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Research Collection School Of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Fraud And Foreign Judgments Under Singapore Law, Adeline Chong Oct 2020

Fraud And Foreign Judgments Under Singapore Law, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

A foreign judgment is generally not to be reviewed on the merits at the recognition and enforcement stage. Yet, an exception has always been carved out for fraud under the common law rules on the basis that ‘fraud unravels everything’ (Lazarus Estates Ltd v Beasley [1956] 1 QB 702, 712 per Lord Denning). Thus, English courts allow a judgment debtor to raise fraud at the recognition and enforcement stage even if no new evidence is adduced and fraud had been considered and dismissed by the court of origin (Abouloff v Oppenheimer & Co (1882) 10 QBD 295). This seeming anomaly with ...


A Matter Of Interpretation? Understanding And Applying Mediation Standards For The Cross-Border Enforcement Of Mediated Settlement Agreements, Dorcas Quek Anderson Aug 2020

A Matter Of Interpretation? Understanding And Applying Mediation Standards For The Cross-Border Enforcement Of Mediated Settlement Agreements, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This article focuses on the future role to be played by mediation standards in view of the signing of the Singapore Convention on Mediation. It argues that the convention has elevated the standing of mediation standards from soft regulatory codes to quasi-legal grounds impacting the enforcement of mediated settlements. However, the inherently generalized nature of mediation standards does not render them amenable to contextualized interpretation. More significantly, the courts may adopt the wrong frame when construing mediation standards. It is therefore imperative that the mediation community find ways to bridge frames and facilitate the cross-border understanding of standards.


Singapore Property Tax Law As It Stands: The Rebus Sic Stantibus Principle And The Statutory Formula, Vincent Ooi Aug 2020

Singapore Property Tax Law As It Stands: The Rebus Sic Stantibus Principle And The Statutory Formula, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection School Of Law

The Singapore jurisprudence appears to have adopted the proposition that the rebus sic stantibus principle is to be disapplied where section 2(3) of the Singapore Property Tax Act (“PTA”) (the “Statutory Formula”) is applied. This article argues that this proposition perhaps ought to be stated more precisely. The principle is only disapplied where section 2(3)(b) is applied because it would run contrary to the statutory fiction imposed by section 2(3)(b) that the land is to be valued as if it were vacant land. There should be no disapplication of the principle where section 2(3 ...


Philanthropic Structuring: The Asian Context, Hang Wu Tang, Man Yip, Vincent Ooi Aug 2020

Philanthropic Structuring: The Asian Context, Hang Wu Tang, Man Yip, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection School Of Law

Asian philanthropy has tremendous potential for growth. Even as the population of ultra-rich individuals in Asia continues to expand, studies indicate that Asian philanthropists have the capacity to give a lot more. The key to tapping into the massive potential for Asian giving and catalysing sustainable and impactful philanthropy in Asia, is to understand the Asian way of giving and embrace strategic institutional and industry innovation.Our paper proposes three strategic directions to expand access to philanthropy: encouraging giving beyond one’s home and religious causes; encouraging everyone to give regardless of the size of the gift; and encouraging formal ...


Legal Constraint In Emergencies: Reflections On Carl Schmitt, The Covid-19 Pandemic And Singapore | Symposium On Covid-19 & Public Law, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng Jul 2020

Legal Constraint In Emergencies: Reflections On Carl Schmitt, The Covid-19 Pandemic And Singapore | Symposium On Covid-19 & Public Law, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng

Research Collection School Of Law

The controversial legal theorist Carl Schmitt’s challenge to the possibility of meaningful legal constraint on executive power in emergencies could not be more relevant in a world struggling to deal with Covid-19. Scrambling against time, governments around the world have declared states of emergency and exercised a swathe of broad executive powers in an effort to manage this highly infectious disease. In times like these, if Schmitt is indeed right that emergencies cannot be governed by law, we are on the cusp of (or perhaps have already entered) a post-law world – where the business of government is characterised by ...


The Promises And Perils Of Insurtech, Lin Lin, Christopher C. H. Chen Jul 2020

The Promises And Perils Of Insurtech, Lin Lin, Christopher C. H. Chen

Research Collection School Of Law

The insurance sector, in riding the wave of the FinTech phenomenon, has been rapidly expanding, with a slew of firms having emerged to provide so-called “InsurTech” services. These services incorporate concepts such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, digitalisation and the sharing economy to various aspects of the insurance industry. This profusion of technology brings with it the promise of various benefits including increasing efficiency and lowering costs for not only insurers and intermediaries, but also businesses or consumers as end-users of insurance. However, the development of InsurTech comes with corresponding risks and regulatory concerns not currently accounted for by the traditional ...


Jurisdiction In Relation To Hostile Trust Litigation, Adeline Chong Jul 2020

Jurisdiction In Relation To Hostile Trust Litigation, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

No abstract provided.


Soft Launch Of The Asian Principles For The Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, Adeline Chong Jul 2020

Soft Launch Of The Asian Principles For The Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

In January 2018, we reported on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Asia, a publication by the Asian Business Law Institute (ABLI).


Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay Jul 2020

Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay

Research Collection School Of Law

The Centre for AI and Data Governance (CAIDG) at Singapore Management University (SMU) has embarked over past months on a programme of research designed to confront concerns about the pandemic and its control. Our interest is primarily directed to the ways in which AI-assisted technologies and mass data sharing have become a feature of pandemic control strategies. We want to know what impact these developments are having on community confidence and health safety. In developing this work, we have come across many myths that need busting.


The Evolving Concept Of Access To Justice In Singapore’S Mediation Movement, Dorcas Quek Anderson Jun 2020

The Evolving Concept Of Access To Justice In Singapore’S Mediation Movement, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This article examines the key societal developments underpinning the growth of mediation in Singapore with the view to analysing the evolving conceptualisation of justice within mediation. The introduction of mediation corresponded with a shift from adversarial justice to an indigenous form of conciliatory justice, in which a respected mediator played an advisor role to the disputants and was trusted to ensure the fairness of the process. However, this trajectory was tempered by the need to ensure that Singapore mediation practice conformed with international practices concerning the protection of parties’ autonomy. The ambivalence concerning the mediator’s role has resulted in ...


Ethics, Ai, Mass Data And Pandemic Challenges: Responsible Data Use And Infrastructure Application For Surveillance And Pre-Emptive Tracing Post-Crisis, Mark Findlay, Jia Yuan Loke, Nydia Remolina Leon, Yum Yin, Benjamin (Tan Renyan) Tham May 2020

Ethics, Ai, Mass Data And Pandemic Challenges: Responsible Data Use And Infrastructure Application For Surveillance And Pre-Emptive Tracing Post-Crisis, Mark Findlay, Jia Yuan Loke, Nydia Remolina Leon, Yum Yin, Benjamin (Tan Renyan) Tham

Research Collection School Of Law

As the COVID-19 health pandemic rages governments and private companies across the globe are utilising AI-assisted surveillance, reporting, mapping and tracing technologies with the intention of slowing the spread of the virus. These technologies have the capacity to amass personal data and share for community control and citizen safety motivations that empower state agencies and inveigle citizen co-operation which could only be imagined outside such times of real and present danger. While not cavilling with the short-term necessity for these technologies and the data they control, process and share in the health regulation mission, this paper argues that this infrastructure ...


The Development Of Singapore Law: A Bicentennial Retrospective, Andrew Phang, Yihan Goh, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh May 2020

The Development Of Singapore Law: A Bicentennial Retrospective, Andrew Phang, Yihan Goh, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

The present article reviews (in broad brushstrokes) the status of Singapore law during its bicentennial year. It is not only about origins but also about growth – in particular, the autochthonous or indigenous growth of the Singapore legal system (particularly since the independence of Singapore as a nation state on 9 August 1965). The analysis of this growth is divided into quantitative as well as qualitative parts. In particular, the former constitutes an empirical analysis which attempts – for the very first time − to tell the development of Singapore law through numbers, building on emerging techniques in data visualisation and empirical legal ...


Asian Ip Law: An Area Of Rising Importance, Kung-Chung Liu, Shufeng Zheng Mar 2020

Asian Ip Law: An Area Of Rising Importance, Kung-Chung Liu, Shufeng Zheng

Research Collection School Of Law

Intellectual property (IP) laws are an important instrument for promoting cooperation and peace in Asia. In their own ways, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, China and India all serve as IP success stories. Structural features of the IP landscape in major Asian jurisdictions include the following: technocrat-driven IP law, national IP strategies and specialized IP or patent judges. In addition, there are five distinctively Asian developments worth noticing: the sweeping criminalization of copyright infringement, an explosion in the number of registered trademarks, the very limited use of compulsory patent licensing and the convergence on certain standards for the licensing ...


On Mandatory Criminal Sentences, Legislative Interpretation, And The Prospective Application Of The Law: A View From Singapore, Kwan Ho Lau Feb 2020

On Mandatory Criminal Sentences, Legislative Interpretation, And The Prospective Application Of The Law: A View From Singapore, Kwan Ho Lau

Research Collection School Of Law

Cana court find that a criminal sentence is mandatory under the penal legislation butchoose, exceptionally, to apply that finding only to future cases? This raisesan interesting question on the prospective application of a correctconstruction of legislation, requiring consideration of difficult issuessurrounding not just the temporal application of the law but also theprotection of the interests belonging to all citizenry, including convictedpersons. Recent decisions in Singapore and elsewhere provide an opening for amore detailed inquiry to be undertaken.


A Network Analysis Of The Singapore Court Of Appeal's Citations To Precedent, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Feb 2020

A Network Analysis Of The Singapore Court Of Appeal's Citations To Precedent, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

This article presents findings from an empirical network analysis of citation practices in Singapore’s highest court. A network of all 987 reported Court of Appeal judgments handed down from 2000 to 2017 is constructed. Network centrality algorithms are used to rank judgments by centrality. Judgments on contract law, particularly on contractual interpretation and terms, emerge as the most central. Based on this, this article argues that more attention can be paid to interpretation per se as a legal skill. More generally, this article establishes a framework for applying network analysis to Singapore jurisprudence on a larger scale.


Holding The Therapeutic State At Bay? Balancing Autonomy And Protection In Singapore's Vulnerable Adults Act, Wing Cheong Chan Jan 2020

Holding The Therapeutic State At Bay? Balancing Autonomy And Protection In Singapore's Vulnerable Adults Act, Wing Cheong Chan

Research Collection School Of Law

Abuse, exploitation and neglect of adults raise complex issues on the freedom of the individual to choose for themselves versus the powers of the State to intervene. The law has traditionally limited the scope of compulsory intervention to extreme situations only which can frustrate social workers who deal with such cases. On the other hand, it would be unacceptable to allow intervention simply because it is assessed to be in the adults’ best interests. A balance therefore has to be struck between autonomy and protection. This paper examines how Singapore’s Vulnerable Adults Act identifies the point for intervention and ...


Singapore Case Note: Enforceability Of Settlement Agreements, Nadja Alexander, Shou Yu Chong Dec 2019

Singapore Case Note: Enforceability Of Settlement Agreements, Nadja Alexander, Shou Yu Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

Since the signing of the Singapore Convention on Mediation in August this year, there has been an increased interest on the enforceability of settlement agreements, particularly those arising from mediation. The case of Law Chau Loon v Alphire Group Pte Ltd [2019] SGHC 275 from the Singapore High Court provides us with some general legal principles to consider when a settlement agreement is drafted. Although mediation did not take place between the parties in dispute, the principles stated by the High Court here remain relevant to the drafting of binding mediated settlement agreements (MSAs). This case is essential reading for ...


Un Treaty On Mediation Signed In Singapore, Nadja Alexander, Shou Yu Chong Dec 2019

Un Treaty On Mediation Signed In Singapore, Nadja Alexander, Shou Yu Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

The Singapore Convention on Mediation is a multilateral treaty which offers a legal framework facilitating the circulation of international mediated settlement agreements (iMSAs) across national borders. The Singapore Convention achieves this by elevating iMSAs to the status of a new type of legal instrument recognised in international law: neither a contract nor a consent arbitral award, iMSAs that fall within the scope of, and that satisfy the conditions within, the Singapore Convention enjoy a unique status. As outlined below, the new Convention establishes a system for the recognition and enforcement of commercial iMSAs. This report is a follow up to ...


Unjust Enrichment In Asia Pacific, Man Yip Nov 2019

Unjust Enrichment In Asia Pacific, Man Yip

Research Collection School Of Law

No abstract provided.


Transnational Corporate Governance Codes: Lessons From Regulating Related Party Transactions In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen, Wai Yee Wan Nov 2019

Transnational Corporate Governance Codes: Lessons From Regulating Related Party Transactions In Hong Kong And Singapore, Christopher C. H. Chen, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection School Of Law

Many jurisdictions around the world, includingAsia, have corporate governance codes largely based on the transnational codedrafted by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).The core ideas underpinning the OECD’s principles of corporate governance are boardindependence and proper management of conflicts of interest. These ideas, drawnfrom the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, are designed to protectcompanies and their shareholders. However, the question remains as to whether atransnational corporate governance code is always appropriate and effective, particularlywhen the kinds of companies listed on the stock exchange significantly differfrom the Anglo-American model. In this article, we examine Hong Kong andSingapore ...


Symposium On Pofma: Parliamentary Debates About Pofma – Hansard Beyond Statutory Interpretation?, Benjamin Joshua Ong Nov 2019

Symposium On Pofma: Parliamentary Debates About Pofma – Hansard Beyond Statutory Interpretation?, Benjamin Joshua Ong

Research Collection School Of Law

The issue of a legislative response to falsehoods first drew public attention when the Select Committee on Deliberate Online Falsehoods held its public hearings. This public attention was renewed when the Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act (“POFMA”), in Bill form, was unveiled. Questions arose among both the public and MPs about whether POFMA would grant the Government power to stifle academic research, journalism, or the expression of opinion, as well as whether it would be difficult for an individual to seek recourse against an allegedly wrongly made Direction.This post focuses not with the substance of these issues ...


Reform Of Singapore's Foreign Judgment Rules, Adeline Chong Oct 2019

Reform Of Singapore's Foreign Judgment Rules, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

On 3rd October, the amendments to the Reciprocal Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act (“REFJA”) came into force. REFJA is based on the UK Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933, but in this recent round of amendments has deviated in some significant ways from the 1933 Act. The limitation to judgments from “superior courts” has been removed. Foreign interlocutory orders such as freezing orders and foreign non-money judgments now fall within the scope of REFJA. So too do judicial settlements, which are defined in identical terms to the definition contained in the Choice of Court Agreements Act 2016 (which enacted the ...


Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai Oct 2019

Building A Market Economy Through Wto-Inspired Reform Of State-Owned Enterprises In China, Weihuan Zhou, Henry S. Gao, Xue Bai

Research Collection School Of Law

This paper responds to the widespread view that existing WTO rules are insufficient in dealing with China’s state capitalism, which has been further emboldened by its latest rounds of state-owned enterprise (“SOE”) reforms. Through a careful review of WTO agreements and jurisprudence, the paper argues that, we do not necessarily need new rules, because the unique challenges created by China’s state capitalism can be sufficiently dealt with by the WTO’s existing rules on subsidies coupled with the China-specific obligations. Thus, a more realistic approach would be to push China back to the path of market-oriented reforms through ...


Comparing The International Commercial Courts Of China With The Singapore International Commercial Court, Zhengxin Huo, Man Yip Oct 2019

Comparing The International Commercial Courts Of China With The Singapore International Commercial Court, Zhengxin Huo, Man Yip

Research Collection School Of Law

The article critically reviews the litigation framework of the Chinese International Commercial Court("CICC') using a comparative approach, taking as a benchmark the Singapore International Commercial Court ("SICC')--another Asian international commercial court situated within the Belt and Road Initiative ("BRI') geography. It argues that the CICC, despite being lauded as a visionary step toward an innovative, efficient and trustworthy dispute resolution system, does not live up to those grand claims on closer scrutiny. The discussion shows that the CICC is in many respects insular and conservative when compared with the SICC. The distinctions between the two litigation frameworks may ...


Introduction, Summary, And Some Inferences, Kung-Chung Liu Sep 2019

Introduction, Summary, And Some Inferences, Kung-Chung Liu

Research Collection School Of Law

India and China make a perfect comparison pair in the area of IT industry, with each having its unique strength and potential for cooperation and synergy. Due to heavy involvement of Indian IT firms in software outsourcing arrangement by MNEs, the IP or patent resources are not important. This is especially true when compared with Chinese IT firms, which have much larger patenting volume (compared with other manufacturing sectors). Film industry in India and China has grown despite piracy. In other words, it prospered with little or no copyright protection. More importantly, piracy in China and India did not kill ...


On The Necessity Of Incorporating Ip Laws Into The Civil Law Of China And How, Chuntian Liu, Kung-Chung Liu Sep 2019

On The Necessity Of Incorporating Ip Laws Into The Civil Law Of China And How, Chuntian Liu, Kung-Chung Liu

Research Collection School Of Law

To codify IP laws into the Civil Law is the way to go for the modernization of the Civil Law in China. China, a mega economy rising swiftly in the last couple of decades and a latecomer to the rule of law, should grasp the moment, ride on the tide of history, surpass its forefathers, break away from the mould and pave the way to modernizing the Civil Law. Furthermore, by codifying IP laws into the Civil Law, China will be laying a solid legal foundation for the long-term strategy of innovation-driven development and for the rule of law in ...


The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Sep 2019

The State Of Legal Innovation In Asia-Pacific, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

The report currently covers ten jurisdictions which, appearing alphabetically in separatechapters following this preface, are Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, the Republic ofKorea, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, and a snapshot chapter of the United States. Collectively,these country-chapters make three points clear.


Glocalised Constitution-Making In The Twenty-First Century: Evidence From Asia, Maartje De Visser, Bui Ngoc Son Jul 2019

Glocalised Constitution-Making In The Twenty-First Century: Evidence From Asia, Maartje De Visser, Bui Ngoc Son

Research Collection School Of Law

How have Asian nations conducted, or how are they conducting, constitution-making in the face of pressures associated with globalization, and how do they balance those forces with domestic interests and realities? This article aims to develop an analytical framework that can capture this global-local interplay. It introduces the concept of “glocalized constitution-making” to denote the co-existence and relationship between the two governance levels as manifested in the forces, actors and norms pertaining to the process of drafting a new constitution as well as its substance. Glocalization permeates the entirety of a constitution-making episode, from the impetus to initiate the process ...


The (Re)Introduction Of Dual-Class Share Structures In Hong Kong: A Historical And Comparative Analysis, Hui Robin Huang, Wei Zhang, Siu Cheung Kelvin Lee Jul 2019

The (Re)Introduction Of Dual-Class Share Structures In Hong Kong: A Historical And Comparative Analysis, Hui Robin Huang, Wei Zhang, Siu Cheung Kelvin Lee

Research Collection School Of Law

In April 2018, Hong Kong issued new listing rules to introduce the dual-class share structure, also known as weighted voting rights (WVR), under which a special class of shareholders’ voting rights are conferred disproportionately with respect to their equity interest. The WVR was used in Hong Kong in the 1980s but was banned in 1989. The debate on the WVR was rekindled by the Alibaba event in 2013. The WVR structure has benefits and costs. Thus, Hong Kong lays down relevant supporting mechanisms, including entry requirements, disclosure requirements and safeguard requirements. The WVR regime in Hong Kong appears to be ...


Directors' Duties In Singapore: Law And Perceptions, Pearlie M. C. Koh, Hwee Hoon Tan Jul 2019

Directors' Duties In Singapore: Law And Perceptions, Pearlie M. C. Koh, Hwee Hoon Tan

Research Collection School Of Law

It is trite that the law on directors' duties is an important part of corporate governance. It is therefore unsurprising that a large part of extant research in the area is focused on understanding what the law requires, and how it applies or should apply in any particular situation. Such research is however largely reactive. In our research, we set out to look at duties from the perspective of the directors, with a view to appreciating how Singapore directors understand the law as it applies to them. The impetus for this is three-fold: First, to assess the depth of awareness ...