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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston Jan 2008

Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The accurate assessment of risk of sexual reoffense for juveniles has the potential to inform many actions, including the segregation of low risk from high risk offenders, allocation of limited resources, matching treatment assignments and other programming with risk, and implementation of various state and federal regulations (e.g., registration and community notification laws) (Epperson, Ralston, Fowers, DeWitt, & Gore, 2006). The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool -- II (JSORRAT-II; Epperson et al., 2006) is the only known fully actuarially-derived risk assessment tool designed specifically for juveniles who have offended sexually (JSOs). However, it has yet to be validated. To test the predictive validity of the JSORRAT-II, the present study employed an ...


Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham Jan 2007

Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a trait-like disposition, optimism has received a wealth of research attention in connection with areas of physical and psychological well-being. However, less research attention has focused explicitly on the stability of optimism during adulthood. As such, we currently know very little about the long-term stability of optimism during middle adulthood, the developmental changes in optimism that occur across adulthood, or whether optimism changes in relation to specific life event experiences. The present research addressed these gaps in the optimism literature by examining stability and changes in optimism and pessimism over approximately nine years using longitudinal data from a sample ...


Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed Jan 2007

Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It has been suggested that learning is specific to the source of information available during practice (Proteau, Marteniuk, & Levesque, 1992). This hypothesis is quite robust for rapid aiming tasks that have defined spatial and temporal goals, but it is unclear whether it extends to tasks that are more sensory driven and with no clear spatio-temporal goal, such as ball balancing. In this experiment, 24 young adults practiced balancing a ball on their thumb and forefinger either with or without vision. Performance was measured early in practice (after 40 min.) and late in practice (after 180 min.) in both conditions. Both ...


Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore Jan 2007

Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As evidenced by the passage of the Adam Walsh Act and the comprehensive media coverage of several high-profile cases, "The prediction of criminal behavior is perhaps one of the most central issues in the criminal justice system" (Andrews & Bonta, 1998, p. 211). Recent research has generally documented the superiority of actuarial prediction over clinical judgment in decision-making across various domains including risk assessment (Harris, et al., 1993; Grove & Meehl, 1996; Grove, et al., 2000). Several actuarial sexual recidivism risk assessment tools are now well-established (e.g. Static-99; RRASOR; SORAG; and MnSOST-R).;Despite this, Hanson (1998) noted that clinicians may still question the comprehensiveness of actuarial methods and "Those skeptical of actuarial predictions will always find reasons to adjust actuarial estimates" (p. 65). In response to this debate, many clinicians have argued ...


A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre Jan 2006

A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. The psychosocial correlates of youth physical activity have not been well scrutinized in the context of the relatively new phenomenon of an increased prevalence of overweight among youth. The purpose of the examination of unique subpopulations (rural vs. urban; overweight vs. normal overweight) within a psychosocial and social ecological framework, was to enhance the theoretical basis for designing improved physical activity interventions for youth. Methods. Data were from a large cohort of Iowa youth, ages 9--11 and 14--18 years (N = 2,862). Physical fitness, body composition, height and weight were assessed. Students completed a physical activity questionnaire, the Childrens ...


Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2006

Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dual process theories propose that people possess two information processing systems (rational vs. experiential). The present study used two semantic priming techniques to influence health risk decisions via the two processing systems. Baseline measures of sexual attitudes (erotophobia), and willingness and intentions to engage in risky sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors were collected from 183 college males. Participants were then subliminally or supraliminally primed with the concept of sex while performing a lexical decision task. Changes in willingness and intentions were examined. Results yielded no clear pattern of priming effects on health risk decisions, although there was evidence that ...


A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner Jan 2006

A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The coordinate relations hypothesis theorizes that the recognition system that mediates most basic-level object recognition is a structural description that represents shape using categorical relations whereas the recognition system that mediates face recognition represents shape via a coordinate relations representation. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, the factor determining which visual recognition system mediates a given recognition task is the computational demands of the task. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, if the visual recognition task requires distinctions to be made among stimuli that share the same structural description, then the task will be performed by the face recognition system ...


Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey Jan 2006

Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past experimental research has shown that violent video game exposure can increase aggression-related variables compared to nonviolent video game exposure. Currently, there are two competing hypotheses to interpret these findings. The violent-content hypothesis states that violent video games increases aggression because the violent content increases the accessibility of aggression-related knowledge structures. The competition-only hypothesis states that violent video games typically have a high level of competition compared to nonviolent video games. According to this hypothesis, the heightened level of competition increases aggression. One way to test these hypotheses is to expose participants to violent and nonviolent video games matched on ...


Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel Jan 2006

Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents analytical techniques which allow more information to be derived from psychophysiological data than possible with traditional methods. The techniques include an implemented algorithm for chest strain-gauge respiration signal analysis and a permutation testing method for evaluating changes over time in physiological signals. These methods are applied to three data sets, each examining physiological correlates of emotional experience. In the first study physiological correlates of moods induced using music were identified, although respiration entrainment confounds the issue of whether mood or the music caused the observed patterns. The second study examined physiological responses while subjects watched an emotion-inducing ...


Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago Jan 2005

Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of international students continues to grow in the United States, especially students from the Asian continent. However, research continues to show that Asian international students tend to under-use therapeutic services, even though they experience many of the common problems that all students face entering college. Before mental health practitioners and therapists can effectively work with these students, they need to understand international students in terms of their attitudes toward seeking professional therapeutic help and various proximal variables that may influence their attitudes.;The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity, spirituality, acculturation, and racism with attitudes toward ...


Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen Jan 2005

Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The rise in popularity and use of computer-mediated modes of communication such as email and synchronous chat have resulted in the potential for new delivery methods of mental health services. The present study investigated the dynamics of an initial counseling session held in a synchronous chat environment between therapists-in-training at various graduate programs across the country and a trained confederate posing as a client. Transcripts from the online sessions were analyzed to investigate therapist responses and interventions in the online environment. Therapists-in-training were also asked to respond to questions concerning their satisfaction with the experience, the relationship they were able ...


Personality And Mental Health As Predictors Of Rater Bias In Observational Data , Mark Richard Becker Jan 2005

Personality And Mental Health As Predictors Of Rater Bias In Observational Data , Mark Richard Becker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Observational coding has become a common form of data collection in the social sciences. This popularity has largely been fueled by the advantage of objectivity these systems are said to provide over more traditional self- and other-report data collection techniques. However, it has been demonstrated that observational coding systems can suffer from a type of systematic error known as rater bias, which is variance in the data that is not attributable to the observational target (i.e., true variance), but rather is attributable to the rater (i.e., error variance). This study sought to better understand the causes of rater ...


An Exploration Of The Current Involvement Of School Psychologists In Prevention Programming , Melissa Bernadine Cermak Jan 2005

An Exploration Of The Current Involvement Of School Psychologists In Prevention Programming , Melissa Bernadine Cermak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

School psychologists have been seeking to identify the ways in which they can have the greatest impact on the schools, students, and families they serve, while expressing a desire to decrease their involvement in the role of "gate keepers" for special education. With recent reforms in education and health care and a growing awareness of the mental health needs of children and adolescents, school psychologists have been called to expand their roles, taking greater leadership in comprehensive systems of care. Prevention, particularly primary prevention, has been identified as a key area for role expansion, along with being a cost-effective means ...


Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain Jan 2005

Assessing The Relationship Between Encouragement And Social Interest: An Adlerian Perspective , Michael Patrick Mcclain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research utilized data from Reconnecting Youth in Iowa, a positive youth development program for at-risk students, to assess the relationship between two Adlerian psychology constructs: encouragement and social interest. Relevant survey questions utilized in outcome studies for the program were clustered into the theoretical constructs. Pearson product moment correlations revealed broad correlations between indicators of encouragement and social interest. Analysis of variance revealed there were significant difference between high, moderate, and low levels of encouragement on most social interest indicators. Implications for helping professionals and programmatic efforts are discussed.


Concurrent Validity Of The 2004 Strong Interest Inventory: An Examination Of Gender And College Major , Courtney Elaine Gasser Jan 2005

Concurrent Validity Of The 2004 Strong Interest Inventory: An Examination Of Gender And College Major , Courtney Elaine Gasser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To keep abreast of the advent of new occupations and majors, the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory (SII) was revised in 2004. This study examined the concurrent validity of the 2004 Strong Interest Inventory, primarily investigating the scales abilities to differentiate between different college majors for women. Discriminant analyses were used to examine the ability of the 41 scales of the SII to separate 31 college majors. Of the 41 scales, 39 scales were statistically significant in separating college majors for women. In addition, the utility of specific sets of scales and the cumulative ability of sets of SII scales to ...


Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten Jan 2005

Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores both factors influencing obesity among adolescents as well as social and mental health consequences of obesity in young adulthood. Specifically this study investigates the influence of structural community adversity, family, and individual factors on parental general physical health and adolescent obesity. The findings generally support the hypothesized additive and multiplicative association of these factors with parental physical health outcomes and adolescent obesity. Community and family disadvantages uniquely influence the risk of poor general physical health among parents. Poor parental general health in turn is associated with adolescent obesity. Findings also suggest that the influence of community adversity ...


The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh Jan 2005

The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, scholars and politicians have debated the socioeconomic effects of adolescent pregnancy for individuals, families, and society. Pregnant and parenting adolescents often must cope with a lack of resources as they struggle to negotiate the tasks of motherhood and adolescence. Previous research has determined that young mothers have an increased rate of depression when compared to older mothers (Sarri & Phillips, 2004).;In this study, self-perceived resource adequacy, income, and education at approximately six months after birth were investigated as predictors of depression at approximately 14 and 36 months after birth in adolescent mothers (N = 523). It was hypothesized that increased ...


Parents' Relationships With And Parenting Of Their Adolescents Following The Anasazi Foundation Experience , Martin John Erickson Jan 2004

Parents' Relationships With And Parenting Of Their Adolescents Following The Anasazi Foundation Experience , Martin John Erickson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores parents' experiences with the Anasazi Foundation, a wilderness behavioral treatment program for adolescents and their parents. Other research has studied the effectiveness of wilderness treatment, but very little has been conducted formally with the parents of those adolescents. I sought to find out what has been the nature of these parents' relationships with and parenting of their adolescent after having experienced the Anasazi program. Second, I wanted to know what specifically made the difference, and what made the changes they experienced possible. Third, I inquired about the role of predominant cultural expectations and discourses in their parenting ...


Breaching Confidentiality With Hiv-Positive Clients: The Effects Of Client Gender, Client Dangerousness, Clinician Hiv-Related Knowledge And Stigmatization , Brenda Charece Crawford Jan 2004

Breaching Confidentiality With Hiv-Positive Clients: The Effects Of Client Gender, Client Dangerousness, Clinician Hiv-Related Knowledge And Stigmatization , Brenda Charece Crawford

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the utilization of Tarasoff principles with HIV-positive clients when the threat of infection to a third party exists. There are often no clear ethical guidelines to follow when faced with this dilemma, and many clinicians are unaware of what state laws would permit or require them to do. Many variables are important to consider in this complicated area of clinical work, such as the client's level of dangerousness, the client's gender, the clinician's knowledge about HIV transmission risks and endorsement of stigmatizing beliefs. Even with their education and experience, psychologists are not impervious ...


The God Factor: The Role Of Religious Involvement On Depression, Health, And Well-Being , Arlene Maria De La Mora Jan 2004

The God Factor: The Role Of Religious Involvement On Depression, Health, And Well-Being , Arlene Maria De La Mora

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to explore the relationships between religious involvement and health and well-being utilizing multiple measures of religious involvement at two time points. At Time 1, participants (N = 184) recruited from three Midwestern universities completed a battery of questionnaires assessing religious beliefs/attitudes participation in public and private religious activities (i.e., frequency of church attendance and prayer), depression, perceived health, and frequency of seeking health care services. At Time 2, participants were again asked to complete questionnaires assessing depression, perceived health and frequency of seeking health care. The effects of religious involvement on depression, perceived health and ...


Narrative Group Therapy With Outpatient Adolescents , David Charles Kaptain Jan 2004

Narrative Group Therapy With Outpatient Adolescents , David Charles Kaptain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent substance abuse remains a major public health concern. The comprehensive, detrimental effects of teenage drug use, coupled with troubling relapse rates, highlight the need for innovative, effective, and helpful treatment interventions. Adolescents in treatment and the adults that work with them are subject to often negatively influential societal discourses that limit treatment effectiveness as well as the development of adolescent treatment satisfaction and therapeutic alliance. Narrative therapy is promoted in theoretical and clinical literature as a viable way of addressing these problems.;Preliminary work has been done in the area of narrative therapy with adolescents, and particularly with substance ...


Are Coordinate Representations And Structural Descriptions Mediated In Neurologically Dissociable Visual Recognition Systems? , Brian Everett Brooks Jan 2004

Are Coordinate Representations And Structural Descriptions Mediated In Neurologically Dissociable Visual Recognition Systems? , Brian Everett Brooks

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to describe and test a framework (the coordinate relations hypothesis) for understanding the types of shape representations and recognition tasks that are mediated in dissociable neural subsystems. The results from Experiment 1 demonstrate that there is a right hemisphere advantage for recognizing upright animals, but that inverting animals eliminates the right hemisphere advantage for basic-level animal recognition. The results of Experiment 2 showed that there is a right hemisphere advantage for physically discriminating objects that differ only in their metric properties but that there is not a right hemisphere advantage for objects that can ...


I Found My Insides: Giving Voice To The Adolescent Experience Of A Gender-Specific Treatment Program , Lue Kirsten Turner Jan 2003

I Found My Insides: Giving Voice To The Adolescent Experience Of A Gender-Specific Treatment Program , Lue Kirsten Turner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Popular family based treatment approaches have generally failed to take into account the unique contextual issues adolescent females face in their development. Gender socialization, cultural stereotypes, and the meaning given to physical changes at puberty, are a few of these sociological contexts that are uniquely different for developing adolescent girls as compared to boys. The purpose of this research was to highlight voices of female adolescents as they shared their experience of being involved in a gender-specific treatment program designed to address the unique issues they faced as developing females. A qualitative methodology was chosen which consisted of eight interviews ...


The Effects Of Reward And Punishment In Violent Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey Jan 2003

The Effects Of Reward And Punishment In Violent Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This experiment examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on aggressive behavior towards a provoker and an innocent bystander. First, every participant completed an essay on a controversial topic. Next, each participant was randomly assigned to play one of the four versions of a racecar video game for twenty minutes. The four versions were: 1) killing bystanders and race opponents was rewarded, 2) killing bystanders was punished and killing race opponents was rewarded, 3) all violent action was punished, and 4) nonviolent. Next, all participants received severe negative feedback on their essay (provocation) by another ...


Frequency Of Higher Risk Sexual Behaviors For Men Who Have Sex With Men , Diane Blyler Jan 2002

Frequency Of Higher Risk Sexual Behaviors For Men Who Have Sex With Men , Diane Blyler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Safer sexual behaviors have been widely promoted for many years as an effective means of preventing the transmission of HIV. However, creating an initial change in an individual's behavior does not guarantee that an individual will maintain that behavior change. This meta-analysis looked at one population---men who have sex with men---and fit a random effects model to the data for the available studies on the frequency of higher risk sexual behaviors. It is clear the prevention programs need to be developed that focus on maintenance of changes to safer sexual behaviors. By identifying the important predictors of the frequency ...


The Impact Of Two Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs On Cognitive Elaboration In Low And High Hypermasculine Men , Louis Owen Douglass Jan 2002

The Impact Of Two Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs On Cognitive Elaboration In Low And High Hypermasculine Men , Louis Owen Douglass

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research on the effectiveness of acquaintance rape prevention programs focused on changes in reported attitudes under the assumption that changed attitudes lead to changed behavior. However, this research was limited by the use of measures susceptible to social desirability effects and the lack of a theoretical foundation for attitude change.;The current study used the Elaboration Likelihood Model (J. T. Petty & R. E. Cacioppo, 1986) as a theoretical foundation to guide the implementation of an innovative rape prevention program and the evaluation of attitude change. This experimental program used an interactive and non-confrontational format to propose a behavioral system that encouraged men to seek unambiguous sexual consent. This program was evaluated in comparison to a traditional rape prevention program that focused on rape statistics, rape myths, and consequences to victims using a didactic and more confrontational format. In addition, the current study investigated the relationship of hypermasculinity with a range of rape-supportive attitudes and intentions, as well as the differential effectiveness of the programs with low and high hypermasculine men.;Participants were 128 fraternity men who were randomly assigned to the two conditions. Results indicated that hypermasculinity was positively correlated with rape myth acceptance and the intention to engage in sexually coercive behavior. Hypermasculinity was negatively correlated with ...


Relational Transformation In Family Therapy Supervision: A Qualitative Inquiry In A Postmodern Collaborative Learning Community , Dilek Tinaz Jan 2002

Relational Transformation In Family Therapy Supervision: A Qualitative Inquiry In A Postmodern Collaborative Learning Community , Dilek Tinaz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study presents an emerging qualitative inquiry about relational transformation in family therapy supervision at the Houston Galveston Institute (HGI), a postmodern collaborative learning community. Ethno-phenomenology is used as a blended methodology. The researcher acknowledged the participants performing co-researchers of their experiences of relational transformation through supervision relationships. Ten participants, seven supervisors and three supervisors, described their experiences of transformation through their supervision relationships at a postmodern collaborative learning community, the HGI. All participants defined transformation and the process of relational transformation in reference to their own experiences of transformation and their understandings of theory of social construction. As they ...