientific findings or ideas. Combined, the television networks consulted 250 sources in primetime newscasts ...


Technology Usefulness And Impact On School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Support, Kathryn Terese Wilson Jan 2007

Technology Usefulness And Impact On School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Support, Kathryn Terese Wilson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A limited number of readings was found in the literature assessing hourly school foodservice employees and the culture of their work environment. The purpose of this study was to examine perceived organizational support (POS) of hourly school foodservice employees and how technology use may impact those perceptions. Specific objectives were to (a) assess POS of hourly school foodservice employees; (b) examine whether perception of technology usefulness affected POS; (c) identify whether POS affected intentions to leave the organization; (d) identify whether perceptions of technology usefulness affected intentions to leave the organization; and (e) assess differences in POS by demographic characteristics ...


The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu Jan 2007

The Impact Of Credit Rating Watchlist And Effect Of Underwriter Reputation On Ipo Underpricing, Jing Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This paper first sets up a theoretical model to describe a credit rating agency's (CRA) two roles, namely rating and monitoring. Through CRA's monitoring role, bonds no longer represent loan contracts without monitoring. In the model, bond issuers have to decide whether to go through CRA or borrow directly, and whether to take action to prevent future risk or not. CRA's monitoring ability is shown to be crucial. If CRA can observe creditworthiness changes more accurately so as to offer ratings with less noise, there will be more issuers willing to signal their qualities and take action ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


The Relative Influence Of Information Assurance Mechanisms On Content Integrity In Peer-To-Peer Networks: A Field Study, Steven Michael Collins Jan 2007

The Relative Influence Of Information Assurance Mechanisms On Content Integrity In Peer-To-Peer Networks: A Field Study, Steven Michael Collins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Seeking Professional Help For An Eating Disorder: The Role Of Stigma, Anticipated Outcomes, And Attitudes, Ashley Hill Hackler Jan 2007

Seeking Professional Help For An Eating Disorder: The Role Of Stigma, Anticipated Outcomes, And Attitudes, Ashley Hill Hackler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The perceived stigma, anticipated outcomes, and attitudes towards counseling may deter those with an eating disorder from seeking the help they need. Part 1 (N = 145) of a two-part study was conducted to examine the relationship between self-stigma and the anticipated outcomes (risks and benefits) associated with seeking counseling on attitudes toward counseling among those currently experiencing or at risk for an eating disorder. The results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma, anticipated risks, and anticipated benefits significantly predicted attitudes towards seeking help for people with disordered eating. In addition, self-stigma had a stronger relationship with men's ...


Gis Modeling Of Urbanization Impacts On Natural Resources, Dakota County, Minnesota, Lan Wei Jan 2007

Gis Modeling Of Urbanization Impacts On Natural Resources, Dakota County, Minnesota, Lan Wei

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the impacts of urbanization in natural resources and land-cover changes due to urban development in Dakota County, Minnesota. An existing planning guide, the 2030 Regional Development Framework (2030 RDF) for the Twin Cities Metro Area, was analyzed and employed as a reference in this research. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help determine characteristics of urban land-cover changes, such as population change, land cover changes, and the environmental impacts on natural resources caused by urban development. Furthermore, land suitability modeling was utilized to analyze possible future development, from the perspectives of urban expansion and ...


Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair Jan 2007

Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the capacity of Agnew's General Strain Theory to explain the self-reported criminality of women. Using a sample of chemically addicted women, this research examines how strains with special relevance for women---losing custody of a child, homelessness, being a victim of assault, suffering from female related health problems, and getting a positive HIV diagnosis, can accumulate and lead to criminal behavior. It also explores the mediating effects of negative emotions and anger in the strain-crime relationship.;The results reveal that exposure to a greater number of strains increases the likelihood of criminal behavior. They also reveal that ...


Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham Jan 2007

Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a trait-like disposition, optimism has received a wealth of research attention in connection with areas of physical and psychological well-being. However, less research attention has focused explicitly on the stability of optimism during adulthood. As such, we currently know very little about the long-term stability of optimism during middle adulthood, the developmental changes in optimism that occur across adulthood, or whether optimism changes in relation to specific life event experiences. The present research addressed these gaps in the optimism literature by examining stability and changes in optimism and pessimism over approximately nine years using longitudinal data from a sample ...


The Effect Of Leads On Cognitive Load And Learning In A Conceptually Rich Hypertext Environment, Pavlo D. Antonenko Jan 2007

The Effect Of Leads On Cognitive Load And Learning In A Conceptually Rich Hypertext Environment, Pavlo D. Antonenko

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether leads affect cognitive load and learning from conceptually rich hypertext. Measures of cognitive load included self-report of mental effort, reading time, and event-related desynchronization percentage of alpha, beta, and theta brain wave rhythms. Conceptual and structural knowledge tests, as well as a recall measure were used to determine learning performance. Measures of learners' reading ability, prior knowledge, and metacognitive awareness were employed to establish the effect of individual differences on cognitive load and learning from traditional and lead-augmented hypertext. Results demonstrated that while leads appeared to reduce brain wave activity associated ...


A Full Bayesian Assessment Of The Effect Of Highway Bypasses On Crashes, Crash Rates And Citizens' Safety In Iowa Communities, Lorenzo Cena Jan 2007

A Full Bayesian Assessment Of The Effect Of Highway Bypasses On Crashes, Crash Rates And Citizens' Safety In Iowa Communities, Lorenzo Cena

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The construction of highway bypasses raises economic and safety concerns among citizens of bypassed communities. This thesis describes the use of a full Bayesian analysis to evaluate the impact of bypasses on traffic safety. Traffic safety has been assessed for the periods before and after the construction of the bypass both on the old road network consisting of the main road through town and on the new road network consisting of the main road and the bypass. Furthermore traffic safety has been assessed for all travelers through or around the communities and then for local citizens of the communities only ...


Relationship Between Physical Activity, Perceived Stress, And The Metabolic Syndrome In Law Enforcement Officers, Hye Lim Yoo Jan 2007

Relationship Between Physical Activity, Perceived Stress, And The Metabolic Syndrome In Law Enforcement Officers, Hye Lim Yoo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship among physical activity, perceived stress, and the metabolic syndrome in law enforcement officers (LEOs). Methods. 461 sworn LEOs of the Iowa Department of Public Safety were invited to participate. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Exercise and fitness questionnaires were used to assess the level of physical activity. Perceived stress and physical activity were divided into three categories; Low, Moderate, and High. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. A continuous metabolic syndrome score ...


A Mixed Method Study Of Rural Iowa Latino High School Students To Determine Barriers To Access, Laurie A. Wolf Jan 2007

A Mixed Method Study Of Rural Iowa Latino High School Students To Determine Barriers To Access, Laurie A. Wolf

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this mixed method study were (a) to gain an understanding of how background and educational experiences affect the college decision-making process of rural high school students, and (b) to identify barriers rural Latinos encounter when formulating their post-high school plans. A survey was used to collect data concerning high school experiences. A purposive sample of rural Latino high-school graduates was interviewed to gather perceptions of their educational and background experiences.;The researcher employed a hypothetical logic model based on the college choice literature. The hypothesized model was used to examine how selected variables: background (mothers' educational attainment ...


Predicting Therapy Working Alliance Through Client Adult Attachment And Client Perceptions Of Therapist Behaviors, Scott Eugene Bair Jan 2007

Predicting Therapy Working Alliance Through Client Adult Attachment And Client Perceptions Of Therapist Behaviors, Scott Eugene Bair

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the influence of adult attachment patterns on working alliance, presumed to share with the alliance construct several important conceptual elements such as bond. Although attachment in adults has been shown to have a strong relationship to working alliance, there is not complete convergence between the two concepts (Reis & Grenyer, 2004). It was expected that client perceptions of the therapy process itself may have a strong influence on working alliance as well, and may explain elements of the working alliance not accounted for by attachment. The relative weight of adult attachment and perceptions of therapy process were explored in regard to therapy outcome. In particular, supportive and confrontational behaviors by therapists are presumed to have relevance to both adult attachment patterns, measured using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (ASQ; Feeney, Noller, & Hanrahan, 1994) and working alliance, measured using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989). To measure such a relationship, a scale of therapist support and confrontation was developed using principal components analysis, the Therapist Behavior Items (TBI), based on the therapist intentions work of Hill and O'Grady (1985). An established measure of session quality, the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ; Stiles, 1980; Stiles & Snow, 1984) was used for convergent validation of the concepts in the new scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that therapist behaviors of support were significant predictors of working alliance when controlling for demographics and other therapy variables, and that client reports of adult ...


Predicting Longitudinal Loneliness In Older Adults, Misty Lynne Skaff Jan 2007

Predicting Longitudinal Loneliness In Older Adults, Misty Lynne Skaff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Loneliness has become a much researched topic during the past few decades, understandably so given the effects loneliness can have on individual's health and well-being. A better understanding of change in loneliness over time is needed in order to develop interventions to reduce overall levels of loneliness.;This study examined the predictors of both initial levels of loneliness and change in loneliness during three and six-year follow-up assessments of the Iowa portion of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE; Cornoni-Huntley et al., 1986, 1990). The sample consisted of over 3,000 individuals over 65 years ...


Role Profiles: An Alternative Look At Personality In Couples Therapy, Hee-Sun Cheon Jan 2007

Role Profiles: An Alternative Look At Personality In Couples Therapy, Hee-Sun Cheon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold. First, it aimed to test the recently developed personality assessment, Role Profiles, for its validity in the form of convergent validity analysis and cross structure analysis guided by role theory in which Role Profiles is grounded. Second, this study explored Role Profiles' clinical implications by capturing participants' subjective experiences of this assessment.;Twenty couples recruited from the community completed the assessments, which included the Demographic Information form, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale, the Dyadic Adjustment scale, and the Role Balance scale. Upon completion of the assessments, participants were asked to complete the Role ...


The Meanings Of Qipao As Traditional Dress: Chinese And Taiwanese Perspectives, Chui Chu Yang Jan 2007

The Meanings Of Qipao As Traditional Dress: Chinese And Taiwanese Perspectives, Chui Chu Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The development of the qipao as a representative, traditional Chinese symbol involves a series of complicated processes including the process of "being modern" and "being Chinese." The researcher investigated how qipao is defined by and has meanings for young women from Chinese and Taiwanese cultures. The purposes of the study were (1) to explore how these women understand and interpret the qipao and (2) to investigate how cultural contexts play a role in the interpretation and use of qipao. Literature was reviewed to investigate how the qipao became representative Chinese dress and what were historical meanings of the qipao.;A ...


Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed Jan 2007

Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It has been suggested that learning is specific to the source of information available during practice (Proteau, Marteniuk, & Levesque, 1992). This hypothesis is quite robust for rapid aiming tasks that have defined spatial and temporal goals, but it is unclear whether it extends to tasks that are more sensory driven and with no clear spatio-temporal goal, such as ball balancing. In this experiment, 24 young adults practiced balancing a ball on their thumb and forefinger either with or without vision. Performance was measured early in practice (after 40 min.) and late in practice (after 180 min.) in both conditions. Both ...


Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication Between Foreign Language Learners And Prospective Teachers, Mehmet Sahin Jan 2007

Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication Between Foreign Language Learners And Prospective Teachers, Mehmet Sahin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Technology has proven itself as a valuable contribution to educational practices when used in a pedagogically sound manner. In this quasi-experimental study using the Interaction Hypothesis as a theoretical framework, 11 intermediate college-level learners of French and Russian and prospective language teachers had six 30-minute synchronous online chat sessions completing communicative tasks. Using a mixed-methods approach, both quantitative and qualitative data were included in the analysis. The study provides evidence for the positive effect of synchronous computer-mediated communication on second language vocabulary acquisition and prospective teachers' professional development, and underlines the importance of scaffolding in online environments. Vocabulary gains of ...


The Cyborg Is The Message: A Monstrous Perspective For Communication Theory, Katherine Anna Merrick Jan 2007

The Cyborg Is The Message: A Monstrous Perspective For Communication Theory, Katherine Anna Merrick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Ai Loom: A Generic Development Framework For Multi-Agent Systems Ideally Suited For Virtual Worlds, Joshua Luke Brown Jan 2007

Ai Loom: A Generic Development Framework For Multi-Agent Systems Ideally Suited For Virtual Worlds, Joshua Luke Brown

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses the use of a multiagent system as a framework for the development of a distributed virtual world. The research has resulted in the development of a distributed generic multiagent system called AI Loom and a prototype distributed virtual world called Plane. The discussion in this thesis focuses on the approach taken and the discussions made in the design and implementation of both of these technologies.


Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino Jan 2007

Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Forgiveness is a concept virtually everyone is familiar with, yet little empirical research has been conducted with regards to defining the concept across cultures. Thus, it is possible that current forgiveness theories, definitions, and models have a Western bias and may not be appropriate for other cultures. Given the gaps in the current literature, the goal of this research was to examine the similarities and differences in how members of Eastern and Western cultures characterize forgiveness. Following a forgiveness prototype analysis conducted by Kearns and Fincham (2004) in an American sample, we took a prototype approach across 3 studies such ...


Effects Of Early Care On Joint Attention And Social Behavior In Pan, Gorilla & Pongo, Caisie Anne Pitman Jan 2007

Effects Of Early Care On Joint Attention And Social Behavior In Pan, Gorilla & Pongo, Caisie Anne Pitman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ability to share attention with another individual is the foundation upon which more cognitively complex capacities develop in humans. These phenomena have not been thoroughly investigated in nonhuman great apes despite the close genetic relationship among members of the Hominidae family. The purpose of the study is to assess the effects of care style during the first six months of life on joint attention skills and social behavior in great apes. This study provides evidence that great apes engage in joint attention behaviors with conspecifics and humans. The ability of great apes to engage in joint attention behaviors with ...


Transportation Construction Administration, Cole Joseph Landau Jan 2007

Transportation Construction Administration, Cole Joseph Landau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger Jan 2007

A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, veterinarian organizations in the United States recommend the control and eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Cow-calf producers comprise 35% of U.S. cattle; however, research on the effects of BVDV in these herds is limited. To gain a better understanding of the pathology of BVDV in cow-calf producers, a stochastic simulation model was developed in C++ to measure epidemiological and financial outcomes. Additional simulations were run to evaluate changes in producer profit for several test and cull strategies. Introducing a PI animal decreased profit by an average of {dollar}13,971 over 10 years. When a second ...


Effects Of Field Of View And Stereo Graphics On Memory In Immersive Command And Control, K.C. Kurt Chris Dohse Jan 2007

Effects Of Field Of View And Stereo Graphics On Memory In Immersive Command And Control, K.C. Kurt Chris Dohse

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Understanding what factors contribute to performance in virtual environments is key to designing future systems for training and teleoperation. The military is already a large user of virtual reality for training and may use virtual reality for real-time operations in the future for command and control. This research aims to identify what effects manipulating the field of view and the use of stereoscopic graphics have on performance of memory-based tasks. Presence, situation awareness, workload and simulator sickness were measured. The results of a controlled study with 100 subjects did not find a statistically significant relationship between field of view or ...


Hacia El Ranchito: Mexican Immigrants, Farming And Sustainable Rural Livelihoods In Iowa, Hannah Kathryn Lewis Jan 2007

Hacia El Ranchito: Mexican Immigrants, Farming And Sustainable Rural Livelihoods In Iowa, Hannah Kathryn Lewis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Latinos are the fastest growing ethnicity of farmers in Iowa and across the U.S., and 3.7 percent of Iowa's total population. This case study of four Mexican immigrant farmers explores why and how they farm in Iowa, and how agricultural institutions can support them. I conducted in-depth interviews and observation, using the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods framework in analysis. These farmers learned as children to tend livestock and butcher animals for home consumption. Each bought a small Iowa farmstead by assembling social, human and limited financial capital. They work off-farm fulltime, while on-farm producing meat, dairy, and/or ...


Restricting Wireless Network Access Within The Classroom, Andrew Daniel Buschbom Jan 2007

Restricting Wireless Network Access Within The Classroom, Andrew Daniel Buschbom

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are fast becoming the networks of choice. With the availability of cheap wireless solutions, WLANs are seeing exponential growth which is expected to continue in the years to come. Over 50% of college classrooms have wireless network availability. Instructors have discovered that along with the benefits of WLANs there are also many students misusing the wireless network during class. This paper provides a solution to the multiple access point problem and proposes a system that can be used to control wireless network access in the classroom. The wireless network control system is based off of ...


Late Prehistoric (Oneota) Exploitation Of Bison, Elk, And Deer At The Howard Goodhue Site, Central Iowa, Jeremy Nathan Hall Jan 2007

Late Prehistoric (Oneota) Exploitation Of Bison, Elk, And Deer At The Howard Goodhue Site, Central Iowa, Jeremy Nathan Hall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Oneota exploitation of bison, elk, and deer is not well documented. Analysis of the remains of these animals from the Howard Goodhue site helps to address specific questions concerning the procurement, transport and post-transport processing of carcass remains. Results are interpreted through predictions of optimal foraging models such as Central Place Foraging and the Marginal Value Theorem. Inferences are bolstered by the environmental context of the late Holocene and with middle range observations of historic and modern hunter-gatherer behaviors. Documentation of the remains demonstrates a complex taphonomic history with extensive dual-patterning responsible for the high level of fragmentation observed. Twenty-three ...


Evaluating The Conservation Security Program Utilizing The Perceptions And Economics Of Producer Participation: Implications For Land Stewardship In Iowa Agriculture, Denis Andrew Reich Jan 2007

Evaluating The Conservation Security Program Utilizing The Perceptions And Economics Of Producer Participation: Implications For Land Stewardship In Iowa Agriculture, Denis Andrew Reich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Agriculture in the United States (US) has been the focus of a number of studies that address the link between on-farm agricultural practices and the degradation of natural resources. The mounting body of evidence that associates certain cropping and grazing practices with soil and waterway damage points to a need for federal agricultural policy to provide improved conservation incentives for agricultural producers. This study focuses on the first two years of the Conservation Security Program (CSP) in Iowa, a watershed based conservation program introduced with the 2002 Federal Farm Act. This new "green payment" program emphasizes "rewarding the best" stewards ...