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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan Jan 2008

Stress And Self-Control: A Test Of Contrasting Pathways To Health Risk Behavior, Amy E. Houlihan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effects of stress and self-control depletion on subsequent risk cognitions. Male college students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a stress induction, a self-control manipulation, or a control task. All participants then completed a questionnaire containing measures of behavioral willingness, behavioral intentions, perceived vulnerability, and consideration of negative consequences regarding two risk behaviors: heavy drinking and casual sex. The order of the dependent measures (drinking measures first vs. casual sex measures first) was counterbalanced as a between-subjects factor.;Compared to the control task, it was predicted that both the stress induction and self-control depletion ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara Jan 2008

The Effect Of Perceived Control And Stress On College Students' Willingness And Intention To Binge Drink, Ross Edward O'Hara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study investigated the effect of perceived control and stress on binge drinking cognitions (i.e., willingness and intention to binge drink). College students (N = 158) were randomly assigned to a high stress (delivering a speech) or low stress (writing an essay) condition and answered items regarding their willingness and intention to binge drink (counter-balanced as a between-subjects factor). While completing the questionnaire, participants were exposed to an aversive auditory stimulus; the ability to mute the stimulus was randomly assigned to manipulate perceived control.;It was hypothesized that high stress would elicit an increase in binge drinking cognitions, and ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...


Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier Jan 2008

Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study investigated if attention to and processing of a movie could serve as input variables in the General Aggression Model. Specially, the type of scenes viewers attended to and their level of processing were examined. Participants completed personality measures and were instructed to either pay attention or just relax during a movie. They then completed a lexical decision task and reported the scene they found to be most striking. Results showed that aggressive cognitions did vary based on scene reported; participants who selected an aggressive scene were more primed for movie-related, non-aggressive concepts than aggression-related concepts. Exploratory analysis suggested ...


An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt Jan 2008

An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study used a latent growth curve modeling approach to examine the effectiveness of online support group intervention on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction over time. A total of 83 Asian American lesbian and bisexual women were randomly assigned to participate in either a four-week online support group intervention or a no-intervention control group. Participation in the online support group intervention was found to predict higher levels of life satisfaction at post-intervention and those levels were maintained over the follow-up period. No differences were found for level or rate of change for depressive symptoms.;Three exploratory moderators were tested ...


Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard Jan 2008

Understanding How Shared Expectations Can Shape Reality: An Examination Of The Underlying Mechanisms In The Accumulation Of Perceptual Bias Effects, Jennifer Willard

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the underlying mechanisms in the accumulation of perceptual bias effects within the context of a criminal investigation. Biased assimilation processes, including the tendency to seek, interpret, and remember information in a manner consistent with one's expectation, and perceived consensus were proposed as potential mediators of accumulation. Two experiments tested this proposition by manipulating perceivers' expectations about a fabricated target's guilt and their interaction with another person. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that perceptual bias effects accumulated across those perceivers who reported having similar beliefs with another person's written statement. These perceivers reported more extreme ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham Jan 2007

Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a trait-like disposition, optimism has received a wealth of research attention in connection with areas of physical and psychological well-being. However, less research attention has focused explicitly on the stability of optimism during adulthood. As such, we currently know very little about the long-term stability of optimism during middle adulthood, the developmental changes in optimism that occur across adulthood, or whether optimism changes in relation to specific life event experiences. The present research addressed these gaps in the optimism literature by examining stability and changes in optimism and pessimism over approximately nine years using longitudinal data from a sample ...


Role Profiles: An Alternative Look At Personality In Couples Therapy, Hee-Sun Cheon Jan 2007

Role Profiles: An Alternative Look At Personality In Couples Therapy, Hee-Sun Cheon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold. First, it aimed to test the recently developed personality assessment, Role Profiles, for its validity in the form of convergent validity analysis and cross structure analysis guided by role theory in which Role Profiles is grounded. Second, this study explored Role Profiles' clinical implications by capturing participants' subjective experiences of this assessment.;Twenty couples recruited from the community completed the assessments, which included the Demographic Information form, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale, the Dyadic Adjustment scale, and the Role Balance scale. Upon completion of the assessments, participants were asked to complete the Role ...


Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino Jan 2007

Culture And Forgiveness: A Prototype Perspective, Kari A. Terzino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Forgiveness is a concept virtually everyone is familiar with, yet little empirical research has been conducted with regards to defining the concept across cultures. Thus, it is possible that current forgiveness theories, definitions, and models have a Western bias and may not be appropriate for other cultures. Given the gaps in the current literature, the goal of this research was to examine the similarities and differences in how members of Eastern and Western cultures characterize forgiveness. Following a forgiveness prototype analysis conducted by Kearns and Fincham (2004) in an American sample, we took a prototype approach across 3 studies such ...


An Interdisciplinary Review Of The Crowd At Eighteenth Century Hangings In England, Susan Renee Stockdale Jan 2007

An Interdisciplinary Review Of The Crowd At Eighteenth Century Hangings In England, Susan Renee Stockdale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is an interdisciplinary study of the crowds at eighteenth century hangings in England. The three disciplines involved are sociology, psychology and history. The first two disciplines are combined in the first chapter which provides an overview of psychosocial research on crowd behavior and shows that these theories have evolved from initial theories which hypothesized that an individual loses his autonomy and becomes subject to the collective mind to more recent theories which hypothesize that an individual's behavior in a crowd is consistent with an existing norm which the individual uses as a model for his behavior in that ...


Do You Hear What I Hear, Do You See What I See, Jeremy Michael Humphrey Jan 2007

Do You Hear What I Hear, Do You See What I See, Jeremy Michael Humphrey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Under the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002), this study investigated the effects of watching and listening to violent rap music videos and rap audio recordings on aggressive cognitions using a mixed between-within subjects design. We hypothesize that violent content would prime aggressive cognitions regardless of media mode (song alone or music video). Additionally, an interaction between mode and content was hypothesized in which we predicted that violent music videos would have a greater effect on aggression cognitions than violent audio tracks. Aggressive cognition was measured using a word pronunciation task that recorded reaction times to ...


Transforming Lands And Livelihoods In The Awach River Basin Of Lake Victoria, Western Kenya, Mary Kerubo Nyasimi Jan 2007

Transforming Lands And Livelihoods In The Awach River Basin Of Lake Victoria, Western Kenya, Mary Kerubo Nyasimi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The significance of understanding the relationships between land degradation and livelihoods in developing countries has become a worldwide concern because of its importance to human food security, environmental quality and biodiversity. In sub-Saharan Africa, estimates indicate that 73% of the land is degraded as a result of erosion, soil compaction, nutrient depletion and deforestation. This degradation had caused a decline in quality of life or livelihoods. To understand the dynamic interaction between land degradation and livelihoods, a cross-cultural study was conducted among the Luo and Kipsigis people of western Kenya. The study adapted DFID's sustainable rural livelihood framework and ...


Avoiding Reactance: The Utility Of Ultraviolet Photography, Persuasion, And Parental Protectiveness In Improving The Effectiveness Of A Uv Exposure Intervention, Jennifer Leigh Dykstra Jan 2007

Avoiding Reactance: The Utility Of Ultraviolet Photography, Persuasion, And Parental Protectiveness In Improving The Effectiveness Of A Uv Exposure Intervention, Jennifer Leigh Dykstra

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mothers of young children (N = 151) participated in an ultraviolet (UV) intervention designed to change attitudes related to UV-safe behavior. The intervention consisted of a colorful brochure and information card pertaining to photoaging and skin cancer, UV photography, and a persuasive message designed to induce either reactance or hypocrisy, depending on experimental condition. It was expected that inducing reactance would lead to a less effective intervention whereas inducing dissonance would improve intervention effectiveness.;Participants were given information about reducing their UV exposure and increasing UV protection. The information was presented in conjunction with either a forcefully persuasive message, an open-ended ...


Taste In Appearance: Self, Cultivated Dispositions, And Cultural Capital, Yoo Jin Kwon Jan 2007

Taste In Appearance: Self, Cultivated Dispositions, And Cultural Capital, Yoo Jin Kwon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study is to develop a theory about taste in appearance and to investigate if cultural capital, proposed by Bourdieu (1984), is a relevant concept in explaining appearance-related consumption. Taste has been studied in two disciplines. Philosophers defined taste as an aesthetic aptitude or capacity to discover beauty from works of art. Sociologists conceptualized taste as a cultivated disposition in the guise of an innate disposition in a broad range of cultural products. While philosophers endeavored to conceptualized taste in relation to beauty, sociologists associated taste with social acceptance or attractiveness.;Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 16 ...


Expectancy Confirmation Effects: Accumulation And Moderation By Social Interaction, Ashley Arden Buller Jan 2007

Expectancy Confirmation Effects: Accumulation And Moderation By Social Interaction, Ashley Arden Buller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The confirmation of expectancies may result in either a self-fulfilling prophecy or perceptual bias, altering social reality. The current research posits that expectancy confirmation processes may become more powerful through accumulation of expectancy effects across perceivers. It also investigates the implicit question that these effects may be highly pervasive and have the potential to accumulate across perceivers who share similar false expectancies, but do not have contact with one another. There were two perceivers and one target in each group of participants for a total of 114 groups. Perceivers were induced with either a hostile or non-hostile expectancy and then ...


Effects Of Contextual Socioeconomic Stressors On Adolescents: Mediation And Moderation By Marital And Parent-Child Relationships, Tony Easter Jung Jan 2007

Effects Of Contextual Socioeconomic Stressors On Adolescents: Mediation And Moderation By Marital And Parent-Child Relationships, Tony Easter Jung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study presents different methods of longitudinal data analysis used to model continuity and change in family research. Innovative modeling techniques such as auto-regressive models, cross-lagged models, latent growth curves, interlocking growth trajectories, latent class growth analysis, and general mixture modeling are used to model the mechanisms in the family stress model. According to the family stress paradigm, negative stressors such as economic stress, work-related stress, and negative life events lead to poor mental health in parents, negatively impact the marital relationship, and undermine effective parenting. In turn, poor parental mental health, marital distress, and ineffective parenting are expected to ...


The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin Jan 2006

The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore employee-organization identification in the apparel retail store setting. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the nature of employee-organization identification in apparel retail stores? (2) In what ways, if any, is salesperson appearance related to employee-organization identification in an apparel retail store setting? (3) To what extent are employees' perceptions of store image, person-organization fit, and attractiveness of the organization directly and indirectly related to level of employee-organization identification among salespeople in an apparel retail store? (4) To what extent is level of employee-organization identification related to level ...


Remediating The Professional Classroom: The New Rhetoric Of Teaching And Learning , David Dean Fisher Jan 2006

Remediating The Professional Classroom: The New Rhetoric Of Teaching And Learning , David Dean Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The incarnation of many Internet-based courses is informed by traditional notions of classroom instruction, in which course/content management systems (CMSs) like WebCT and Blackboard are used to reproduce actions undertaken in brick-and-mortar classrooms. In this dissertation I argue that the way in which the CMS is configured and deployed can provide students with the sense that they are immersed in a social activity other than taking a college course. Elaborating on simulation-building methodologies, I show how we have created a CMS called MyCase that helps classroom instructors evoke and immerse students in discourse-demanding situations within several disciplines. This sense ...


The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley Jan 2006

The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate gender and age differences in dealing with a romantic relationship breakup, as well as to investigate the role that distal (childhood events and childhood attachment) and proximal (personality, perceived stress, coping, and adult attachment) influence one's adjustment to an ended romantic relationship. Participants for this study included 252 (160 women and 92 men) college students, with age ranges from 18 to 39. Two (Age) X Two (Gender) analyses of covariance were computed to assess mean differences for all variables. Women reported higher Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness scores than men, whereas ...


Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman Jan 2006

Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eyewitnesses are often asked in real-world cases whether their responses to a lineup were affected by various external influences, but their ability to answer these types of questions accurately is unknown. Two experiments used a new paradigm to examine eyewitnesses' abilities to estimate the influence of lineup manipulations. Eyewitnesses were administered either confirming post-identification feedback or no post-identification feedback (Experiment 1, n = 103), or a cautionary pre-lineup instruction or no cautionary pre-lineup instruction (Experiment 2, n = 114). Eyewitnesses then gave actual responses (retrospective confidence, view, and attention measures in Experiment 1; identification decision in Experiment 2) as well as counterfactual ...


Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris Jan 2006

Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Parents' and their adolescent children's perceptions have found to have both similar and different perceptions of their parent-adolescent relationship (Carlson, Cooper, & Spradling, 1991; Comstock, 1994) with changes in perceptions of nurturing and/or warmth becoming more apparent during the adolescent transitional phase and as a function of parent - adolescent gender differences (Clark-Lempers, Lempers, & Ho, 1991);Three waves of data were collected from Iowa parents with adolescent children in the sixth (11-to 13-years) or eighth grade (12-to 14-years) at the first wave of measurement responded at each wave of measurement to 21 parenting questionnaire items taken from Roberts, Block and Block (1984) Child Rearing ...


Minority Stress And The Well-Being Of Sexual Minority College Students Viewed Through The Lens Of A (Bio)Ecological Model Of Human Development , R. M. Johnson Jan 2005

Minority Stress And The Well-Being Of Sexual Minority College Students Viewed Through The Lens Of A (Bio)Ecological Model Of Human Development , R. M. Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Minority stress comes from "the juxtaposition of minority and dominant values and the resultant conflict with the social environment experienced by minority group members" (Meyer, 1995, p. 39). Because minority stress is additive to general stressors that are experienced by all people, stigmatized people must accomplish an adaptation effort above that required of similar others who are not stigmatized. Using Bronfenbrenner's bioecological systems theory of human development as a guiding framework, this study explored the key environments in sexual minority college students' developmental trajectories that contributed to or buffered minority stress(ors). As the results of this study show ...