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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 78

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue Jan 2006

Three Essays On Food Quality And Transaction Costs , Chengyan Yue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Product quality and product differentiation have become increasingly important to producers and policymakers for explaining consumer choice over food products. Consumers are often willing to pay large price premiums for products with preferred attributes. Heterogeneity in quality increases the diversity of goods for consumers and can improve welfare. However, variation in quality also leads to higher transaction costs for consumers, producers and policymakers because quality attributes are hard to identify precisely and vary when the state of the world changes. The first essay addresses the issue of food-quality attributes driven by protectionist policy that inhibits exchange between two countries. Technical ...


Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost Jan 2006

Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative research was conducted at a Midwestern state women's prison to explore how six incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women created their mothering subjectivities prior to their imprisonment. It also investigated how their mothering subjectivities were affected by their experiences in the prison's intervention programs specifically with the Storybook Project of Iowa: a mother-child support program that focused on literacy. This feminist narrative research explored how prison intervention programs, when coupled with the mother-child support project, transformed the women's understandings of themselves and their mothering. This transformation was aided by the women's self-reflective use of narrative through ...


Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace Jan 2006

Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines neighborhood characteristics as predictors of parenting quality among African-American mothers. Drawing upon Wilson's (1996) ideas of how community conditions affect the urban poor, I examined protective qualities of community life including residential stability and social capital. I examined social capital in two separate social fields based on Wilkinson's (1970) field theory approach to community development. These two separate fields, community and organizational social capital were tested as predictors of African-American mothers' psychological well-being and parenting quality;Among the 759 African-American mothers who participated in this study, high residential stability significantly predicted community social capital but ...


Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn Jan 2006

Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to synthesize evidence concerning welfare participation behavior and the consequences of the behavior, both for participants and non-participants. Following the life-course theory view of family life, this study incorporates a dynamic model of family process and elaborates historical events into this model. Analyzing data from the NLSY79 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth), which provides a history of labor force participation and information related to job and family relationships, this study finds that low-income families reach self-sufficiency mostly through marriage, getting a higher wage job, and working longer hours;In terms of determinants of ...


Improving Text Clustering For Functional Analysis Of Genes, Jing Ding Jan 2006

Improving Text Clustering For Functional Analysis Of Genes, Jing Ding

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Continued rapid advancements in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies demand computer-aided methods and tools to efficiently and timely process large amount of data, extract meaningful information, and interpret data into knowledge. While numerous algorithms and systems have been developed for information extraction (i.e. profiling analysis), biological interpretation still largely relies on biologists' domain knowledge, as well as collecting and analyzing functional information from various public databases. The goal of this project was to build a text clustering-based software system, called GeneNarrator, for functional analysis of genes (microarray experiments);GeneNarrator automatically collected MEDLINE citations for a list of genes as ...


Places Of Vulnerability: An Investigation Of Restroom Symbols, Labels, And Gender Neutrality, Sara Elaine Wichtendahl Jan 2006

Places Of Vulnerability: An Investigation Of Restroom Symbols, Labels, And Gender Neutrality, Sara Elaine Wichtendahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There are few places left in United States society that represent gender segregation. Restroom spaces are one such place. They represent the false dichotomy that gender is only male and female, leaving out other possibilities. Separating restroom spaces by gender also negates user needs, particularly among the disabled and families. By symbolically renegotiating the restroom so that it is gender neutral, this space will be more open to the needs of users regardless of gender, age and ability.;Gender neutral restrooms allow free movement of all people and gives recognition to the needs of transsexuals, intersexuals, cross-dressers, gender ambiguous persons ...


Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga Jan 2006

Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study predicted that community ethnic heterogeneity (controlling for community poverty), family adversity (i.e., family economic hardship and non-intact two-parent family/single parenthood), family social resources (i.e., parent-adolescent relationship, parental control, parental warmth, parental knowledge), and individual traits (i.e., racial minority status and gender) would influence adolescent problem behavior trajectories both additively and multiplicatively. In addition, the study predicted that there would be racial/ethnic and gender differences in problem behavior over time. An effective analysis of community influence on individual outcomes requires a multilevel analysis that includes community-level, family-level, and individual-level variables. This multilevel analysis used ...


Participatory Instructional Design: A Contradiction In Terms?, Rema Nilakanta Jan 2006

Participatory Instructional Design: A Contradiction In Terms?, Rema Nilakanta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an inquiry into the apparent absence of participatory approaches in instructional design (ID). It explores the question "what happens when ID becomes participatory?" with the help of three articles. The first article proposes a new approach in ID called Participatory ID, which incorporates principles and techniques of participatory design (PD), a software design approach that calls for genuine user involvement in the design, development, implementation, and maintenance of educational technology. Article 2 explores the feasibility of such an approach in higher education by studying an authentic case of participatory design and development of an electronic portfolio system ...


Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris Jan 2006

Effect Of Organizational Environments On The Status Attainment Of Students Of Color And Majority Students: A General Linear Model Analysis , Shantha Joseph Ravindra Pieris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to determine if the graduation rates of students of color and majority students at public, research extensive and intensive institutions could be predicted by institutional resource allocation activities in the context of both the internal and external environments of universities. The independent variables for the internal environment were expenditures in regard to instruction, academic support, student services, institutional grants (scholarships, fellowships), research, public service, institutional support, plant operation and maintenance, and institutional selectivity. The independent variables for the external environment were geographical region and degree of urbanization. The independent variables for the internal environment were calculated in ...


The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin Jan 2006

The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore employee-organization identification in the apparel retail store setting. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the nature of employee-organization identification in apparel retail stores? (2) In what ways, if any, is salesperson appearance related to employee-organization identification in an apparel retail store setting? (3) To what extent are employees' perceptions of store image, person-organization fit, and attractiveness of the organization directly and indirectly related to level of employee-organization identification among salespeople in an apparel retail store? (4) To what extent is level of employee-organization identification related to level ...


Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman Jan 2006

Consumer Bankruptcy: Are Allegations Of Abuse Well Founded? , Diann Carol Vennink Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate allegations of abuse related to the United States' bankruptcy system. This study used data on bankruptcy and financial problems from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to estimate a model of consumer bankruptcy abuse. The focus of this study was the extent to which consumers were abusing the right to file for bankruptcy protection;Specifically, this study used a cross-sectional, time-series model of bankruptcy and financial problems and assessed the relative importance of different personal and financial variables in predicting bankruptcy. This study sought to investigate (1) if households in this ...


The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali Jan 2006

The Economics Of Protection Of Cultural Goods , Mukhtar Askaruli Bekkali

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many countries claim that foreign cultural goods threaten their national identities and culture and engage in protectionism. In this dissertation, I analyze the economics of trade protection in cultural services, focusing on domestic cultural content protection in terrestrial television and radio broadcasting, and cultural tariffs in the movie industry. My the first essay considers the impact of cultural quota imposed of radio stations in increasing consumption of domestic programs. Domestic content requirement may reduce (increase) consumption of domestic programs when consumer's demand is highly elastic (inelastic), the degree of preference for foreign content over domestic content is high (low ...


Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang Jan 2006

Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality ...


Essays On Private Information And Choice , Dzmitry Asinski Jan 2006

Essays On Private Information And Choice , Dzmitry Asinski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I provide new evidence on the existence and nature of imperfect information in health insurance markets. Empirical research has traditionally concentrated on testing for positive correlation between coverage and risk predicted by standard moral hazard and adverse selection models. Recent theoretical advances demonstrate that the lack of such correlation is consistent with more complex models with unobserved risk-aversion. I test for selection on more than one type of latent information by specifying a hybrid endogenous treatment model and estimating it using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. I use data from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which contains a set ...


"A Solution To A Worrisome Problem": The Rhetoric Of Scientific Discourse In A Public Policy Dispute About The Environment , James Robert Heiman Jan 2006

"A Solution To A Worrisome Problem": The Rhetoric Of Scientific Discourse In A Public Policy Dispute About The Environment , James Robert Heiman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study is to demonstrate how rhetorical analyses of public discourse artifacts and practices reveal science as a civic discourse---with highly epideictic and deliberative purposes---that guides public policy decisions made by non-expert, civic leaders. Though typically recognized for its forensic function, little is written about how the epideictic function of scientific discourse politically performs in public policy debates about the environment. Nor is much written about the connection between the epideictic and deliberative functions of scientific discourse and the resolution of public controversies. To demonstrate the intersection of the political and scientific, I present a case study ...


Wayfinding Recommendations For The Navigation Of Taipei's Subway System Through Improved Graphic Design And Sign Design , Ying-Hsien Sonya Chen Jan 2006

Wayfinding Recommendations For The Navigation Of Taipei's Subway System Through Improved Graphic Design And Sign Design , Ying-Hsien Sonya Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Developing graphic design recommendations for a successful wayfinding system in a space that serves both internationals and locals is an especially difficult task since the target audience is so broad. In addition, unique challenges occur with dual language use. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existing wayfinding system in the Main Station of Taipei's MRT subway system, and to determine effective ways for improving audience navigation and orientation through the system. The analysis of the existing Taipei signage system was based on a range of visual communication criteria adopted from previous professional studies and on the ...


Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos Jan 2006

Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive colors, called concurrents, when processing alphanumeric stimuli. Concurrents may arise from cross activation between cortical language and color processing areas. Two experiments used an attentional blink (AB) paradigm to test whether production of concurrents is an automatic or attention-demanding process. Two experiments used a visual-short-term-memory paradigm to test whether working memory (WM) representations of concurrents are capacity demanding. When target color was incongruent with concurrent color but color did not define targets, a synesthete (S1) showed delayed AB recovery compared to controls. When color defined targets and target color was congruent with concurrent color, the ...


Micro-Level Econometric And Water-Quality Modeling: Simulation Of Nutrient Management Policy Effects , Christopher Sean Burkart Jan 2006

Micro-Level Econometric And Water-Quality Modeling: Simulation Of Nutrient Management Policy Effects , Christopher Sean Burkart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Large surface areas of lakes and streams are impaired by nutrient contributions from agricultural nonpoint sources. This research develops a fully integrated economic and water quality model of an actual watershed to assess alternative nutrient abatement polities in terms of their economic efficiency and water quality effects. The policies examined include fertilizer taxes, application rate caps, uniform reductions, and a cap-and-trade fertilizer application right trading scheme. A micro-econometric field scale model of nutrient application is estimated using USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data combined with prices and spatially detailed soil data. Estimation results are interfaced with the Soil and ...


Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva Jan 2006

Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines ways difference or otherness is represented at three research sites to underscore practical ethical dilemmas engendered by the postmodern crisis of representation. Inspired largely by Gayatri Spivak's influential Can the Subaltern Speak? the dissertation seeks to illustrate a practical usefulness of postcolonial and post-structuralist insights for rhetoric and composition as well as business and technical communication practitioners who aspire to reconcile their allegiance with the postmodern and postethnographic representation critique and prevalent modernist, positivist, and reductive institutional exigencies;Embedded within the dissertation are three papers that elaborate on concrete representational practices in three specific research locales ...


The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim Jan 2006

The Effects Of Computer-Mediated Interaction In L2 Vocabulary Learning, Soh Youn Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of a computer-mediated (CM) interaction task on university level ESL learners' lexical development while doing collaborative dialogues using MSN instant messenger in non-native student to non-native student (NNS-NNS) dyads. Specifically, the study examined the learners' interaction by looking at MSN messenger scripts to find the negotiation routines. Also, the mean pre-test and two post-test scores were compared to assess the acquisition of new lexical items. This study investigated whether the learners used an online dictionary and whether they selected the most appropriate words in the given context. The participants were 10 (6 male, 4 female ...


Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le Jan 2006

Faster, Normal Or Slower?: The Effects Of Speech Rates On High-Intermediate Esl Learners' Listening Comprehension Of Academic Lectures, Fushun Le

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to 1) identify whether three speech rates (SR) (normal, faster and slower) have different effects on high-intermediate ESL learners' listening comprehension of academic lectures, and if so, to determine which SR is the most beneficial to the learners' comprehension; and 2) to identify learners' perception of SRs and reasons for lecture incomprehensibility. Eleven international students were asked to listen to three long academic lectures on unfamiliar topics and answer multiple choice comprehension questions, which was followed by a brief survey of their perception of the SR appropriateness and lecture difficulty. The original SRs of ...


Strategic Planning In Community College Information Technology: A Delphi Study Of Model Programs , Todd Prusha Jan 2006

Strategic Planning In Community College Information Technology: A Delphi Study Of Model Programs , Todd Prusha

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Technology infusion at the community college involves decision making for a multitude of audiences and factors. Advances in technology, students with disparate needs, faculty with varying degrees of technological skills, network security threats, infrastructure costs and competition are contributing to a new reality for community college presidents and CIOs. Careful planning is needed on the part of community college leaders to focus technology resources and training opportunities. The plan must address the needs of the entire community college;In this study community colleges with proven interest and leadership in using technology for innovative college curriculum and services were identified and ...


Modernization And Development As Part Of The Globalization Process: Holistic Participatory Community Development In A Community In The Mantaro Valley, Peru, Edith C. Fernandez-Baca Jan 2006

Modernization And Development As Part Of The Globalization Process: Holistic Participatory Community Development In A Community In The Mantaro Valley, Peru, Edith C. Fernandez-Baca

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Development has been conventionally defined as directional change towards nationally organized economic growth. Currently, however, with the emergence of the global marketplace, the focus of development efforts has gone from nationally organized to globally organized economic growth (McMichael 2000). Bhattacharyya (2004) defines community development as the process of creating or increasing solidarity and agency. Community development involves building the capacity of people, encouraging them to create their own dreams and learn new skills and knowledge.;There are three community development issues that can impact the direction community development practice might take: structure (social practices and organizations: social capital), power (relationships ...


Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun Jan 2006

Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To facilitate the U.S. wholesale electric power restructuring process and promote competitive market outcomes, in April 2003 the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) proposed a complicated market design called the Wholesale Power Market Platform (WPMP) for common adoption by all U.S. wholesale power markets. Despite the fact that versions of the WPMP have been widely implemented in many states, strong opposition to the WPMP persists among some industry stakeholders due largely to a perceived lack of adequate performance testing. In this dissertation, I apply analytical, statistical and agent-based computational simulation tools to analyze and test financial ...


Effect Of Spatial Data Aggregation On Highway Safety Analysis , Justin Cooper Jackson Jan 2006

Effect Of Spatial Data Aggregation On Highway Safety Analysis , Justin Cooper Jackson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent highway safety studies, there has been increasing attention to the accuracy and timeliness of crash data, but there have been limited studies on data aggregation. This thesis tests the effects of the underlying preprocessing of crash data for identifying high crash locations. The first portion of this thesis shows a sensitivity analysis of assigning crashes to intersections by spatial proximity and crash data attributes. In addition the sensitivity of using fixed length segmentation was tested along with the influence of using crash rate for identifying high crash locations.;The results indicate minimal effects of using different spatial proximities ...


Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill Jan 2006

Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the event of family breakdown, removing the child from the home is one of the most common forms of state intervention, and is one of the primary interventions provided when a parent experiences severe problems related to caring for their children. This investigation examined predictors and consequences of the transition from one primary caregiver to another among African American youth. The sample consisted of African American children being raised by various members of their families including biological parents, relatives, and non-relatives. Respondents were participants in a large-scale study of African American children and their families, the Family and Community ...


The Discursive Coding Of Software: A Study Of The Relationship Between Stability And Change, Jennifer Helene Maher Jan 2006

The Discursive Coding Of Software: A Study Of The Relationship Between Stability And Change, Jennifer Helene Maher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Software has become an integral part of most people's everyday lives. Though discussions of software in the field of rhetoric have traditionally taken an instrumentalist approach that seeks to increase the effective use of software, a critical turn has established the need to examine the ideological signification of software. I argue that one way we can do so is to examine the social practices that symbolically constitute software to reveal how software is discursively coded, and how, consequently, users of software are themselves discursively coded. To this end, I examine the discourse of those primarily responsible for the design ...


Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga Jan 2006

Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I have studied farmland lease contracts in U.S. agriculture. Using the data from the 1999 Agricultural Economics and Land Ownership Survey, I investigated the empirical determinants of contract design from the perspective of the principal-agent framework, which emphasizes the role of incentives. In the empirical analyses, I found evidence that incentives indeed play an important role in contract design. In chapter 2, I investigated the role of risk, transaction costs, and endogenous matching between the landlord and tenant in contract choice. I found that both risk and transaction costs affect contract choice. Furthermore, I found evidence ...


A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre Jan 2006

A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. The psychosocial correlates of youth physical activity have not been well scrutinized in the context of the relatively new phenomenon of an increased prevalence of overweight among youth. The purpose of the examination of unique subpopulations (rural vs. urban; overweight vs. normal overweight) within a psychosocial and social ecological framework, was to enhance the theoretical basis for designing improved physical activity interventions for youth. Methods. Data were from a large cohort of Iowa youth, ages 9--11 and 14--18 years (N = 2,862). Physical fitness, body composition, height and weight were assessed. Students completed a physical activity questionnaire, the Childrens ...


No School Business Official Left Behind: School Business Officials, Superintendents, And Role Theory--Association Of School Business Officials (Asbo) International Professional Standards And Job Proficiency , Jeanette Sue Mcgreevy Jan 2006

No School Business Official Left Behind: School Business Officials, Superintendents, And Role Theory--Association Of School Business Officials (Asbo) International Professional Standards And Job Proficiency , Jeanette Sue Mcgreevy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain more understanding about the perceptions of school business officials' "adequacy of performance" in skill areas and "role consensus" regarding three theoretical role groups: executive, manager, and technician. From a new web-based survey, the perceptual data of 169 superintendents and 182 school business officials employed by Iowa public school districts during the 2005-2006 school year were analyzed using Role Theory as the theoretical framework and the 25 Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International Professional Standards sub-skill set areas as the content framework. The response rate was 55.3% for school business officials ...