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Political Science Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Labor Market Conditions In Nevada: A Preliminary Assessment, John P. Tuman Aug 2020

The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Labor Market Conditions In Nevada: A Preliminary Assessment, John P. Tuman

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the pandemic on labor market conditions in Nevada. The analysis applies a locally weighted regression method (Lowess curve fitting) to time‐series data on weekly initial and continuing unemployment claims. Other measures of labor market outcomes are also included in the analysis. The findings suggest that while baseline conditions were relatively stable, the pandemic has generated an increase in unemployment in Nevada, and a steep rise in the number of unemployed workers covered by unemployment insurance. However, the largest growth in initial weekly unemployment claims may have already occurred. In ...


Between The Bear And The Dragon: Multivectorism In Kazakhstan As A Model Strategy For Secondary Powers, Rachel Vanderhill, Sandra F. Joireman, Roza Tulepbayeva Jul 2020

Between The Bear And The Dragon: Multivectorism In Kazakhstan As A Model Strategy For Secondary Powers, Rachel Vanderhill, Sandra F. Joireman, Roza Tulepbayeva

Political Science Faculty Publications

Kazakhstan has followed a foreign policy of multivector diplomacy since its independence from the former Soviet Union. While multivectorism was a strategy of necessity in its early years, it has evolved to empower Kazakhstan to effectively protect its independence and negotiate its relationship with the great powers on its borders and further afield. After the 2014 Russian seizure of Crimea it is noteworthy that Kazakhstan has maintained positive relations with Russia while asserting its sovereignty and independent foreign policy. In this article we investigate how Kazakhstan has negotiated the rise of China, taking advantage of the economic opportunities it presents ...


How Will Covid 19 Impact The 2020 Election, A. Lee Hannah, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann Apr 2020

How Will Covid 19 Impact The 2020 Election, A. Lee Hannah, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Political Science Faculty Publications

This is the second installment in the Shelter in Place (SiP) Lecture series. This installment deals with the impact and implications of the Shelter in Place order on the 2020 presidential election. It covers topics ranging from changes in implications on campaigning, the incumbent advantage, fundamental changes, policy effects, and more.


Bread And Circuses: Sports And Public Opinion In China, Dan Chen, Andrew W. Macdonald Jan 2020

Bread And Circuses: Sports And Public Opinion In China, Dan Chen, Andrew W. Macdonald

Political Science Faculty Publications

Sports victory constitutes an important part of propaganda in authoritarian states. The heavy state investment in sports industries and sports culture in China illustrates the political importance of sports. However, few studies have systematically examined the exact impact of sports propaganda on public opinion. Using a survey experiment conducted in two Chinese cities, this article finds that broadcast highlighting national sports achievements has significant positive effects on general satisfaction and compliance with the local governments. These results expand on the small but growing literature on the effects of sports on political opinions and help detail the specific ways in which ...


The Gender Citation Gap In Undergraduate Student Research: Evidence From The Political Science Classroom, Li-Yin Liu, Christopher J. Devine, Heidi Gauder Jan 2020

The Gender Citation Gap In Undergraduate Student Research: Evidence From The Political Science Classroom, Li-Yin Liu, Christopher J. Devine, Heidi Gauder

Political Science Faculty Publications

Previous studies have documented a “gender citation gap” in political science, whereby women are less likely to be cited in published research and course syllabi, especially by male scholars. However, no previous study has examined citation patterns among students in political science courses to determine if similar patterns are evident in their research. This article analyzes an original database of individual, as well as group, research assignments from an undergraduate research methods course. Our analysis indicates that male students are significantly less likely than female students to cite research published by women – whether as first authors, any of the authors ...


Do Social Movements Encourage Young People To Run For Office? Evidence From The 2014 Sunflower Movement In Taiwan, Austin Horng-En Wang Oct 2019

Do Social Movements Encourage Young People To Run For Office? Evidence From The 2014 Sunflower Movement In Taiwan, Austin Horng-En Wang

Political Science Faculty Publications

The 2014 Sunflower Movement led to rising political participation among young Taiwanese. Hence, opposition parties and civic groups created programs to support young candidates running in the village chief elections. Compared with the 2010 election, however, fewer young challengers ran in 2014, and they received fewer votes and won fewer seats. Propensity score matching shows that the presence of young candidates on ballots did not increase turnout. However, young candidates affected the election indirectly: young, new candidates attracted more votes from incumbents than from challengers and therefore decreased the incumbent re-election rate.


Military Coalitions And Crisis Duration, Daina Chiba, Jesse C. Johnson Oct 2019

Military Coalitions And Crisis Duration, Daina Chiba, Jesse C. Johnson

Political Science Faculty Publications

Forming a military coalition during an international crisis can improve a state’s chances of achieving its political goals. We argue that the involvement of a coalition, however, can have unintended adverse effects on crisis outcomes by complicating the bargaining process and extending the duration of crises. This argument suggests that crises involving coalitions should be significantly longer than crises without coalitions. However, other factors that affect crisis duration are also likely to influence coalition formation. Therefore, taking into account the endogeneity of the presence of a coalition is essential to testing our hypothesis. To deal with this inferential challenge ...


Confronting Wartime Sexual Violence: Public Support For Survivors In Bosnia, Douglas D. Page, Samuel Whitt Aug 2019

Confronting Wartime Sexual Violence: Public Support For Survivors In Bosnia, Douglas D. Page, Samuel Whitt

Political Science Faculty Publications

Existing research on conflict-related sexual violence focuses on the motivations of perpetrators and effects on survivors. What remains less clear is how postconflict societies respond to the hardships survivors face. In survey experiments in Bosnia, we examine public support for financial aid, legal aid, and public recognition for survivors. First, we find a persistent ethnocentric view of sexual violence, where respondents are less supportive when the perpetrator is identified as co-ethnic and survivors are perceived as out-groups. Second, respondents are less supportive of male survivors than female survivors, which we attribute to social stigmas surrounding same-gender sexual activity. Consistent with ...


The Neurocognitive Process Of Digital Radicalization: A Theoretical Model And Analytical Framework, Tiffiany Howard, Brach Poston, Stephen D. Benning Jun 2019

The Neurocognitive Process Of Digital Radicalization: A Theoretical Model And Analytical Framework, Tiffiany Howard, Brach Poston, Stephen D. Benning

Political Science Faculty Publications

Recent studies suggest that empathy induced by narrative messages can effectively facilitate persuasion and reduce psychological reactance. Although limited, emerging research on the etiology of radical political behavior has begun to explore the role of narratives in shaping an individual’s beliefs, attitudes, and intentions that culminate in radicalization. The existing studies focus exclusively on the influence of narrative persuasion on an individual, but they overlook the necessity of empathy and that in the absence of empathy, persuasion is not salient. We argue that terrorist organizations are strategic in cultivating empathetic-persuasive messages using audiovisual materials, and disseminating their message within ...


Perceptions Of Referendums And Democracy: The Referendum Disappointment Gap, Shaun Bowler, Todd Donovan Jun 2019

Perceptions Of Referendums And Democracy: The Referendum Disappointment Gap, Shaun Bowler, Todd Donovan

Political Science Faculty Publications

We examine the gap between perceptions of seeing referendums as an important democratic principle, versus perceiving how referendums are used in practice. We term this the “referendum disappointment” gap. We find support for referendums as a democratic principle is strongest among those most disaffected from the political system, and that the disaffected are more likely to perceive they are not given a say via referendums. We also find context-specific effects. Disappointment was greater in countries with higher corruption and income inequality. We also find higher disappointment among right-populist voters, those who distrusted politicians, and among people who viewed themselves at ...


When Do Opponents Of Gay Rights Mobilize? Explaining Political Participation In Times Of Backlash Against Liberalism, Phillip M. Ayoub, Douglas D. Page Jun 2019

When Do Opponents Of Gay Rights Mobilize? Explaining Political Participation In Times Of Backlash Against Liberalism, Phillip M. Ayoub, Douglas D. Page

Political Science Faculty Publications

Existing research suggests that supporters of gay rights have outmobilized their opponents, leading to policy changes in advanced industrialized democracies. At the same time, we observe the diffusion of state-sponsored homophobia in many parts of the world. The emergence of gay rights as a salient political issue in global politics leads us to ask, “Who is empowered to be politically active in various societies?” What current research misses is a comparison of levels of participation (voting and protesting) between states that make stronger and weaker appeals to homophobia. Voters face contrasting appeals from politicians in favor of and against gay ...


The Divided Labor Of Attack Advertising In Congressional Campaigns, Kenneth M. Miller Jun 2019

The Divided Labor Of Attack Advertising In Congressional Campaigns, Kenneth M. Miller

Political Science Faculty Publications

This article offers a theory of how party networks divide the labor of attacking opponents. Using an extensive data set of campaign advertising from the 2010 and 2012 congressional elections augmented with Nielsen television ratings data, it is shown that candidates attack opponents less when supporting outside groups attack more. Due to differences in how outside groups and candidates attack opponents, when candidates partially outsource attack advertising to independent expenditure groups, attacks in that campaign become more issue and policy based. Thus, in perhaps an unintended consequence of the divided labor of attack advertising, outside group involvement makes it more ...


Power Sharing And The Rule Of Law In The Aftermath Of Civil War, Caroline A. Hartzell, Matthew Hoddie May 2019

Power Sharing And The Rule Of Law In The Aftermath Of Civil War, Caroline A. Hartzell, Matthew Hoddie

Political Science Faculty Publications

What effect do power-sharing institutions agreed to as part of civil war settlements have on the development of the rule of law in post–civil war states? We contend that power-sharing measures facilitate the emergence of the rule of law in two ways. First, they establish a form of institutional constraint that promotes judicial autonomy and independence. Second, they foster a sense of security among judges and other political actors that bolsters commitment to the law. We demonstrate the plausibility of a positive relationship between power sharing and the rule of law through an analysis of post–civil war states ...


El Reajuste De La Derecha Colombiana. El Éxito Electoral Del Uribismo, Laura Gamboa Gutiérrez Apr 2019

El Reajuste De La Derecha Colombiana. El Éxito Electoral Del Uribismo, Laura Gamboa Gutiérrez

Political Science Faculty Publications

Objetivo/contexto: este artículo busca explicar el éxito electoral de Iván Duque en las elecciones de 2018. La victoria del candidato uribista es paradójica por dos razones. Primero, Duque hizo campaña contra el proceso de paz, uno de los logros más importantes en la historia reciente colombiana y un paso importante para reducir la violencia y fortalecer la democracia del país. Segundo, Duque era el candidato más inexperto de la derecha. Logró derrotar a políticos más visibles, con más trayectoria y mejor acceso a maquinarias electorales. Metodología: El texto presenta un estudio de caso que triangula información de fuentes primarias ...


Living In Gang-Controlled Neighborhoods: Impacts On Electoral And Nonelectoral Participation In El Salvador, Abby Córdova Apr 2019

Living In Gang-Controlled Neighborhoods: Impacts On Electoral And Nonelectoral Participation In El Salvador, Abby Córdova

Political Science Faculty Publications

Gangs’ territorial control affects the lives of residents in thousands of neighborhoods across Latin America, particularly in northern Central American countries. I argue that gang dominance constrains the ability of neighborhood residents to mobilize politically and consequently resist gang violence through institutionalized channels. Living in gang-controlled neighborhoods results in fewer incentives and opportunities to make political elites accountable for one’s personal safety. Even residents who have already experienced crime firsthand are discouraged from turning to politics as a strategy to change the status quo. My theoretical insights identify mechanisms through which gangs’ neighborhood control affects nonelectoral and electoral participation ...


Constructive Welfare: The Social Security Act, The Blind, And The Origins Of Political Identity Among People With Disabilities, 1935-1950, Jennifer L. Erkulwater Apr 2019

Constructive Welfare: The Social Security Act, The Blind, And The Origins Of Political Identity Among People With Disabilities, 1935-1950, Jennifer L. Erkulwater

Political Science Faculty Publications

In contemporary America, identifying as a person with a disability is one of the many ways in which people acknowledge, even celebrate, who they are. Yet several decades ago, few persons with disabilities saw their condition as an identity to be embraced, let alone to serve as the basis for affinity and collective mobilization. The transformation of disability from unmitigated tragedy to a collective and politicized identity emerged in national politics, not in the 1960s or 1970s, as is commonly thought, but in the 1940s. During those years, the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) set out to galvanize the ...


Naming Names: The Impact Of Supreme Court Opinion Attribution On Citizen Assessment Of Policy Outcomes, Scott S. Boddery, Laura P. Moyer, Jeff Yates Mar 2019

Naming Names: The Impact Of Supreme Court Opinion Attribution On Citizen Assessment Of Policy Outcomes, Scott S. Boddery, Laura P. Moyer, Jeff Yates

Political Science Faculty Publications

The manner in which political institutions convey their policy outcomes can have important implications for how the public views institutions' policy decisions. This paper explores whether the way in which the U.S. Supreme Court communicates its policy decrees affects how favorably members of the public assess its decisions. Specifically, we investigate whether attributing a decision to the nation's High Court or to an individual justice influences the public's agreement with the Court's rulings. Using an experimental design, we find that when a Supreme Court outcome is ascribed to the institution as a whole, rather than to ...


Polls And Elections: Is Loyalty A Powerful Thing? Republican Senate Campaign Strategy And Trump Coattails In The 2016 Election, Neilan S. Chaturvedi, Chris Haynes Mar 2019

Polls And Elections: Is Loyalty A Powerful Thing? Republican Senate Campaign Strategy And Trump Coattails In The 2016 Election, Neilan S. Chaturvedi, Chris Haynes

Political Science Faculty Publications

Presidential candidates provide a boost to their congressional candidate counterparts, in which congressional candidates should ride the proverbial coattails into office (Campbell and Sumners 1990; Stewart 1989). The 2016 election, however, provides an instance in which the presidential coattails were less than desirable. In this article, we argue that state politics determines the optimal strategy for how candidates should position themselves vis‐à‐vis a controversial presidential candidate. Based on our findings, voters rewarded candidates at varying levels for distancing themselves from then candidate Trump. Specifically, the disloyal strategy, in which candidates completely disavowed Trump, worked best in swing states ...


Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox Jan 2019

Societal Rather Than Governmental Change: Religious Discrimination In Muslim-Majority Countries After The Arab Uprisings, Yasemin Akbaba, Jonathan Fox

Political Science Faculty Publications

This study examines shifts in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities in Muslim-Majority states after the Arab Uprisings by using the Religion and State round 3 (RAS3) dataset for the years 2009-2014 and by focusing on 49 Muslim-majority countries and territories. We build on threads of literature on religious pluralism in transitional societies to explain the changes in governmental religion policy and societal discrimination against religious minorities after the Arab Uprisings. This literature predicts a rise in all forms of discrimination in Arab Uprising states as compared to other Muslim-majority states, and an even more significant rise ...


How To Turn Down Political Heat On Supreme Court And Federal Judges: Stop Signing Opinions, Scott S. Boddery Dec 2018

How To Turn Down Political Heat On Supreme Court And Federal Judges: Stop Signing Opinions, Scott S. Boddery

Political Science Faculty Publications

Chief Justice John Roberts rightly — albeit in an uncharacteristically direct manner — defended the integrity of the federal judiciary and its members from a direct affront from the president of the United States. Roberts’s defense sent President Donald Trump atwitter in a series of messages that doubled down on his previous ridicule of an “Obama Judge” from the “total disaster” Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. [except]


The Condition And Trend Of Aspen, Willows, And Associated Species On The Northern Yellowstone Range, Charles E. Kay Nov 2018

The Condition And Trend Of Aspen, Willows, And Associated Species On The Northern Yellowstone Range, Charles E. Kay

Political Science Faculty Publications

Aspen (Populus tremuloides), willows (Salix spp.), and other deciduous shrubs and trees occupied a relatively small portion of the primeval Northern Yellowstone Range (hereafter referred to as the Northern Range1). However, these plant communities provided critical habitat for diverse flora and fauna. Consequently, aspen, willows, and cottonwoods were vitally important for biodiversity across the landscape, and these plant communities played a pivotal role in how the primeval ecosystem functioned sustainably since the last Ice Age.


What Trump’S Picks For The Presidential Medal Of Freedom Say About Him, E. Fletcher Mcclellan, Christopher J. Devine, Kyle C. Kopko Nov 2018

What Trump’S Picks For The Presidential Medal Of Freedom Say About Him, E. Fletcher Mcclellan, Christopher J. Devine, Kyle C. Kopko

Political Science Faculty Publications

President Donald Trump awarded his first ever Presidential Medals of Freedom this month to seven recipients: Babe Ruth, Elvis Presley, Antonin Scalia, Orrin Hatch, Roger Staubach, Alan Page and Miriam Adelson. It is the nation’s highest civilian honor.

These ceremonies, which normally occur once or twice per year, provide Americans with an opportunity to celebrate the achievements of various people who have made an important contribution to U.S. culture. Because the president selects recipients with total discretion – American or otherwise, living or dead –- this award also says a lot about the president himself.

What achievements or contributions does ...


An Ecological Assessment Of The Northern Yellowstone Range: Introduction To The Special Issue, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Joseph Fidel, Harold E. Hunter, Peter O. Husby, Charles E. Kay, John G. Mundinger, Ryan M. Yonk Nov 2018

An Ecological Assessment Of The Northern Yellowstone Range: Introduction To The Special Issue, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Joseph Fidel, Harold E. Hunter, Peter O. Husby, Charles E. Kay, John G. Mundinger, Ryan M. Yonk

Political Science Faculty Publications

The Northern Range (a.k.a., Northern Yellowstone Range) is 380,000 acres of rangeland and forest in northwestern Wyoming and south-central Montana within and adjacent to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Sixty percent of the Northern Range is within YNP and 40% is north of YNP on federal, state, and private lands in Montana (Fig. 1). Inside YNP, about 60% of the Northern Range is rangeland and 40% is forest. Outside YNP, the Northern Range in Montana is mostly foothill grassland and sagebrush steppe, while the bottomlands are dominated by irrigated pastures and hayfields. The Northern Range outside YNP is ...


Human Influences On The Northern Yellowstone Range, Ryan M. Yonk, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Peter O. Husby Nov 2018

Human Influences On The Northern Yellowstone Range, Ryan M. Yonk, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Peter O. Husby

Political Science Faculty Publications

Humans have continuously inhabited the Northern Yellowstone Range (hereafter referred to as the Northern Range1 ) inside and outside Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for at least 11,000 years.2–5 Across these many years, humans have actively used, abused, and conserved the natural resources of the Northern Range. Human actions helped shape the vegetation and wildlife present on the Northern Range from prehistoric times to present day.


Blurring Institutional Boundaries: Judges' Perceptions Of Threats To Judicial Independence, Alyx Mark, Michael A. Zilis Oct 2018

Blurring Institutional Boundaries: Judges' Perceptions Of Threats To Judicial Independence, Alyx Mark, Michael A. Zilis

Political Science Faculty Publications

The legislature wields multiple tools to limit judicial power, but scholars have little information about how judges interpret variant threats and which they find most concerning. To provide insight, we conduct original interviews regarding legislative threats to courts with over two dozen sitting federal judges, representing all tiers of the federal judiciary. We find that judges have a nuanced understanding of threats and tend to identify components of legislative proposals that threaten formal institutional powers as more concerning than those challenging policy set by judges. This distinction has broad implications for our understanding of judicial behavior at the federal level.


Leaving The Devil You Know: Crime Victimization, Us Deterrence Policy, And The Emigration Decision In Central America, Jonathan T. Hiskey, Abby Córdova, Mary Fran Malone, Diana M. Orcés Sep 2018

Leaving The Devil You Know: Crime Victimization, Us Deterrence Policy, And The Emigration Decision In Central America, Jonathan T. Hiskey, Abby Córdova, Mary Fran Malone, Diana M. Orcés

Political Science Faculty Publications

Following a sharp increase in the number of border arrivals from the violence-torn countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras in the spring and summer of 2014, the United States quickly implemented a strategy designed to prevent such surges by enhancing its detention and deportation efforts. In this article, we examine the emigration decision for citizens living in the high-crime contexts of northern Central America. First, through analysis of survey data across Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, we explore the role crime victimization plays in leading residents of these countries to consider emigration. Next, using survey data collected across twelve ...


What Senators Should Ask Brett Kavanaugh, Scott S. Boddery Sep 2018

What Senators Should Ask Brett Kavanaugh, Scott S. Boddery

Political Science Faculty Publications

At today’s confirmation hearing of Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh, senators are attempting to decipher how Kavanaugh will rule on certain issue areas should he be confirmed to the high court. Senators will undoubtedly demand answers to their questions that ask whether Judge Kavanaugh will vote to uphold certain past cases, such as Roe v. Wade or Citizens United, and they’ll want a “simple yes or no” answer. While this line of questioning will primarily originate from the left side of the aisle this time around, this tactic is routinely used by both parties when vetting Supreme Court ...


Beyond Keeping The Peace: Can Peacekeepers Reduce Ethnic Divisions After Violence?, Douglas D. Page, Sam Whitt Aug 2018

Beyond Keeping The Peace: Can Peacekeepers Reduce Ethnic Divisions After Violence?, Douglas D. Page, Sam Whitt

Political Science Faculty Publications

Existing research suggests that international peacekeeping contributes to conflict resolution and helps sustain peace, often in locations with hostile ethnic divisions. However, it is unclear whether the presence of peacekeepers actually reduces underlying ethnocentric views and parochial behaviors that sustain those divisions. We examine the effects of NATO peacekeeper deployments on ethnocentrism in postwar Bosnia. While peacekeepers were not randomly deployed in Bosnia, we find that highly ethnocentric attitudes were common across Bosnia at the onset of peacekeeper deployments, reducing endogeneity concerns. To measure ethnocentrism, we employ a variety of survey instruments as well as a behavioral experiment (the dictator ...


What If Hillary Clinton Had Gone To Wisconsin? Presidential Campaign Visits And Vote Choice In The 2016 Election, Christopher J. Devine Aug 2018

What If Hillary Clinton Had Gone To Wisconsin? Presidential Campaign Visits And Vote Choice In The 2016 Election, Christopher J. Devine

Political Science Faculty Publications

Hillary Clinton’s failure to visit the key battleground state of Wisconsin in 2016 has become a popular metaphor for the alleged strategic inadequacies of her presidential campaign. Critics who cite this fact, however, make two important assumptions: that campaign visits are effective, in general, and that they were effective for Clinton in 2016. I test these assumptions using an original database of presidential and vice presidential campaign visits in 2016. Specifically, I regress party vote share on each candidate’s number of campaign visits, at the county level, first for all counties located within battleground states, and then for ...


Extreme Candidates As The Beneficent Spoiler? Range Effect In The Plurality Voting System, Austin Horng-En Wang, Fang-Yu Chen Jul 2018

Extreme Candidates As The Beneficent Spoiler? Range Effect In The Plurality Voting System, Austin Horng-En Wang, Fang-Yu Chen

Political Science Faculty Publications

How does the entrance of radical candidates influence election results? Conventional wisdom suggests that extreme candidates merely split the votes. Based on the range effect theory in cognitive psychology, we hypothesize that the entrance of an extreme candidate reframes the endpoints of the ideological spectrum among available candidates, which makes the moderate one on the same side to be perceived by the voters as even more moderate. Through two survey experiments in the United States and Taiwan, we provide empirical support for range effect in the vote choice in the plurality system. The results imply that a mainstream party can ...