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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Syncretism: A Study Of Toshodai-Ji Wayo Architectural And Cultural Elements, Carole N. Edginton Jan 2008

Syncretism: A Study Of Toshodai-Ji Wayo Architectural And Cultural Elements, Carole N. Edginton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

When cultures come in contact with another an exchange of social constructs occurs. Very often this results in a syncretism or a blending of ideas which results in the development of new innovative ideas and materials. Wayo cultural traditions of Nara Japan are an example of this type of occurrence. With the transmission of Buddhism from China to Japan in 509 C.E. via Korea cultural, religious, political, as well as architectural advances in technologies occurred. Toshodai-ji successfully demonstrates the Buddhist ideology and methods of T'ang architectural design that was transferred to Japan from China. Wayo features are found ...


The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan Jan 2008

The Effect Of Error Codes On Second Language Writing, Mike Gilligan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the ability of ESL students to revise their grammatical errors and produce more accurate writing in the future based on error codes. As the researcher, I analyzed the writing over time of four different students who received error codes. I examined three error types for three of the subjects, and two errors types for the fourth subject. The error types included verb errors, preposition errors, determiner errors and plural/singular confusion errors. I analyzed these errors to determine the correction ability and accuracy on future writing of the students.;The subjects were 4 males, two from ...


Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee Jan 2008

Their Voices Emerged: A Grounded Theory Of Learning Resilience Among African American Women In The Formal Education Environment, Sandra L. Mcgee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rampant, negative messages about the capabilities of African American women in the education system pervade society. I suggest that these negative messages fail to account for Black women's learning resilience. In this study, the voices of 27 African American women who described their experiences in the formal education environment emerged through interviews, focus groups, observations, and two electronic interactions, participation in a chat room and e-mail exchanges.;This multigenerational study spans 71 years of educational experiences that I organized into five generations that correspond with eras of significance for both the African American culture and the education system. These ...


The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski Jan 2008

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Prisonization theory asserts that inmates who internalize the attitudes and behaviors of a criminal lifestyle are most likely to continue their criminal careers and thus less likely to desist from crime. Unfortunately, virtually all prior studies of prisonization have used male samples and ignored female inmates. Using official data from 174 female inmates in Arizona, the current study examined predictors of 10 forms of institutional misconduct. Net the effects of demographic, social history, criminal career, and other risk factors, women who had served prior prison terms were significantly likely to commit all forms of misconduct. The effect of prior prison ...


Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung Jan 2008

Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Vicuna fiber has a high value in the textile and fashion industry and is seen on the runways of the most selective and luxurious clothing designers in Europe. However, the vicuna fiber process and commodity chain are little known. This thesis presents the commodity chain of vicuna fiber and the positive and negative impacts that vicuna fiber commercialization generates in Peruvian peasant communities. The research, based on in-depth interviews and document analysis, studies the development of this buyer-driven chain, the social actors' roles, and the policies and legislation implemented to preserve vicuna species. In response to consumption demands, the marketing ...


"I Hope To Share My Struggles, My Successes, And Everything In Between": A Rhetorical Study Of Health Blogs, Marcy Deborah Leasum Jan 2008

"I Hope To Share My Struggles, My Successes, And Everything In Between": A Rhetorical Study Of Health Blogs, Marcy Deborah Leasum

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many patients who are experiencing a serious illness need a way to express their emotions and continue their everyday lives. For some patients, one outlet is through a health blog. Health blogs allow these individuals to share their emotions about their illness through narrative and with a wide audience over the Internet.;The visual and textual elements of health blogs work together to create an identity that is unique to each blogger. As these visual and textual elements combine, one can see the narratives emerge. Through these narratives, the bloggers persuade both themselves and others that they can to some ...


The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells Jan 2008

The Land, It's Everything: Women Farmland Owners And The Institution Of Agricultural Conservation In The U.S. Midwest, Jean Crim Eells

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This institutional ethnography was undertaken to address the problematic that far fewer women than men participate in the institution of agricultural conservation despite the fact that about the same numbers of men and women own roughly equal amounts of agricultural land in the U.S. Midwest. The institution of agricultural conservation---governmental agencies and private non-profit organizations---provides conservation services such as technical assistance and funding to clients, private farmland owners, who implement conservation practices on their lands.;As a qualitative research methodology, institutional ethnography (IE) is a way to examine otherwise intractable or elusive problems that exist on an institutional level ...


Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner Jan 2008

Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although much research has been conducted on cosmetic surgery and some research has been conducted on cosmetic use in general, little to no research has explored nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body, particularly as a symbolic form of consumption in shaping notions of the self. Thus, the purpose of the present qualitative study was to gain understanding of the consumption of nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body from multiple theoretical perspectives. Of particular interest was how this consumption serves as a symbolic means for shaping the self, specifically in the context of self-presentation and impression management (Goffman, 1959).;For this ...


Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King Jan 2008

Uncertainty And Evolution: Contributions To Identity Development For Female College Students Who Identify As Multiracial/Biracial-Bisexual/Pansexual, Alissa Renee King

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I explored how female college students who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual made meaning of their racial and sexual identities, how they described their identity development process, and the ways in which college contributed to their identity formation. Utilizing a proposed model of biracial-bisexual identity development and the ecology of student development model as foundations for this study, I sought to better understand the experiences both before and during college, and the impacts of those two environments on the processes of racial and sexual identity formation for the female college students in this study. Findings, based on ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor Jan 2008

The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of individual attributes (family socioeconomic status, gender, and race) and health behavior factors (vigorous physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, and sleeping pattern) as well as religion (religious affiliations and religious commitment) on African American and Caucasian adolescents' body weight. The sample for this study consisted of African American and Caucasian adolescents (N = 3,596) aged 14-18 years at Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Stratification of the percentage of adolescents based on CDC growth charts indicates greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus Jan 2008

Design For Aging Eyes: An In-Depth Look At Fast-Food Outdoor Menu Displays, Kimberly Marie Melhus

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The aging population, one of the fastest growing age groups in the United States, is an audience that graphic designers and visual communicators often fail to address. Fast-food menu displays are just one example of a design that may not meet the needs of a senior clientele. This study consolidates and summarizes a variety of literature relevant to the design needs of an aging population.;This study then poses four research questions: (1) How can we design a fast-food menu for the aging eye? (2) How can a designer understand the functional problems associated with the visual and motor deficits ...


Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman Jan 2008

Interior Design Versus Interior Decoration: Evaluating The Public's Perception Of Design Television Shows, Jillissa Lynn Moorman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Interior Design is a field that greatly impacts society and the well being of the world's inhabitants. It is imperative to make sure that designs as well as students and professionals practicing interior design, impact society in a positive manner that are well received, emotionally, physically, and psychologically. But important questions to be asked are: how are designs perceived if the users are falsely educated about interior design? If the public is only educated about design through "design television" that has little or no credibility based on several factors such as entertainment demands, proper examination, education and experience of ...


Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa Jan 2008

Situating Digital Tools Through Ubiquitous Virtuality: Confluences Of Art, Architecture, And Activity In Hci, Romeu Luiz De Castro Bessa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Over the last twenty years computer engineers introduced concepts such as "ubiquitous computing", "embodied virtualization" (Weiser, 1991), "embodied interaction" (Harrison and Dourish 1996), "tangible bits" (Ishii and Ulmer, 1997), and "seamful interweaving" (Chalmers and Galani, 2004) in an attempt to describe and explain the increased embedding of computer technology into designed objects and environments, and to emphasize the crucial agency of the human mind and body in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Since the mid-1990s the apparent 'dissolving' of computers and sensors into ordinary and extraordinary environments is the focus of research and concern across the humanities, social sciences, and engineering as ...


Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins Jan 2008

Attitudes, Social Relationships And Behaviors Of Black And Biracial Adolescents, Indria Michelle Jenkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the Family and Community Health Study, the present study analyzed the social relationships, attitudes, and behaviors of 766 Black and Biracial adolescents residing in Georgia and Iowa to note any significant differences as a function of racial identification. One factor involving social relationships showed a significant difference between the Black and Biracial girls: Biracial girls reported less ability to make and keep friends. Results indicate that attitudes regarding Black Pride and the perceptions of others who may engage in specific behaviors associated with masculine stereotypes were not statistically different between Black and Biracial adolescents. The behaviors included ...


"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake Jan 2008

"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The loss of a child does not agree with most people's perceptions of the natural order of life and death. It marks an end to the hopes and dreams that parents have made for their children (Znoj & Keller, 2002). This feminist narrative inquiry explores mothers' experiences with decision-making and grief after receiving a lethal prenatal diagnosis for their unborn child. In such circumstances, mothers are often faced with two options: (1) expectant management/continue the pregnancy, or (2) termination of the pregnancy (Rapp, 1999; Hoeldtke & Calhoun, 2001). Through interviewing, participant observation, and personal narrative, I uncover the grief experiences of mothers as they reflect on their child's terminal diagnosis, decision-making pertaining to pregnancy management, and the unavoidable death of their child. These women's stories inform policy, practice, and future research by providing insight into the support services offered, or lack thereof, depending on the ...


Political Culture's Effect On Voter Turnout: The 2004 Election And Beyond, Narren J. Brown Jan 2008

Political Culture's Effect On Voter Turnout: The 2004 Election And Beyond, Narren J. Brown

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I provide an account of the psychological elements that combine within an actor, motivating them to vote. Political scientists have written extensively on voter turnout, however, no one has attempted to explain turnout based primarily on political culture. Political culture has improved our understanding of states, parties, and elections alike. This thesis uses political culture in an ordinal scale as the primary explanatory variable in an OLS regression. Political culture has rarely been used as an explanatory variable and to my knowledge never as an ordinal scale. I posit that political culture, like a sense of civic duty, or any ...


Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx Jan 2008

Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The increasing dominance of visual communication puts pressure on professional communicators and students of rhetoric to understand the nature of the scopic regime and how competing ways of seeing affect communication networks and the societies they serve. This document focuses on the attempts of the early twentieth-century avant gardists to profoundly shift social realities by challenging the scopic regime of their time through book design. Their attempts to seize agency through aesthetics failed to directly enact a new social order, but the avant gardists succeeded in establishing the necessary visual grammars for new ways of visually presenting information, including the ...


A Recommendation For Improving The Sense Of Orientation By Enhancing Visual Communication On Wayfinding Systems: A Case Study Of Minneapolis Skyway System, Sohyun Kim Chung Jan 2008

A Recommendation For Improving The Sense Of Orientation By Enhancing Visual Communication On Wayfinding Systems: A Case Study Of Minneapolis Skyway System, Sohyun Kim Chung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the world becomes more complex and the population more mobile, people increasingly rely on wayfinding systems. The task for graphic designers, architects and other professionals who participate in building planning, is to design a sufficient and clear wayfinding system that will direct people in and out of the building, around the building, and to their destination effectively, comfortably, and confidently, without wasting any time or energy. The lack of orientation in an unfamiliar environment can lead to physical exhaustion, stress, anxiety, and frustration, all threaten their sense of well-being and limit one's mobility. This study focuses on wayfinding ...


Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier Jan 2008

Attention And Level Of Processing: Movie Viewing Styles And The Priming Of Aggressive Cognitions, Julia A. Maier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study investigated if attention to and processing of a movie could serve as input variables in the General Aggression Model. Specially, the type of scenes viewers attended to and their level of processing were examined. Participants completed personality measures and were instructed to either pay attention or just relax during a movie. They then completed a lexical decision task and reported the scene they found to be most striking. Results showed that aggressive cognitions did vary based on scene reported; participants who selected an aggressive scene were more primed for movie-related, non-aggressive concepts than aggression-related concepts. Exploratory analysis suggested ...


An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt Jan 2008

An Online Support Group Intervention For Asian American Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Robyn Alycia Zakalik Van Brunt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study used a latent growth curve modeling approach to examine the effectiveness of online support group intervention on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction over time. A total of 83 Asian American lesbian and bisexual women were randomly assigned to participate in either a four-week online support group intervention or a no-intervention control group. Participation in the online support group intervention was found to predict higher levels of life satisfaction at post-intervention and those levels were maintained over the follow-up period. No differences were found for level or rate of change for depressive symptoms.;Three exploratory moderators were tested ...


Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite Jan 2008

Bion: A Novel Interface For Biological Network Visualization, Lisa Mcgarthwaite

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Information Visualization impacts every day life. As life continues to become more technologically enhanced, increasing amounts of data are being collected, stored, and analyzed. Technology assists researchers and scientists not only to make new discoveries, but also to create new ways to explore the information they collect. This paper contains a small preview of the vast field of Information Visualization. From the various fields of visualization, visualization history, and current findings, we investigate the field's impact. After studying the current technologies and tools for visualizing networks, we believe there is a more optimal solution than ones currently in use ...


Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes Jan 2008

Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that reading motivation declines as elementary students grow older. This reading motivation is multi-faceted with a variety of influences. Additional research indicates that when families are involved with students' reading as well as with school activities, students can reap positive academic benefits. Involving families in reading, however, declines as students progress to the upper elementary and pre-adolescent years. There is a lack of research concerning family involvement in reading with pre-adolescent students, particularly in regard to the effect of family involvement on reading motivation.;The purpose of this study was to determine the reading motivation and family reading ...


Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar Jan 2008

Social And Academic Factors Of Success And Retention For Students Of Color At A Predominantly White Institution In Agricultural And Engineering Based Disciplines, Lequetia Natasha Ancar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Being a student of color at a predominantly White institution can be extremely challenging, yet rewarding. For the select students in this mixed methods study, overcoming academic and social hurdles was paramount to their success in science, technology and engineering based disciplines at this large research intensive Midwestern institution. Some of the themes that arose from their academic and social challenges were: feelings of isolation and alienation, demystification of stereotypes, minimal relationships with faculty and staff, inadequate academic advising, and a lack of academic and social preparation and skills. Students of color in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences ...


"Thin Is What We're Supposed To Be, Not What We're Supposed To Talk About": A Qualitative Study Of Pro-Eating Disorder Blogging Communities, Andrea M. Weare Jan 2008

"Thin Is What We're Supposed To Be, Not What We're Supposed To Talk About": A Qualitative Study Of Pro-Eating Disorder Blogging Communities, Andrea M. Weare

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how and why an "underground" group pro-eating disorder bloggers formed a covert community on the Internet to share their emotions, offer each other support, and indulge in discussions of taboo eating practices and body image. Questions were posed during in-depth interviews with 10 participants.;The results show overwhelming agreement that the thin models the participants see in the media inspired them to lose weight. Mother and daughter relationships, as well as sister and friend interactions, played a significant role in the development and continuation of disordered eating. Their blogs provide a safe haven where they feel welcome ...


Academic Research And Public Policy: Rhetorical Lessons From The Sophonow Inquiry, Tosh Tachino Jan 2008

Academic Research And Public Policy: Rhetorical Lessons From The Sophonow Inquiry, Tosh Tachino

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a language-based case study that examines the relationship between academic research and public policy to understand the role of language and rhetoric in how academic research influences public policy. Using one Canadian public inquiry (the Sophonow Inquiry) that clearly resulted in policy uptake of research, this study examines the manner in which academic knowledge and discourse enter public policy, the rhetorical transformation of these knowledge and discourse, and the relevant rhetorical and discourse factors that facilitate policy uptake of research. The analysis in this dissertation reveals that circulation of knowledge and discourse from academic research to public ...


Presidential Leadership From Presidents Washington To Bush And Beyond: Assessing Presidents Within The Cycled Circumstances Of Institutional Expectations, Christopher Halverson Untiet Jan 2008

Presidential Leadership From Presidents Washington To Bush And Beyond: Assessing Presidents Within The Cycled Circumstances Of Institutional Expectations, Christopher Halverson Untiet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A revealing way of assessing Presidential leadership comes through interpreting a President's time in office within the six-step cycled circumstances of institutional expectations. Using historical biographies and reinterpreting the patterns of Presidential political time from Stephen Skowronek's The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to George Bush, I develop leadership cycles of Reconstructive, Great-Son Articulator, Preemption-One, Grandson Articulator, Preemption-Two, and Disjunctive Presidents. I develop the thesis through a literature review and chapter describing Presidential history from 1789-1829. From here, I use the Presidential leadership types in my Washington, Jackson, Lincoln, McKinley/Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, and Reagan ...


Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy Jan 2008

Holes In The Health Care Safety Net: An Ethnographic Study Of A Free Medical Clinic, Pamela Ann Duffy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insight into the patient and volunteer perspective of their experiences at free medical clinics and, from the analysis of those data, inform health professions education. Many uninsured and underserved patients use the free clinic as their medical home to manage acute and chronic conditions and as a source of prescription medications. The volunteers find their experiences to be a fulfillment of their desire to give back to their community, a way to meet an obligation of professional duty, and hold to the moral belief that they should help those in need. Feminist ...


Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander Jan 2008

Ethnic-Identity Intensity As A Moderator Of The Technology Acceptance Model And Its Antecedents, Marcus Anthony Alexander

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is oriented to study the motivation of minorities to adopt and learn new, innovative technologies. The primary research question: is there some reason the African-American experience is driving certain sub-groups of the population to the wrong side of the digital divide? To examine this, I introduce ethnic identity as a moderating variable to a leftward extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, both components of the classic TAM (ease of use and usefulness) are divided into two antecedents: (1) ease of use - (a) trait efficacy and (b) state efficacy and (2) usefulness (completely replaced by) - (a ...