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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 72

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Longitudinal Evaluation Of Factors Associated With Retaining Women In Science And Engineering , Christina Marie Osslund Gandhi Jan 1999

A Longitudinal Evaluation Of Factors Associated With Retaining Women In Science And Engineering , Christina Marie Osslund Gandhi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the longitudinal effects of a Living Learning Center (LLC) on women studying engineering, science, and Mathematics; The intervention was designed to decrease social isolation within women studying traditionally male-dominated career fields. Secondary goals included increasing LLC participants' retention within nontraditional academic majors and enhancing LLC participants' academic performance within nontraditional courses of study. Finally, increasing LLC participants' university retention, overall academic performance, self-efficacy, and college adjustment were tertiary objectives. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that women participating in the LLC would report less social isolation, greater major and university retention, higher academic performance, and greater ...


The Impact Of Industry Clustering On Iowa Manufacturing Wages, 1986-1994, Lee Edwin Hill Jan 1999

The Impact Of Industry Clustering On Iowa Manufacturing Wages, 1986-1994, Lee Edwin Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines whether industry clustering results in higher manufacturing wages for Iowa counties. The industry for any given plant is defined to be the set of 3-digit SIC codes that use unusually large proportions of the same occupations as it's own 3-digit SIC code, as measured by key-occupation elasticities. Industry clustering is captured by measures of industry density (the number and relative size of plants in the industry) and industry size. A model is used which includes controls for workforce size (urbanization), plant size, mix of 4-digit industries, workforce education, and other relevant variables that predict county manufacturing ...


The Media And The Kennedy Assassination: The Social Construction Of Reality , Ross Frank Ralston Jan 1999

The Media And The Kennedy Assassination: The Social Construction Of Reality , Ross Frank Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research problem was to take a major political event in American history---the John F. Kennedy assassination---explore major media coverage of the event, and then examine media construction of social issues;The assassination of President John F. Kennedy has two official versions in our nation's history. The Warren-Ford-Dulles Commission came to the conclusion that, without assistance, a man in a building shot a man in a car. In 1979, pursuant to post-Watergate cynicism in government, the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded there was a conspiracy and a second gunman fired from a different direction. However, high school textbooks ...


Body Image And Appearance Management Among Older Married Dyads: Factors Influencing Body Image In The Aging Process , Keun Young Oh Jan 1999

Body Image And Appearance Management Among Older Married Dyads: Factors Influencing Body Image In The Aging Process , Keun Young Oh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined how older married persons' body image related to their engagement in appearance management practices and the personal and relational factors influencing the formation of body image among older persons. Various appearance management practices---exercise, dieting, use of anti-aging products and techniques, daily grooming, and apparel-related behavior---were studied. Personal and relationship factors explained for influence on older persons' body image were aging-related physical changes, health, marital relationship, cognitive age, and moods. In addition, coorientation effects in the perception of attractiveness in older marital dyads were investigated;Data were collected via a mail survey of older married couples residing in ...


Designing For Lifeworlds: Genre And Activity In Information Systems Design And Evaluation , Clay Ian Spinuzzi Jan 1999

Designing For Lifeworlds: Genre And Activity In Information Systems Design And Evaluation , Clay Ian Spinuzzi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, professional communicators design and evaluate information systems (ISes) (e.g., online help, websites, databases). Yet the dominant theoretical frameworks (computational psychology, formalism) and research methodologies for designing and evaluating ISes are limited in important ways. These Cartesian frameworks tend not to explore rhetorical issues: society, culture, history, interpretation. I address these issues with a theory and a research methodology (a theory-guided research approach) that I developed by conducting five empirical studies of IS use;I critique existing theories and research methodologies, then draw on scholars such as Mikhail Bakhtin, Lev Vygotsky, Yrjo Engestrom, Edwin Hutchins, and Charles Bazerman to ...


Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen Jan 1999

Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several particularities of apple production systems require careful consideration of the methods used to estimate impacts of pesticide regulation. Growing conditions are geographically diverse, quality considerations are of particular importance, and dynamic aspects need to be acknowledged in production systems of perennial crops;A partial-equilibrium model of the apple industry is estimated where orchards are modeled as multiproduct firms producing apples for fresh and processed consumption. Groups of growers are distinguished by region and by pesticide use patterns. The changes of quantities and prices in the markets for fresh and processed apples that follow a technology shift are derived. Economic ...


Linking Gender Differences In Parenting To A Typology Of Family Parenting Styles And Adolescent Developmental Outcomes , Leslie Christian Gordon Jan 1999

Linking Gender Differences In Parenting To A Typology Of Family Parenting Styles And Adolescent Developmental Outcomes , Leslie Christian Gordon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation used data from a sample of 451 families living in Central Iowa to address four research questions. The first research question addressed gender differences in insight regarding one's own parenting practices. Results provided evidence that neither mothers nor fathers have a great deal of insight in this area. The second research question focused on how mothers and fathers differ in their levels of various parenting behaviors. Results showed that mothers engage in more child monitoring. Mixed results for warmth and consistent discipline precluded drawing any conclusions regarding mother-father differences. Next, I focused on the ways in which ...


Postmodernism In Therapy: Meanings And Concerns , Jeffrey Joseph Crane Jan 1999

Postmodernism In Therapy: Meanings And Concerns , Jeffrey Joseph Crane

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation project seeks to confront confusion and criticism that has accompanied postmodernism's introduction into the field of therapy by identifying separate characteristics found in the professional literature and by asking three contributors to respond to criticism;The first article examines common ideas and characteristics attributed to postmodernism as found in family therapy literature. Toward that end, thirty-one articles from seven journals were examined to identify these meanings. This research found six general categories within which comments about postmodernism were expressed. Within the core category, twenty-six separate characteristics were identified;The second article addresses published criticism that postmodernism promotes ...


Auction Development For The Price-Based Electric Power Industry , Somgiat Dekrajangpetch Jan 1999

Auction Development For The Price-Based Electric Power Industry , Somgiat Dekrajangpetch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets;A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies ...


Adolescents And Conflict With Peers: Relationships Between Personality Factors And Conflict Resolution Strategies , Debra Ann Debates Jan 1999

Adolescents And Conflict With Peers: Relationships Between Personality Factors And Conflict Resolution Strategies , Debra Ann Debates

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between personality dimensions and self-esteem as influencing the conflict management resolution style of adolescents when involved in conflict with a best friend. The sample for the study consisted of 393 eighth grade students from five middle schools in eastern South Dakota. The junior version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-Jr.) was used to assess the personality dimensions of Extraversion, Neurotocism and Psychoticism. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Finally, a modified version of the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-11 was used to assess four conflict management styles of ...


Eighth-Grade Writers And Meaning-Making: A Study Of Computer-Mediated Conferencing And Publishing , Lois J. Yocum Jan 1999

Eighth-Grade Writers And Meaning-Making: A Study Of Computer-Mediated Conferencing And Publishing , Lois J. Yocum

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A practitioner research methodology characterizes this investigation and analysis. This study is based on observations, interviews, surveys, and analyses of students' writing, and it is grounded in constructivist theory. The purpose of this study is to determine ways in which eighth graders in creative writing, online journalism, and language arts classes find meaning in three activities: (1) computer-mediated collaborative conferencing with distant audiences, (2) publishing their school newspaper on the Internet, and (3) preparing multimedia projects;This study illustrates the relationships among conducting practitioner research, promoting curriculum change, and encouraging student empowerment through writing for broader audiences. Research in the ...


The Effect Of Varying Data Collection Techniques In Evaluating The Impact Of A Social Problem Solving Curriculum , John Frederick Tompkins Jan 1999

The Effect Of Varying Data Collection Techniques In Evaluating The Impact Of A Social Problem Solving Curriculum , John Frederick Tompkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ability to apply techniques associated with problem solving and decision making has been identified as an area receiving significant emphasis in today's educational programming. Goodman, Gravitt and Kaslow (1995) found that children who had experienced a high impact of negative life events with less effective social problem solving skills reported higher levels of depression compared to children that exhibited more effective social problem solving skills. The following questions are posed as problem statements for this study: (1) Is student performance in social problem solving measured in a one-to-one structured interview enhanced when demonstration or application of skills is ...


Consumer Adoption Of The Internet For Apparel Shopping , Eunah Yoh Jan 1999

Consumer Adoption Of The Internet For Apparel Shopping , Eunah Yoh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study explored the relationships among attitudinal, social, and behavioral variables associated with Internet apparel shopping. Study objectives were: (1) to examine consumers' experience with the Internet, in-home apparel shopping, and Internet apparel shopping, (2) to propose theoretical models explaining consumer adoption of the Internet for apparel shopping by incorporating two social psychological theories---the theory of reasoned action and the theory of innovation adoption, and (3) to test the proposed models for respondents and subset groups (mail order shoppers and non-mail order shoppers);A self-administrated questionnaire was mailed to a random national sample of 1,600 households. A total of ...


Korean Nurses' Perceptions Of Child Sexual Abuse , Chung Mee Ko Lee Jan 1999

Korean Nurses' Perceptions Of Child Sexual Abuse , Chung Mee Ko Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Child sexual abuse has been a serious societal concern in the United States for some time. In Korea, the problem of child sexual abuse is just now being recognized as a serious issue. Increased awareness of the problem in Korea has led to increased emphasis on its prevention and intervention. Clarifying the definition of child sexual abuse is needed as a first step before efforts can begin to solve this serious social problem. Korean nurses occupy a very strategic position in working with child sexual abuse and its victims, since they may be the first individuals to have opportunity to ...


The Association Of Selected Student Characteristics With Student Ratings Of Teachers , Herbert Duane Strasser Jan 1999

The Association Of Selected Student Characteristics With Student Ratings Of Teachers , Herbert Duane Strasser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there were significant associations between selected student demographic characteristics and the mean student ratings of teachers in the Lincoln County Wyoming School District. A major goal was to assist teachers in understanding the relationship, if any, between mean student ratings of teachers and the student demographic profiles of teacher classrooms. The selected student demographic characteristics studied included; student gender, special education designation, honor roll status, low socioeconomic status and average class attenDance;;The student demographic characteristics and the student rating of teacher data were collected in the spring of 1996 ...


Application Of The Transtheoretical Model Of Behavior Change To Consumption Of Fruits, Vegetables, And Grain Products Among Young Adults , Usan Nyambura Maina Jan 1999

Application Of The Transtheoretical Model Of Behavior Change To Consumption Of Fruits, Vegetables, And Grain Products Among Young Adults , Usan Nyambura Maina

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study the transtheoretical model for behavior change was applied to the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grain products among young adults. The criterion behavior was the consumption of the recommended number of servings described in the United States Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid. Three major constructs---stages of consumption, decisional balance, and self-efficacy---were used. Specific objectives were: develop and validate an instrument to measure the three constructs; use it to measure consumption for fruits, vegetables, and grain products among young adults; examine relationships among the three constructs and among all variables; make recommendations for nutrition education and research ...


A Study Of Professional Development, Research, Practices, And Policies To Prepare Inservice Teachers In New Technologies: Implications For Training Standards In New Technologies , Joyce Ann Pittman Jan 1999

A Study Of Professional Development, Research, Practices, And Policies To Prepare Inservice Teachers In New Technologies: Implications For Training Standards In New Technologies , Joyce Ann Pittman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the efficacy of technology standards, policies and practices driving the Center for Technology in Education's (CTE) training and support efforts provided to inservice educators in the State of Maryland;In 1986, the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) partnered with CTE to provide training for teachers in new technologies to achieve educational reform goals, access to professional development and technical support. Five primary factors were examined (1) knowledge and awareness, (2) professional development, (3) technical assistance, (4) information dissemination, and (5) availability of new technology;The research was designed to evaluate the above factors to answer ...


Tool Of Transformation: The Ideological Role Of Computer Technology In Education , Lowell Wayne Monke Jan 1999

Tool Of Transformation: The Ideological Role Of Computer Technology In Education , Lowell Wayne Monke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Computer technology is usually evaluated according to its effectiveness in aiding learning. What is generally ignored is the impact of the ideology embedded in the computer on the very structure of education. This philosophical dissertation consists of four essays which examine the relationship of this ideology to the learning enterprise. The first essay develops the character of that ideology and its general influence on learning. It is argued that the ideology embodied in the computer is congruent with the ideology of technology that has developed in Western civilization over the last 300 years. As a result, the computer furthers a ...


A Study Of The Effectiveness Of The Iowa Communications Network As A Distance Learning System By Comparing Student Achievement At The Originating Site And At Remote Sites , Patrick Howard Payton Jan 1999

A Study Of The Effectiveness Of The Iowa Communications Network As A Distance Learning System By Comparing Student Achievement At The Originating Site And At Remote Sites , Patrick Howard Payton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study compares student achievement between studio students and remote students in a course taught over the Iowa Communications Network. The Iowa Communications Network is a two-way full motion fiber optics telecommunications system capable of linking students and instructors anywhere in Iowa;The students in a graduate school law course being taught over the Iowa Communications Network were selected to be the subjects of this study. The instructor was a lawyer who had previously taught the course, but had not taught a course over the Iowa Communications Network. The instructor had no special training and received no special training before ...


Developing, Implementing, And Testing A Parent Feedback Instrument For Public School Boards And Employees , Doyle Francis Scott Jan 1999

Developing, Implementing, And Testing A Parent Feedback Instrument For Public School Boards And Employees , Doyle Francis Scott

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to identify, implement, and test a parent feedback questionnaire to be used to gain information from parents about the operation of the board of education, the district administration, the programs, policies, and procedures of individual school buildings, the school administration of individual school buildings, the teachers and professional staff of individual school buildings, and the support staffs of individual school buildings. The questionnaire was developed with assistance from a judgment panel;The opportunity sample consisted of two school systems located in the northeastern United States. Custom tailored scanforms were prepared for each district ...


Un Peacekeeping As A Public Good: Analyses Of The Un Member States' Peacekeeping Financial Contribution Behavior , Hirofumi Shimizu Jan 1999

Un Peacekeeping As A Public Good: Analyses Of The Un Member States' Peacekeeping Financial Contribution Behavior , Hirofumi Shimizu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes UN peacekeeping as a public good. The first chapter discusses the basics of UN peacekeeping: the UN organs involved in peacekeeping, the main characteristics of various types of peace operations, the 50-year history of UN peacekeeping, the financing methods used by the United Nations for its peacekeeping operations. As an attempt to survey the change in suboptimality of UN peacekeeping efforts, the second chapter of this dissertation examines the financial burden-sharing patterns of selected UN member states for the period of 1975-96. Using non-parametric statistical tests, this chapter studies the rank correlation between GDP and share of ...


Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema Jan 1999

Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has suggested that rural youth have lower educational and occupational aspirations than their nonrural counterparts, and they may experience barriers to educational and occupational attainment. Discrepancies and barriers that may exist have implications for educational policy and educational planning;Seventeen rural high schools in northwest Iowa were examined; thirteen public and four private schools. Rural high school students were studied to examine their perceptions concerning potential educational and occupational barriers. Student characteristics and qualities were examined based on where the student lived and the type of school they attended. Students who had been involved in the agricultural curricula in ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Using Interactive Www Simulations Versus Hands-On Activities On The Conceptual Understanding And Attitudes Of Introductory Statistics Students , Barbara Dombroski Barnet Jan 1999

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Using Interactive Www Simulations Versus Hands-On Activities On The Conceptual Understanding And Attitudes Of Introductory Statistics Students , Barbara Dombroski Barnet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have found that students learn better and retain more if the students are engaged in activities that require thinking and processing information, rather than passive learning. With increasingly easy access to computers and with several notable statisticians calling for greater computer use in statistics courses, it makes sense for some of these activities to be computer based. Currently, several World Wide Web (WWW) sites provide Java simulations covering statistical topics, which may be used in statistics courses. The present study investigates whether WWW simulations lead to improved understanding of statistical concepts in comparison to hands-on activities and also what ...


A Postcolonial Approach To The Sociology Of Globalization: Some Empirical Evidence , Rehan Mullick Jan 1999

A Postcolonial Approach To The Sociology Of Globalization: Some Empirical Evidence , Rehan Mullick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new perspective on the sociology of globalization is evaluated. It considers increasing inequality across the world to be a consequence of emerging globalized economy rather than an outcome of underdevelopment. The sample included 126 countries classified as low-income to low-middle-income countries by the World Bank. Regression analysis revealed support for exclusion and irrelevance for peripherized masses in the developing countries. Discussion centers on reconsidering the nature of the globalized capitalism to understand the impasse in development and development studies. The globalization is not seen as a purely economic phenomenon its an intensification of human interaction at all---financial, social, and ...


The Development Of A Computerized Version Of Vandenberg's Mental Rotation Test And The Effect Of Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Loading , Shawn Driftmier Strong Jan 1999

The Development Of A Computerized Version Of Vandenberg's Mental Rotation Test And The Effect Of Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Loading , Shawn Driftmier Strong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on the generation and evaluation of web-based versions of Vandenberg's Mental Rotation Test. Memory and spatial visualization theory were explored in relation to the addition of a visuo-spatial working memory component;Analysis of the data determined that there was a significant difference between scores on the MRT Computer and MRT Memory test. The addition of a visuo-spatial working memory component did significantly affect results at the .05 alpha level. Reliability and discrimination estimates were higher on the MRT Memory version. The computerization of the paper and pencil version on the MRT did not significantly effect scores ...


Quality Program Induced Change: Its Impact On Stress, Fear And Anxiety , Chester Douglas Ward Jan 1999

Quality Program Induced Change: Its Impact On Stress, Fear And Anxiety , Chester Douglas Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Organizational change has historically been a stimulus for increased fear/anxiety. A precept of quality movement intervention, as conceived by Deming (1986)1 is that if the intervention is properly implemented there will be less fear within the organization. This investigation assesses the impact of level of quality program implementation, sex, years of employment (tenure), years of formal education, organization size, individual's age and job type on the level of fear/anxiety within the studied organizations. The level of quality program implementation was determined using an instrument developed for the purposes of this study. Fear/anxiety were assumed to ...


Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa Jan 1999

Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study concerns two potential channels for the transmission of monetary policy to the farm sector in the United States. The first one is the money channel where I use a relative-price model to explain the effect of monetary policy shocks on relative farm prices. The second one is the credit channel where I use the Flow of Funds Accounts (FOFA) data to assess the effect of monetary policy shocks on net funds raised in the farm sector;The equilibrium relative-price model provides a linkage between monetary policy shocks and relative farm prices. The model shows that monetary policy can ...


Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez Jan 1999

Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Investing in nutrition is desirable in itself. Adequate nutrition is essential for the proper growth and development of individuals and partly determines the quality of life and well-being of individuals. But there is also an economic rationale for investing in nutrition. Nutrition may have a direct effect on the productivity of labor and an indirect effect through educational achievement. This dissertation focused on the indirect effect of nutrition on labor productivity by examining whether nutritional factors were associated with the cognitive ability of children. The children consisted of toddlers, aged 18--30 months, and schoolers, aged 6--9 years, from a peri-urban ...


Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman Jan 1999

Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to achieve a higher level of understanding of the adoption and diffusion process of conservation technology on Iowa farms. The tools used in this discovery process are a qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of conservation technologies, an analysis of the adoption and diffusion model, and the formulation of a local dependency theory to explain the patterns of adoption on Iowa farms. Specifically, this investigation comes to the conclusion that the Iowa farmer is trapped in a dependency situation that is controlled by the government, trans-national corporations, and local capital, a triad known as the ...


The Effects Of A High Risk Environment On The Sexual Victimization Of Homeless And Runaway Youth , Kimberly Ann Tyler Jan 1999

The Effects Of A High Risk Environment On The Sexual Victimization Of Homeless And Runaway Youth , Kimberly Ann Tyler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the effects of a high-risk environment on the sexual victimization of 311 homeless and runaway youth. Based on the structural-choice theory of victimization, it was hypothesized that the daily routines and lifestyles of these young people would enhance contact between potential offenders and potential victims. It was also expected that the subjective utility of potential targets would determine whether they would potentially become victims. Taken together, these two propositions are expected to determine who is most likely to be at risk for sexual victimization. Three sets of logistic regression models were run using three different dependent variables ...