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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke Jan 2008

Process And Impact Evaluation Of The Verb Summer Scorecard Program, Travis William Hartke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a considerable public health concern about levels of inactivity in youth. This type of information has led to many state and national initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity, such as the VERB Summer Scorecard Program in Story County, Iowa where tweens (children ages 8 to 13) can complete a VERB Scorecard of physical activity by going to physically active activities and deals at businesses in the community with the outcome of earning prizes. The purpose of the study was to determine factors that influence interest and involvement in the VERB summer scorecard program. To do this, a ...


Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder Jan 2008

Influence Of Media On Physiological Arousal, Kelsey Ryder

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of gender, violent media exposure, sexual media exposure, and sexual attitudes on physiological response to media was examined. A total of 34 participants (16 male and 18 female) were included in the final sample. Participants completed a measure of violent and sexual media exposure and the Beliefs About Preventing AIDS (BAPA) measure. Participants were shown movie clips with varying subject matter while their physiological arousal (heart rate and skin conductance) was recorded. Gender, media exposure, and sexual attitudes were not significant predictors of physiological response to violent and sexual media. Males and females did not differ on any ...


Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan Jan 2008

Does Balance Training Improve Balance In Physically Active Older Adults?, Kristen Kartchner Maughan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Falls among older adults are a growing public health problem. Previous research suggests that the regular practice of physical activity in older adults improves balance and reduces falls. The objective of this study was to determine whether balance-specific training, in addition to regular physical activity, could improve balance in older adults, and whether there would be a dose-response to frequency of balance training.;A six-week balance-training program was conducted with 60 older adults (60-87 years) who were already participating in a regular program of physical activity. All participants continued with their regular exercise program while adding balance training in one ...


Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl Jan 2008

Can Prosopagnosics Discriminate Similar, Non-Face Objects?, Jonathan Taylor Kahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Casner (2006) tested the ability of a prosopagnosic, LB, to discriminate objects that would require the use of the coordinate relations recognition system posited by Cooper and Wojan. Casner reported that the prosopagnosic, LB, was impaired in coordinate relations tasks, but did not differ significantly from controls in all tasks that only required categorical recognition. However, Farah, Levinson, and Klein (1995) reported on a patient who was not impaired at discriminating eyeglasses, a task for which the coordinate relations hypothesis would predict an impairment. The present study replicated Farah et al.'s paradigm with the prosopagnosic, LB. One experiment found ...


"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake Jan 2008

"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The loss of a child does not agree with most people's perceptions of the natural order of life and death. It marks an end to the hopes and dreams that parents have made for their children (Znoj & Keller, 2002). This feminist narrative inquiry explores mothers' experiences with decision-making and grief after receiving a lethal prenatal diagnosis for their unborn child. In such circumstances, mothers are often faced with two options: (1) expectant management/continue the pregnancy, or (2) termination of the pregnancy (Rapp, 1999; Hoeldtke & Calhoun, 2001). Through interviewing, participant observation, and personal narrative, I uncover the grief experiences of mothers as they reflect on their child's terminal diagnosis, decision-making pertaining to pregnancy management, and the unavoidable death of their child. These women's stories inform policy, practice, and future research by providing insight into the support services offered, or lack thereof, depending on the ...


Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney Jan 2008

Person-Environment And Gender Comparisons In The Integration Of Interests, Abilities, And Skills, Sarah Fetter Anthoney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated Holland's (1997) theory of the equivalence of person and work environment structures by comparing the relationships among interest, ability, and skills based on individual and occupational ratings of constructs selected from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET database. Individual ratings by 816 college students were analyzed separately by gender. A bootstrapped property vector fitting technique was used to embed ability and skill constructs into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex. No significant gender differences were found in the integration of these constructs. There were differences between the person and environment models for 14 of ...


Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston Jan 2008

Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The accurate assessment of risk of sexual reoffense for juveniles has the potential to inform many actions, including the segregation of low risk from high risk offenders, allocation of limited resources, matching treatment assignments and other programming with risk, and implementation of various state and federal regulations (e.g., registration and community notification laws) (Epperson, Ralston, Fowers, DeWitt, & Gore, 2006). The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool -- II (JSORRAT-II; Epperson et al., 2006) is the only known fully actuarially-derived risk assessment tool designed specifically for juveniles who have offended sexually (JSOs). However, it has yet to be validated. To test the predictive validity of the JSORRAT-II, the present study employed an ...


Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy Jan 2008

Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insight into the patient and volunteer perspective of their experiences at free medical clinics and, from the analysis of those data, inform health professions education. Many uninsured and underserved patients use the free clinic as their medical home to manage acute and chronic conditions and as a source of prescription medications. The volunteers find their experiences to be a fulfillment of their desire to give back to their community, a way to meet an obligation of professional duty, and hold to the moral belief that they should help those in need. Feminist ...


Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng Jan 2008

Ses Gradient In Psychological Distress Revisited: A Dynamic Perspective On The Mediating Effect Of Financial Strain And Mastery, Chih-Yuan Weng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a well-established literature that both psychological distress and mental disorders are linked to the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES). According to the stress process model or the life stress paradigm, SES could affect mental health in at least two ways: first, by creating situations where lower SES people tend to experience stressors in greater quantity; second, by enhancing (e.g., due to underexposure of stress for high SES people) or undermining (e.g., due to overexposure of stress for low SES people) coping resources that are beneficial to psychological wellbeing. While the stress process model or the life ...


It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham Jan 2007

Dispositional Optimism And Pessimism: Stability, Change, And Adaptive Recovery Following Life Event Experiences, William Todd Abraham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a trait-like disposition, optimism has received a wealth of research attention in connection with areas of physical and psychological well-being. However, less research attention has focused explicitly on the stability of optimism during adulthood. As such, we currently know very little about the long-term stability of optimism during middle adulthood, the developmental changes in optimism that occur across adulthood, or whether optimism changes in relation to specific life event experiences. The present research addressed these gaps in the optimism literature by examining stability and changes in optimism and pessimism over approximately nine years using longitudinal data from a sample ...


Predicting Therapy Working Alliance Through Client Adult Attachment And Client Perceptions Of Therapist Behaviors, Scott Eugene Bair Jan 2007

Predicting Therapy Working Alliance Through Client Adult Attachment And Client Perceptions Of Therapist Behaviors, Scott Eugene Bair

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the influence of adult attachment patterns on working alliance, presumed to share with the alliance construct several important conceptual elements such as bond. Although attachment in adults has been shown to have a strong relationship to working alliance, there is not complete convergence between the two concepts (Reis & Grenyer, 2004). It was expected that client perceptions of the therapy process itself may have a strong influence on working alliance as well, and may explain elements of the working alliance not accounted for by attachment. The relative weight of adult attachment and perceptions of therapy process were explored in regard to therapy outcome. In particular, supportive and confrontational behaviors by therapists are presumed to have relevance to both adult attachment patterns, measured using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (ASQ; Feeney, Noller, & Hanrahan, 1994) and working alliance, measured using the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989). To measure such a relationship, a scale of therapist support and confrontation was developed using principal components analysis, the Therapist Behavior Items (TBI), based on the therapist intentions work of Hill and O'Grady (1985). An established measure of session quality, the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ; Stiles, 1980; Stiles & Snow, 1984) was used for convergent validation of the concepts in the new scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that therapist behaviors of support were significant predictors of working alliance when controlling for demographics and other therapy variables, and that client reports of adult ...


Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed Jan 2007

Manipulation Of Vision While Learning A Sensory Driven Motor Task: Establishing A Boundary To The Specificity Of Practice Hypothesis, Christine Adams Reed

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It has been suggested that learning is specific to the source of information available during practice (Proteau, Marteniuk, & Levesque, 1992). This hypothesis is quite robust for rapid aiming tasks that have defined spatial and temporal goals, but it is unclear whether it extends to tasks that are more sensory driven and with no clear spatio-temporal goal, such as ball balancing. In this experiment, 24 young adults practiced balancing a ball on their thumb and forefinger either with or without vision. Performance was measured early in practice (after 40 min.) and late in practice (after 180 min.) in both conditions. Both ...


A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger Jan 2007

A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, veterinarian organizations in the United States recommend the control and eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Cow-calf producers comprise 35% of U.S. cattle; however, research on the effects of BVDV in these herds is limited. To gain a better understanding of the pathology of BVDV in cow-calf producers, a stochastic simulation model was developed in C++ to measure epidemiological and financial outcomes. Additional simulations were run to evaluate changes in producer profit for several test and cull strategies. Introducing a PI animal decreased profit by an average of {dollar}13,971 over 10 years. When a second ...


Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore Jan 2007

Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As evidenced by the passage of the Adam Walsh Act and the comprehensive media coverage of several high-profile cases, "The prediction of criminal behavior is perhaps one of the most central issues in the criminal justice system" (Andrews & Bonta, 1998, p. 211). Recent research has generally documented the superiority of actuarial prediction over clinical judgment in decision-making across various domains including risk assessment (Harris, et al., 1993; Grove & Meehl, 1996; Grove, et al., 2000). Several actuarial sexual recidivism risk assessment tools are now well-established (e.g. Static-99; RRASOR; SORAG; and MnSOST-R).;Despite this, Hanson (1998) noted that clinicians may still question the comprehensiveness of actuarial methods and "Those skeptical of actuarial predictions will always find reasons to adjust actuarial estimates" (p. 65). In response to this debate, many clinicians have argued ...


The Effects Of Cueing On Walking Stability In People With Parkinson's Disease, Andrew Jennings Carrel Jan 2007

The Effects Of Cueing On Walking Stability In People With Parkinson's Disease, Andrew Jennings Carrel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that visual and verbal cues change gait spatiotemporal parameters in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Morris, Iansek, Matyas, & Summers, 1994a, 1994b). Previous studies show that utilizing harmonic analysis differentiates walking patterns between old and young adults (Menz, Lord, & Fitzpatrick, 2003). One purpose of this study is to examine differences in harmonic ratios between people with PD and healthy older adults and another is to determine the effect of visual and verbal cues on harmonic ratios of participants with PD when compared with their harmonic ratios during preferred walking. Eleven people with PD and 11 age- and gender-matched ...


Written And Unwritten Rules: The Use Of Alcohol By Fraternities: A Study Of One College, Thomas Michael Crady Jan 2007

Written And Unwritten Rules: The Use Of Alcohol By Fraternities: A Study Of One College, Thomas Michael Crady

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The written and unwritten rules surrounding the use of alcohol by fraternities was examined at one college. Qualitative research techniques were employed to interview 29 students who were classified as independents and members of fraternities. These students were interviewed in focus groups and segregated by affiliation.;Changes were made to the College's alcohol policy just prior to the interviews. Implicit themes that emerged include: (a) social life centered around Greek Letter organization activities; (b) Greek organizations tend to dominate the campus culture; (c) members of Greek Letter organizations and independents perceive recent changes to the College's alcohol and ...


Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos Jan 2006

Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive colors, called concurrents, when processing alphanumeric stimuli. Concurrents may arise from cross activation between cortical language and color processing areas. Two experiments used an attentional blink (AB) paradigm to test whether production of concurrents is an automatic or attention-demanding process. Two experiments used a visual-short-term-memory paradigm to test whether working memory (WM) representations of concurrents are capacity demanding. When target color was incongruent with concurrent color but color did not define targets, a synesthete (S1) showed delayed AB recovery compared to controls. When color defined targets and target color was congruent with concurrent color, the ...


A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre Jan 2006

A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. The psychosocial correlates of youth physical activity have not been well scrutinized in the context of the relatively new phenomenon of an increased prevalence of overweight among youth. The purpose of the examination of unique subpopulations (rural vs. urban; overweight vs. normal overweight) within a psychosocial and social ecological framework, was to enhance the theoretical basis for designing improved physical activity interventions for youth. Methods. Data were from a large cohort of Iowa youth, ages 9--11 and 14--18 years (N = 2,862). Physical fitness, body composition, height and weight were assessed. Students completed a physical activity questionnaire, the Childrens ...


Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2006

Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dual process theories propose that people possess two information processing systems (rational vs. experiential). The present study used two semantic priming techniques to influence health risk decisions via the two processing systems. Baseline measures of sexual attitudes (erotophobia), and willingness and intentions to engage in risky sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors were collected from 183 college males. Participants were then subliminally or supraliminally primed with the concept of sex while performing a lexical decision task. Changes in willingness and intentions were examined. Results yielded no clear pattern of priming effects on health risk decisions, although there was evidence that ...


A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl Jan 2006

A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Risk and protective factors of the family and individual microsystems associated with early sexual intercourse among a sample of low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory in combination with a risk and resiliency framework. The risk factors examined were adolescent race, gender, family structure, low maternal education, family welfare receipt, income, and delinquent behaviors. Protective factors explored included family routines, parental monitoring, parent-child relationships, father involvement, academic achievement and academic aspirations. Waves 1 and 2 of the Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, ages 10 to 14 years). Relationships between early sexual activity and sexual ...


A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner Jan 2006

A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The coordinate relations hypothesis theorizes that the recognition system that mediates most basic-level object recognition is a structural description that represents shape using categorical relations whereas the recognition system that mediates face recognition represents shape via a coordinate relations representation. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, the factor determining which visual recognition system mediates a given recognition task is the computational demands of the task. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, if the visual recognition task requires distinctions to be made among stimuli that share the same structural description, then the task will be performed by the face recognition system ...


Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey Jan 2006

Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past experimental research has shown that violent video game exposure can increase aggression-related variables compared to nonviolent video game exposure. Currently, there are two competing hypotheses to interpret these findings. The violent-content hypothesis states that violent video games increases aggression because the violent content increases the accessibility of aggression-related knowledge structures. The competition-only hypothesis states that violent video games typically have a high level of competition compared to nonviolent video games. According to this hypothesis, the heightened level of competition increases aggression. One way to test these hypotheses is to expose participants to violent and nonviolent video games matched on ...


Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel Jan 2006

Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents analytical techniques which allow more information to be derived from psychophysiological data than possible with traditional methods. The techniques include an implemented algorithm for chest strain-gauge respiration signal analysis and a permutation testing method for evaluating changes over time in physiological signals. These methods are applied to three data sets, each examining physiological correlates of emotional experience. In the first study physiological correlates of moods induced using music were identified, although respiration entrainment confounds the issue of whether mood or the music caused the observed patterns. The second study examined physiological responses while subjects watched an emotion-inducing ...


Minority Stress And The Well-Being Of Sexual Minority College Students Viewed Through The Lens Of A (Bio)Ecological Model Of Human Development , R. M. Johnson Jan 2005

Minority Stress And The Well-Being Of Sexual Minority College Students Viewed Through The Lens Of A (Bio)Ecological Model Of Human Development , R. M. Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Minority stress comes from "the juxtaposition of minority and dominant values and the resultant conflict with the social environment experienced by minority group members" (Meyer, 1995, p. 39). Because minority stress is additive to general stressors that are experienced by all people, stigmatized people must accomplish an adaptation effort above that required of similar others who are not stigmatized. Using Bronfenbrenner's bioecological systems theory of human development as a guiding framework, this study explored the key environments in sexual minority college students' developmental trajectories that contributed to or buffered minority stress(ors). As the results of this study show ...


Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago Jan 2005

Asian International Students' Ethnic Identity, Spirituality, Acculturation, And Experience Of Racism: Relationship With Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Therapeutic Help , Anthony D. Santiago

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of international students continues to grow in the United States, especially students from the Asian continent. However, research continues to show that Asian international students tend to under-use therapeutic services, even though they experience many of the common problems that all students face entering college. Before mental health practitioners and therapists can effectively work with these students, they need to understand international students in terms of their attitudes toward seeking professional therapeutic help and various proximal variables that may influence their attitudes.;The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity, spirituality, acculturation, and racism with attitudes toward ...


Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen Jan 2005

Online Counseling: Dynamics Of Process And Assessment , Michael John Mallen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The rise in popularity and use of computer-mediated modes of communication such as email and synchronous chat have resulted in the potential for new delivery methods of mental health services. The present study investigated the dynamics of an initial counseling session held in a synchronous chat environment between therapists-in-training at various graduate programs across the country and a trained confederate posing as a client. Transcripts from the online sessions were analyzed to investigate therapist responses and interventions in the online environment. Therapists-in-training were also asked to respond to questions concerning their satisfaction with the experience, the relationship they were able ...


Personality And Mental Health As Predictors Of Rater Bias In Observational Data , Mark Richard Becker Jan 2005

Personality And Mental Health As Predictors Of Rater Bias In Observational Data , Mark Richard Becker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Observational coding has become a common form of data collection in the social sciences. This popularity has largely been fueled by the advantage of objectivity these systems are said to provide over more traditional self- and other-report data collection techniques. However, it has been demonstrated that observational coding systems can suffer from a type of systematic error known as rater bias, which is variance in the data that is not attributable to the observational target (i.e., true variance), but rather is attributable to the rater (i.e., error variance). This study sought to better understand the causes of rater ...


An Exploration Of The Current Involvement Of School Psychologists In Prevention Programming , Melissa Bernadine Cermak Jan 2005

An Exploration Of The Current Involvement Of School Psychologists In Prevention Programming , Melissa Bernadine Cermak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

School psychologists have been seeking to identify the ways in which they can have the greatest impact on the schools, students, and families they serve, while expressing a desire to decrease their involvement in the role of "gate keepers" for special education. With recent reforms in education and health care and a growing awareness of the mental health needs of children and adolescents, school psychologists have been called to expand their roles, taking greater leadership in comprehensive systems of care. Prevention, particularly primary prevention, has been identified as a key area for role expansion, along with being a cost-effective means ...