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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 85

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

An Attributional Analysis Of Saudi Male Students' Reactions Toward A Friend With Aids , Abdallah Mohammed Badahdah Jan 1997

An Attributional Analysis Of Saudi Male Students' Reactions Toward A Friend With Aids , Abdallah Mohammed Badahdah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The reactions of people toward persons living with AIDS have been studied from different theoretical perspectives. Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States and Western Europe. A small number of studies, however, have been conducted in developing countries. Review of the literature reveals the absence of studies on people's reactions toward AIDS patients in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the present study was to examine Saudi students' emotional reactions and willingness to help a friend with AIDS using Weiner's theory of attribution. Structural equation modeling was used to test several hypotheses. Paths from assignment ...


The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich Jan 1997

The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the influence of educational psychology on contemporary art education. The century-old debate in art education between those wanting more scientific methods of teaching and assessment and those wanting a more child-centered education appears in contemporary version in the work of Howard Gardner and Elliot Eisner. In this contemporary setting it is the educator, Eisner, who wants more discipline-oriented curricula, while the cognitive scientist, Gardner, calls for more child-centered education. By examining the writings of Howard Gardner, a cognitive scientist, and Elliot Eisner, an art educator, and comparing the art education programs overseen by them, i.e., Arts ...


Staff Evaluations And Perceptions Of Organizational Culture: Implications For Performance Improvement And Mental Healthcare Service Evaluation , Jeffrey Scott Kerber Jan 1997

Staff Evaluations And Perceptions Of Organizational Culture: Implications For Performance Improvement And Mental Healthcare Service Evaluation , Jeffrey Scott Kerber

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The researcher studied staff perceptions and evaluations regarding the provision of adult outpatient mental health services at a county medical center. Methods to improve the quality of adult outpatient mental health services were examined. Qualitative methods were employed to conduct a process and cultural assessment. The researcher addressed: (1) staff evaluations of crucial issues regarding performance improvement, (2) cultural issues relating to organizational change and development, (3) the interventive impact of focus group involvement, (4) the utility of qualitative methods for data analysis, (5) specific considerations for mental healthcare staff, and (6) how the evaluative process of a specific service ...


Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro Jan 1997

Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Analyzing The Effects Of Father's Antisocial Behavior On Mothers And Children: A Longitudinal Study Of Single-Parent Families , Marlene Renee Fisher Jan 1997

Analyzing The Effects Of Father's Antisocial Behavior On Mothers And Children: A Longitudinal Study Of Single-Parent Families , Marlene Renee Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines changes in mothers' and adolescent mental health and behavioral measures in recently divorced single parent families. Overall, mothers in the study showed improvement in multiple measures of mental health over the course of this three year study. Single mother's problems with drinking also improved over time. Lower income women whose former spouse had problems with alcohol showed the most improvement in anxiety over time. Women who reported more physically abusive behavior prior to their divorce also reported the most improvement in depression over time. Women who continued to experience abuse in the post-divorce setting continued to ...


Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera Jan 1997

Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States. Consequently, that growth will have a dramatic effect on this country.. The high number of Latino youth that drop out of school is exceedingly critical in light of the fact that by the turn of the century less than 14 percent of jobs will require less than a high school diploma. There is divergence among researchers as to the cause of the high drop out rates. Some attribute it directly to socioeconomic factors while others argue that those factors should be viewed as distal influences and that ...


A Comparison Of Incidence Of Injury And Recovery Profiles Of Intercollegiate Women Basketball Players Sustaining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures , Alice Mcneill Mclaine Jan 1997

A Comparison Of Incidence Of Injury And Recovery Profiles Of Intercollegiate Women Basketball Players Sustaining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures , Alice Mcneill Mclaine

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in women basketball players have come under recent scrutiny as it has become apparent that women athletes sustain more ACL injuries than their male counterparts. The purposes of this study were to examine (a) the effectiveness of intervention techniques in relation to sport return rates among women basketball players, (b) the effectiveness of injury prevention tactics in limiting anterior cruciate ligament injury rates, and (c) differences in these factors among NCAA Divisions I, II, and III;Data were collected from certified athletic trainers at forty-eight institutions across the nation. Representation was equally spread ...


The Functional Organization Of The Brain For Mental Imagery And Image Rotation: An Electroencephalographic Investigation , Harwant Singh Gill Jan 1997

The Functional Organization Of The Brain For Mental Imagery And Image Rotation: An Electroencephalographic Investigation , Harwant Singh Gill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The intent of this dissertation was to reveal (by utilizing a set of cognitive tasks that are visuospatial in nature) how complex mental tasks are performed in the brain. Particular attention was devoted to the functional systems subserving the processes comprising the complex internal generation of mental images and their rotation;Utilizing Electroencephalography (more specifically, alpha power reduction), the functional system subserving the processes of mental rotation and mental image generation was identified. In this functional system, the occipital lobes are bilaterally involved in the initial encoding of visual information into a neural representation. These representations are then shunted to ...


Women In Lower-Level Nontraditional Roles At Two Midwestern Durable Goods Manufacturing Corporations: A Case Study On The Perspectives Of Success , Teresa Joanne Keys Hall Jan 1997

Women In Lower-Level Nontraditional Roles At Two Midwestern Durable Goods Manufacturing Corporations: A Case Study On The Perspectives Of Success , Teresa Joanne Keys Hall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to understand the dimensions of successful outcomes for women in nontraditional roles in lower levels of the manufacturing hierarchy. The study was conducted at two large, durable goods manufacturers in the Midwest. The participants were eight women in nontraditional roles, two women in traditional roles, and five men in traditional roles using qualitative methods to collect, analyze, and present the results;The findings indicated that perceptions of success for the women in nontraditional roles incorporated the themes of competence, satisfaction, mentoring and peer support, and interpersonal style. Barriers to achieving success were related to the themes of ...


Women's Functional Swimwear, 1860-1920 , Maxine James Johns Jan 1997

Women's Functional Swimwear, 1860-1920 , Maxine James Johns

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using periodicals, catalogs, extant garments, postcards, patents, photographs, and newspapers, I traced the origin and development of women's functional swimwear from the bloomer costume of the 1850s to the "tank suit" of the 1920s. To gain insight into exogenous or external forces that may influence the fashion process, I considered urban lifestyle, education and status of women, leisure activities, swimming facilities, renowned swimmers, the Olympics, knit technology, water travel, drownings, life preservers, and public baths;Initial findings supported the thesis that women's bathing garments followed the dominant outerwear silhouette of the era. Visual data indicated women generally adopted ...


The Stakeholder Debate Of Pest Management Through The Eyes Of A Family Therapist , Michael Edward Mayhew Jan 1997

The Stakeholder Debate Of Pest Management Through The Eyes Of A Family Therapist , Michael Edward Mayhew

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict within the pest management dialogue through the systemic and postmodern view of a family therapist. The research design and method of analysis was qualitative, more specifically, naturalistic. The stakeholders of pest management were identified through a pilot study and two heterogeneous focus groups were conducted for three sessions. The dialogue was cross-fertilized between groups in addition to reactions from a Reflecting Team of one of the groups. Responses and ideas were also generated and included from a focus group comprised of four corporate executives of a chemical manufacturing corporation. Three ...


Strategic Bidding In An Energy Brokerage , Sundar Rajan Jan 1997

Strategic Bidding In An Energy Brokerage , Sundar Rajan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main contribution of this research is the definition, and the demonstration of use, of a framework for the development and evaluation of bidding strategies, for participants to use, in preparing and submitting bids to an energy brokerage market. The framework includes the rules under which the market operates, the different types of participants and their objectives, the factors that affect the bidding of the participants, strategies that consider these factors and achieve the objectives, and a simulator to simulate market conditions, including competition from other participants, with which to test these strategies;Strategies that attempt to include competitor behavior ...


An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren Jan 1997

An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the impact of state mandates on teachers' levels of use of the National Standards for United States History (hereafter referred to as the "Standards"). Exploring relationships between factors which may affect teachers' use of the Standards and teachers' levels of use of the Standards, this study surveyed ninth through twelfth grade United States history teachers in Iowa and Oregon. The research method to determine teachers' levels of use of the Standards was informed by the Levels of Use dimension of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model;The survey questionnaire consisted primarily of sections describing teachers': social and demographic characteristics ...


Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes Jan 1997

Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research study analyzed the growth of the cognitive critical thinking skills of college calculus students from six sections of Calculus 165 at Iowa State University. For one semester subjects from three experimental sections learned calculus in a consistently facilitated active learning environment. Subjects from three comparison sections learned the same material in a traditional passive learning environment. Fidelity of treatment--i.e. adherence to an active learning format, was verified by direct observations. The main difference between any active and passive learning environment is the amount of time spent on instructor activities (passive learning) versus the amount of time spent ...


Bias In Adoption Based Research: Methodological And Statistical Implications For Behavioral Genetics , Kristin Riggins-Caspers Jan 1997

Bias In Adoption Based Research: Methodological And Statistical Implications For Behavioral Genetics , Kristin Riggins-Caspers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the methodological/statistical implications of adoptive parent knowledge for adoption methods used to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences. The sample used consisted of adoptees (n = 497) whose biological parents had been identified as either alcoholic, anti-social, or as a member of a control group in which neither alcoholism nor anti-social personality were diagnosed. The original purpose of the data set was content related in that it was intended to investigate genetic and environmental determinants of alcoholism and anti-social personality, as well as the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The present study represents ...


Autocorrelation Techniques For Soft Photogrammetry , Wu Yao Jan 1997

Autocorrelation Techniques For Soft Photogrammetry , Wu Yao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis research is carried out on image processing, image matching searching strategies, feature type and image matching, and optimal window size in image matching. To make comparisons, the soft photogrammetry package SoftPlotter is used. Two aerial photographs from the Iowa State University campus high flight 94 are scanned into digital format. In order to create a stereo model from them, interior orientation, single photograph rectification and stereo rectification are done;Two new image matching methods, multi-method image matching (MMIM) and unsquare window image matching are developed and compared. MMIM is used to determine the optimal window size in ...


Individual And Aggregate Demand For Higher Education: The Role Of Strategic Scholarships , Darin Ray Wohlgemuth Jan 1997

Individual And Aggregate Demand For Higher Education: The Role Of Strategic Scholarships , Darin Ray Wohlgemuth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Undergraduate enrollment increased over 50 percent nationally from 1973 to 1994. The proportion of high school graduates enrolling in college increased from 46.6 to 61.9 percent. These increases occurred despite increases in real tuition prices since 1985, constant (nominal) levels of federal Pell grants per recipient, and declining numbers of high school graduates. This dissertation examines the admitted applicant's decision to enroll and aggregate (state/county) enrollment at a large public institution;The aggregate enrollment model investigates the extent to which national trends in enrollment can be captured within the context of a model of enrollment demand ...


Classnet: A Potential Computer-Mediated Communications Learning Tool In Preservice Teacher Education? , Mark Jay Van Gorp Jan 1997

Classnet: A Potential Computer-Mediated Communications Learning Tool In Preservice Teacher Education? , Mark Jay Van Gorp

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates computer-mediated communications (CMC) in preservice teacher education. Three papers respectively examine current CMC uses and outcomes, describe a new CMC tool which may enhance future use, and present an evaluation of that tool with preservice teachers;The first paper reviews the utilization of CMC in the preservice curriculum and then analyzes occurring problems and assesses resulting needs. The problems are divided into two broad categories: Those that may dissipate with improvement of existing CMC technology and those that may persist even with improved technology. A study of these problems reveals that learning from CMC integration must be ...


A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang Jan 1997

A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate issues of consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time, and, prospectively, the nature of the relationship between parents and children's academic achievement. Both family status and family processes were included in the conceptual model. The model investigated how these factors affected parenting behaviors, and how, in turn, these behaviors influence children's attributes and their academic achievement. Pearson correlations and MANOVAs were used to explore consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time. Structural equation modeling was utilized to elucidate the effect ...


Support Given By Women To Their Mothers And Mothers-In-Law And Relationship Quality Over Time , Naomi Jean Larsen Jan 1997

Support Given By Women To Their Mothers And Mothers-In-Law And Relationship Quality Over Time , Naomi Jean Larsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates relationship quality of women with their mothers and mothers-in-law and how relationship quality is affected by providing instrumental support. This longitudinal study extends the research by exploring the effects of support giving over time on the daughter/mother relationship and on the daughter-in-law/mother-in-law relationship;Based upon social exchange theory and role theory, the central hypothesis for this study is instrumental support given and perceived demands will erode relationship quality over time. As support giving increases, social exchange theory suggests that the support giver feels an imbalance in rewards verses costs and this perception negatively affects the ...


The Effect Of Three Factors On Social Security Old-Age And Survivors Insurance (Oasi) Benefits: Earnings, Mortality, And The Consumer Price Index, Hung-Tai Lin Jan 1997

The Effect Of Three Factors On Social Security Old-Age And Survivors Insurance (Oasi) Benefits: Earnings, Mortality, And The Consumer Price Index, Hung-Tai Lin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Earnings are found to be higher for Whites relative to Nonwhites, for males relative to females. OASDI, with its formula based on earnings history, tends to compound the benefit differences, although the structure does provide proportionately larger returns for those at lower earnings levels. But the disparity between the Social Security benefits of Whites and Blacks, and between males and females, remains large. In addition, mortality rates were found to be higher for Nonwhites relative to Whites, for males relative to females, and for the less educated relative to the more educated. Some of researchers pointed out that differential mortality ...


Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans Jan 1997

Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Fuel, Environmental, And Transmission Pricing Considerations In A Deregulated Environment , Emmanouil Vlassios Obessis Jan 1997

Fuel, Environmental, And Transmission Pricing Considerations In A Deregulated Environment , Emmanouil Vlassios Obessis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The 1992 National Energy Policy Act drastically changed the traditional structure of the vertically integrated utility. To facilitate increased competition in the power utility sector, all markets related to power generation have been opened to free competition and trading. To survive in the new competitive environment, power producers need to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Fuel marketing strategies are thus, getting more aggressive and fuel markets are becoming more competitive, offering more options regarding fuel supplies and contracts. At the same time, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are taking effect. Although tightening the emission standards, this legislation offers utilities ...


Family Financial Strain And Family Relationship Perceptions: Predictors Of Adolescent Depressed Mood , Kathryn Prosser Mayhew Jan 1997

Family Financial Strain And Family Relationship Perceptions: Predictors Of Adolescent Depressed Mood , Kathryn Prosser Mayhew

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Economic hardship, in the form of family financial strain has been associated with distress in both parents and children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of family financial strain on family relationship perceptions and adolescent depressed mood both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Structural equation modeling was utilized to elucidate family processes that were predictive of adolescent depressive mood. The cross-sectional results showed that family financial strain led to an increase in adolescents' depressive mood through an increase in parental depression and a decrease in nurturant parenting for father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads. For father-son dyads, fathers' depressed ...


Stress, Relationships, Distress, And Well-Being In High School Seniors , Kyle Lee Kostelecky Jan 1997

Stress, Relationships, Distress, And Well-Being In High School Seniors , Kyle Lee Kostelecky

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research project was to examine the impact of life events that are associated with major transitions that occur during late adolescence, specifically, for high school seniors. This was accomplished by investigating the role of family and nonfamily social support in the relationship between stressful life events and distress and well-being. The sources of support for the adolescents included their mother/step-mother, father/step-father, most important sibling, best male friend, best female friend, and most important adult at their school. Ensel and Lin's (1991) independent model, deterioration model, and counteractive model were examined. The examination of ...


Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim Jan 1997

Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research on teaching and learning mathematics indicates that offering an appropriate constructivist-based teaching model of mathematics instruction to preservice teachers enhances their teaching abilities and confidence in their future teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary teachers' decisions about teaching strategies and their attitudes toward mathematics and computer-related technologies in a constructivist-centered methods course which included the use of problem-solving multimedia;This study involved 73 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in an elementary education methods course at Iowa State University. Twenty-eight participants were involved in the treatment group, eighteen students participated in the comparison 1 group and ...


Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong Jan 1997

Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine an exploratory model to explain the interactive relationships among parents' number and monetary practices, and their kindergartners' number concepts, monetary concepts, and monetary skills. The 207 kindergartners participated in three number and monetary tasks during clinical interviews. Each child's father or mother completed two kinds of home practices questionnaires. By using path analysis through LISREL 8.12, the results showed that kindergartners' use of money was significantly influenced by their number concepts (i.e., cardinality) and knowledge of coins (i.e., knowing the coin names and coin values). Kindergartners' cardinality benefited ...


Community College General Education Impact On Student Critical Thinking Ability , Judith Hansen Jan 1997

Community College General Education Impact On Student Critical Thinking Ability , Judith Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study of the impact of community college general education, semester hours on student critical thinking ability responded to national and regional research recommendations in analysis of three components: (1) critical thinking, (2) general education, and (3) community college. Student critical thinking ability was measured by student scores on the ACT Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP) Critical Thinking component exam. General education was defined as the semester hours completed in each of five general education areas required for associate degree graduation: communications, humanities, math, science, and social science. All data for this study were obtained from the records of ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of Religion And Spirituality: Implications For Social Scientists And Psychotherapists , Charles Jordan Joanides Jan 1997

A Qualitative Investigation Of Religion And Spirituality: Implications For Social Scientists And Psychotherapists , Charles Jordan Joanides

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Religion and spirituality have recently become topics of discussion within the social sciences and among psychotherapists. This study has attempted to contribute to the ongoing discussion and research that has been conducted in this area by presenting descriptions and interpretations from a qualitative study involving two Christian denominations, i.e., Lutherans and Orthodox. From these observations and interpretations the researcher has constructed a rich, thick description of religious people's lived experiences of the terms religion and spirituality that has implications for social scientists and psychotherapists who have an interest in religion and spirituality. To be more specific, this research ...


Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott Jan 1997

Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to document equity attitudes of public school stakeholders (PSS) and compare them to attitudes of Americans in general. In all, 1014 PSS (school board members, district superintendents, school principals, teachers, and parents) representing 323 school districts responded via a 67-item questionnaire. Major areas were affirmative action, opportunity perceptions, reasons for poverty and wealth, and redistribution of income. Sample: stratified random selection of 683 public school districts in 41 states representative of the nation. Hypotheses. (1) no statistically significant differences between stakeholders and the general public, and (2) no such differences among stakeholder groups. Hypothesis 1 was ...