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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Nabataean And Roman Survey Pottery From The Karak Plateau, Jordan, Meagan Kelley Ayer Dec 2006

Nabataean And Roman Survey Pottery From The Karak Plateau, Jordan, Meagan Kelley Ayer

Masters Theses

The Karak Plateau lies at the foot of the Dead Sea in central Jordan. It has been occupied continuously from the Paleolithic and has been the sit of several cultures including the Moabite, Nabataean, Roman and Byzantine. It is thus uniquely suited to the investigation of land use and resource exploitation over time. During the Roman period, the plateau was densely populated by a variety of settlements among them small farms, large agriculture villages and military posts as well as nomadic pastoralists; thus the use of land and resources in the plateau encompassed great variability (Green 2002: 48).

This study ...


The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento Dec 2006

The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento

Masters Theses

Researchers have established a strong association between the frequency and duration of environmental reward and affective mood states, particularly in relation to the etiology, assessment and treatment of depression. Given behavioral theories that outline environmental reward as a strong mediator of affect and the unavailability of an efficient, reliable and valid self-report measure of environmental reward, we developed the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) and examined its psychometric properties. In Experiment one, an exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional 10-item measure with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability. When administered to a replication sample, confirmatory factor analysis suggested an excellent ...


The Spatial Form Of Post Apartheid Cape Town, Elizabeth Rebekah Trail Dec 2006

The Spatial Form Of Post Apartheid Cape Town, Elizabeth Rebekah Trail

Masters Theses

This thesis deals with the urban form of Cape Town, South Africa in the years following the end of apartheid. The apartheid government created a city that was racially segregated, and over the last twelve years the new democratic government has passed much legislation in an attempt to correct the distorted layout. The national and local policies call for compact sustainable cities that reintegrate the historically disadvantaged people and help bring them out of poverty. To see how effective the policies were in directing growth, I tracked development trends in Cape Town by using GIS to map the results of ...


Soapstone Vessel Chronology And Function In The Southern Appalachians Of Eastern Tennessee, Edward William Wells Iii Dec 2006

Soapstone Vessel Chronology And Function In The Southern Appalachians Of Eastern Tennessee, Edward William Wells Iii

Masters Theses

The role of soapstone along the South Atlantic Slope in Late Archaic societies is well researched; however, information concerning both the chronology and function of soapstone vessel use in the South Appalachian region is limited. Excavations at the Apple Barn site (40BT90) in eastern Tennessee has produced one of the largest assemblages of soapstone artifacts in the region. The results of radiocarbon dating, residue analysis (pollen, starch and phytoliths) (Apple Barn only), and vessel attribute analysis from this assemblage and the Iddins Site (40LD38) are used to reconsider regional soapstone chronology and vessel function. The results suggest that soapstone vessels ...


Mothers’ Attitudes About Childhood Nutrition Coverage In Magazines And Newspapers, Carrie Suzanne Baker Dec 2006

Mothers’ Attitudes About Childhood Nutrition Coverage In Magazines And Newspapers, Carrie Suzanne Baker

Masters Theses

This study explores mothers’ attitudes toward magazine and newspaper coverage of childhood nutrition issues. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in recent years along with media coverage of obesity and obesity issues. This growing concern has posed a problem for society and parents.

Focus group interviews and individual interviews were conducted with mothers who read magazines and newspapers. These interviews explored mothers’ nutrition habits, knowledge of obesity and, overall, their attitudes about childhood nutrition topics, such a childhood obesity, as they are presented in magazines and newspapers.


Behavioral Intention Determinants Towards Post-Secondary Education: Clues For Strategic Message Development, Stacia Elaine Couch Dec 2006

Behavioral Intention Determinants Towards Post-Secondary Education: Clues For Strategic Message Development, Stacia Elaine Couch

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore and identify factors that might increase the probability that a high school student will pursue post-secondary education. An understanding of these factors can help state government appropriately design policies, programs, and public awareness initiatives to persuade more youth to achieve higher levels of education. A review of persuasion and education literature revealed 17 possible variables as determinants of a student’s behavioral intention towards continuing education, seven of which were developed through factor analysis.

The data utilized in this study was collected by researchers in the Center for Business and Economic Research ...


Debating Development Help: Ngo Fieldworker Perspectives On Street And Urban Poor Children In Ghana, Richard D. Darby Dec 2006

Debating Development Help: Ngo Fieldworker Perspectives On Street And Urban Poor Children In Ghana, Richard D. Darby

Masters Theses

This ethnographic investigation of the non-governmental organization (NGO) Catholic Action for Street Children (CAS) questions the cultural appropriateness of its policies and practices. By situating CAS in a historical context of colonialism and structural adjustment reforms, I show how it is responsive to a legitimating environment that consists of private donors, international finance institutions, and the Ghanaian government, all of which put pressure on CAS to specifically target "street children" and to adopt a policy of choice that places primary responsibility for development on the individual child. I argue that the legitimating environment is neoliberal in orientation, especially with respect ...


Changes In Perceptions Of Social Support, Constructive Communication And Marital Satisfaction In Couples Participating In A Marital Enrichment Program, Nikki N. Frousakis Dec 2006

Changes In Perceptions Of Social Support, Constructive Communication And Marital Satisfaction In Couples Participating In A Marital Enrichment Program, Nikki N. Frousakis

Masters Theses

Marital enrichment programs have been gaining considerable recognition in the past several decades. Thousands of individuals participate in these programs yearly. However, the particular effects of enrichment programs are still under investigation, and many remain empirically unanalyzed and their effectiveness undetermined. Also, many dyadic interventions focus on helping couples improve their communication skills and become more socially supportive of their partner. This study explored changes in levels of perceived social support, constructive communication, and marital satisfaction in couples participating in a marital enrichment program, Marriage Alive. Couples who completed all 3 phases of the study (i.e., pre-seminar, post-seminar, 2 ...


An Analysis Of Bayesian Methods In Determining The Viability Of Perinatal Remains, Tiffanie Sue Cave Dec 2006

An Analysis Of Bayesian Methods In Determining The Viability Of Perinatal Remains, Tiffanie Sue Cave

Masters Theses

Bayes’ theorem is a conditional probability formula with the potential for aiding in the development of more accurate age-at-death estimations in perinatal remains. This investigation tested the validity of a Bayesian method for aging by applying the formula to 495 sets of historical Native American remains from several Arikara sites in South Dakota. The dates for these sites range from the 1600’s to the 1830’s. Dr. Oystein E. Olsen generously provided the reference sample data of 348 sets of perinatal remains from Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway collected between January 1988 and December 1998. The goal of ...


An International Corridor In The Making?: Immigrant-Owned Entrepreneurial Establishments In Birmingham, Alabama, Paul N. Mcdaniel Dec 2006

An International Corridor In The Making?: Immigrant-Owned Entrepreneurial Establishments In Birmingham, Alabama, Paul N. Mcdaniel

Masters Theses

Immigration is changing the U.S. South in unprecedented ways. The South is no longer nearly the exclusive domain of whites and blacks as Hispanics and Asians comprise increasingly influential minorities in towns and cities throughout the region. Immigrants, many of whom are recent arrivals, are choosing to start entrepreneurial business ventures rather than go to work for someone else. This research examines immigrant-owned entrepreneurial establishments along two business corridors in metropolitan Birmingham, Alabama. It answers the following questions: (1) Why is an international corridor developing as opposed to a single group ethnic enclave? (2) What initially brought immigrant-entrepreneurs to ...


Fields With Dreams: The Distribution Of Farmland With Publicly-Funded Conservation Easements In Pennsylvania, Amy Sue Hill Dec 2006

Fields With Dreams: The Distribution Of Farmland With Publicly-Funded Conservation Easements In Pennsylvania, Amy Sue Hill

Masters Theses

Conservation easements have played an increasingly significant role in the American movement to preserve farmland from urban development. Conservation easements are legal instruments that enable a landowner to sell his right to develop his property to an outside party, typically a government entity or a private land conservancy. The distribution of conservation easements used to preserve farmland is highly variable. Conservation easements often are found in regions where productive farmland and intense development pressure collide. Conservation easements are most common in places where both public and private sectors give strong financial and political support for conservation.

This thesis analyzes the ...


Early Literacy And Children With Special Needs: An Examination Of Resources In The Home Environment, Juli Meagan Dolezal Aug 2006

Early Literacy And Children With Special Needs: An Examination Of Resources In The Home Environment, Juli Meagan Dolezal

Masters Theses

Early literacy development of young children is an area of research that is receiving increasing attention from scholars in the fields of early childhood general and special education. However, researchers in both fields have failed to examine the broad contextual features of the home environment and ways that these features may facilitate or impede literacy development. In an attempt to close the gap on research on early literacy development of young children with special needs, a measurement tool was developed for the purposes of obtaining a more holistic representation of resources available in home environments and gathering information about possible ...


Magazine Messages And Teenage Perception Of Skin Cancer, Tanning, And Sun Safety, Anna Marlene Greene Aug 2006

Magazine Messages And Teenage Perception Of Skin Cancer, Tanning, And Sun Safety, Anna Marlene Greene

Masters Theses

Increasing skin cancer rates and a developing trend of tanning has emphasized the importance of sun safety, especially among youth. The purpose of this study is fourfold: (1) to explore the sun safety content of magazines with high teen readership, (2) to discover teenagers’ tanning behaviors, (3) to find their thoughts and feelings on magazine coverage of this issue, and (4) to learn their knowledge of the risks associated with sun exposure. Focus groups were held with 23 high-school-age students in eastern Tennessee. Understanding the barriers to changing this group’s behavior could be beneficial in developing effective persuasive messages.


A Study Of Political Activity Among Social Work Students, Elizabeth A. Shelton Aug 2006

A Study Of Political Activity Among Social Work Students, Elizabeth A. Shelton

Masters Theses

This localized study explored the level of political activity of students at the University of Tennessee College of Social Work. Students were asked to respond to several demographic questions and answer questions regarding the frequency with which they performed certain tasks of political activity. Additionally the study explored relevant literature to establish a framework of national political behavior and political behavior within the field of social work. Political behavior is most strongly predicted by the age of the student with little regard for race, gender, or religious background. Students with a higher level of family history of political interest and ...


A Histological Examination Of Odocoileus Virginianus For Forensic Application, Lindsay Hines Trammell Aug 2006

A Histological Examination Of Odocoileus Virginianus For Forensic Application, Lindsay Hines Trammell

Masters Theses

Few researchers have endeavored to approach the issue of bone histology in non-human specimen. In the forensic setting, it is oftentimes the norm to establish the origin of fragmentary remains as human or non-human; if the fragments are non-human then the analysis is usually said to be finished.

If the specimen does prove to be non-human, it is useful and important to learn the identity of the faunal species. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is common to the Eastern United States and is very often found in forensic settings, commingled with or alongside of human remains. This study thoroughly examines ...


Sexual Communication And Contraceptive Use In Adolescent Dating Couples, Laura M. Widman Aug 2006

Sexual Communication And Contraceptive Use In Adolescent Dating Couples, Laura M. Widman

Masters Theses

This study had two aims: first, to examine the relationship between general sexual communication and contraceptive use in sexually active adolescent romantic couples, and second, to explore predictors of open communication from characteristics of adolescent couples and individual adolescents. Data were drawn from 209 male-female couples dating a minimum of four weeks who participated in the Study of Tennessee Adolescent Romantic Relationships. Seventy-three adolescent dating couples (ages 14-21) that engaged in sexual intercourse and completed a sexual communication questionnaire were included in current analyses. Results indicated that nearly 30% of couples failed to use contraception at first intercourse and almost ...


Infidelity In Adolescent Romantic Relationships, Rebecca E. Furr Aug 2006

Infidelity In Adolescent Romantic Relationships, Rebecca E. Furr

Masters Theses

Infidelity within adolescent dating relationships is a commonplace behavior that has received very little empirical attention. The present study examines multiple facets of this behavior in a sample of 209 middle and late adolescent couples. An ecological model is used to explore factors related to the individual, relationship, and context in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. While multiple variables on all of these levels were significant in cross-sectional analysis, a few stood out as being important predictors of infidelity over time. In particular, participants who had a higher opinion of their own physical attractiveness were more likely to cheat at ...


Aerobic And Anaerobic Characteristics Of Competitive Junior Cyclists, John William Harrell Aug 2006

Aerobic And Anaerobic Characteristics Of Competitive Junior Cyclists, John William Harrell

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerobic and anaerobic characteristics of male, competitive junior cyclists. Ten, male competitive cyclists (15.1 ± 1.1 years old) from Central and East Tennessee volunteered to perform a maximal aerobic power (VO2max), Wingate anaerobic power, and lactate threshold (LT) tests. The cyclists were 167.1 ± 6.6 centimeters (cm) tall, had 53.9 ± 7.7 kilograms (kg) of body mass, and had 14.0 ± 4.9 % body fat. They had 1.8 ± 1.1 years of cycling and racing experience. The VO2max of these cyclists was 53.3 ± 6 ...


Psychosocial Correlates Of Methamphetamine Use, Greg Joseph Eisinger Aug 2006

Psychosocial Correlates Of Methamphetamine Use, Greg Joseph Eisinger

Masters Theses

Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a devastating problem which has been sweeping the United States from west to east and has reached epidemic proportion in many areas. Literature on the drug itself, its history, and effects are reviewed. The current project aimed to examine the psychosocial correlates of MA use using Hudson's Multi-Problem Screening Inventory (MPSI).

The MPSI was given to a control group of undergraduate social work students (n=17) and a group of past-year MA users (n=15). All participants supplied demographic information and completed a questionnaire on their MA-use habits. Differences between users and non users were ...


Women, Aging, And Media: How Women Are Impacted By Messages About Getting Older In Popular Culture, Teresa Shelley Bowman Aug 2006

Women, Aging, And Media: How Women Are Impacted By Messages About Getting Older In Popular Culture, Teresa Shelley Bowman

Masters Theses

There is a growing body of literature about the social and economic impact of baby boomers and how aging is affecting their perceptions. The immense wealth of this group (and their willingness to spend it) is a focal point for marketers and, therefore, for the media.

However, media portrayal of older women is paradoxical. Women of the boomer generation (born 1946-1964) are highly educated, financially strong, and more independent than previous generations. Studies indicate that these women will actually control much of the country's wealth in coming years and will be the ones responsible for deciding how it is ...


What's Up, Bitch?, Mary Elizabeth Asbury Aug 2006

What's Up, Bitch?, Mary Elizabeth Asbury

Masters Theses

This study examined the judgments rendered by college students about the term "bitch." While the term was once considered to be hate speech towards women, popular culture has made the term relatively common, often giving it a comical meaning (Lee, 1998). Because much of our popular culture is aimed at the 18-24 age groups, it follows that the term "bitch" is often not considered to be hate speech by this generation. In addition, women are now gaining status in Western cultures, and are entering fields once dominated by men. Women who were once considered to be outcasts and "uppity" for ...


Assessing The Impact Of The Interpersonal Communication Course, Michelle Epstein Garland Aug 2006

Assessing The Impact Of The Interpersonal Communication Course, Michelle Epstein Garland

Masters Theses

The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to identify a strategy for the assessment of the interpersonal communication course. As envisioned, the assessment process focused on key elements of the course: knowledge of concepts, theories, and research findings; development of interpersonal skills through verbal and written activities; and understanding of a range of interpersonal contexts. Through a course-embedded assessment procedure, the review process examined students, faculty, and the course itself through various forms of formal and informal, direct and indirect methods.

Findings revealed an increase in communication apprehension and decrease in interpersonal communication motives from the beginning of the term ...


A Paleoecological History Of West Pond On Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas, Based On Pollen And Charcoal Analysis Of Lake Sediments, Allison Jean Stork Aug 2006

A Paleoecological History Of West Pond On Great Abaco Island, The Bahamas, Based On Pollen And Charcoal Analysis Of Lake Sediments, Allison Jean Stork

Masters Theses

West Pond (26.2˚ N, 77.2˚ W, ca. 5 m elevation) is a shallow, alkaline pond within the pine rocklands and karst topography of Great Abaco Island, the Bahamas. For parallel core sections recovered from the pond in 2003 reveal marl sediments overlying peat deposits with a paleosol at the base. A radiocarbon date on a fragment of wood of Pinus caribaea Morelet from the paleosol indicates that the sediment record at West Pond spans the last ~2100 years.

Pollen grains preserved in the West Pond sediments indicate significant environmental change at the site. While pine pollen accounts for ...


The Construct Of Sensory Suggestibility: A Factor Analysis, Nicole Alexandra Perez Aug 2006

The Construct Of Sensory Suggestibility: A Factor Analysis, Nicole Alexandra Perez

Masters Theses

The construct of “suggestibility” has garnered great interest in the field of psychology over the years. It has been invoked as an explanatory construct in social, clinical, and forensic psychology. Yet, the nature of the construct and of its factor structure is unclear. In an earlier study we operationalized suggestibility by measuring conformity, interrogative suggestibility, placebo effects, persuasibility and hypnotizability. There was no discernible factor structure. In the present study, we narrowed our focus to sensory suggestibility alone expecting to find some cohesion among responsiveness to these types of suggestive situations by examining this phenomenon across eight sensory measures (tactile ...


Sufferings Which Have No Tongue: The Enculturation Of War, Trauma, And The Disappearing Body, Jason Lewis Simms Aug 2006

Sufferings Which Have No Tongue: The Enculturation Of War, Trauma, And The Disappearing Body, Jason Lewis Simms

Masters Theses

Warfare has always been vital to the state for a number of reasons. Those in power have a vested interest in maintaining control over not only war itself, but also information related to the conflict. One way they accomplish this is by making decisions that restrict, alter, tone-down, or otherwise change content related to human bodies in times of conflict that is meant for widespread dissemination through mainstream media and official government or military reporting. An extreme implementation of this power can make bodies disappear. Drawing on the work of Gusterson (2004), Ehrenreich (1997), Sontag (2003), Chomsky (2002), Scott (1990 ...


Feeding Behavior And Chick-A-Dee Calls In The Presence Of Predator Models: A Field Study Of Carolina Chickadees (Peocile Carolinensis), Ellen Jolene Mahurin Aug 2006

Feeding Behavior And Chick-A-Dee Calls In The Presence Of Predator Models: A Field Study Of Carolina Chickadees (Peocile Carolinensis), Ellen Jolene Mahurin

Masters Theses

This study describes feeding and chick-a-dee calling behavior of Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) in the presence of predator models. Chickadees occur in stable social groups over much of the year, and birds in social groups often indicate the presence of predators through alarm calling and calling related to mobbing behavior. Research with two other chickadee species has found a relationship between predator stimuli and calling behavior, including the note composition of chick-a-dee calls.

Here, I presented Carolina chickadees with avian models, and a “no model” control. The species represented by the avian models were the Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii ...


The New ‘Struggle To Get It Straight’: The Broadcasting Board Of Governors’ And The Voice Of America’S Search For Purpose And Structure In The War On Terror, Curtis Joel Owens Aug 2006

The New ‘Struggle To Get It Straight’: The Broadcasting Board Of Governors’ And The Voice Of America’S Search For Purpose And Structure In The War On Terror, Curtis Joel Owens

Masters Theses

This study examined the purpose of United States international broadcasting form its inception, and emphasized the changes in structure that have helped the broadcasters to fulfill that purpose. The study used a three-pronged methodology involving personal interviews, historical perspectives and participant observation.

The survey of the historical narratives regarding the Voice of America and the findings from personal interviews with key members of the Broadcasting Board of Governors staff revealed an ongoing debate about the purpose of a government-funded broadcaster. The two prominent sides are those who want international broadcasting to serve an advocacy role versus those who want it ...


Health Information Need And Seeking Of Older Adults Residing In An Independent-Living Retirement Community: A Qualitative Study, Sheri L. Edwards Aug 2006

Health Information Need And Seeking Of Older Adults Residing In An Independent-Living Retirement Community: A Qualitative Study, Sheri L. Edwards

Masters Theses

Among the information needs experienced by older adults, health information needs consistently achieve a high ranking. The purpose of this study was to examine the health information needs of older adults residing in an independent-living retirement community, as well as the information channels they use for information. Additionally, this study explored whether information channels satisfied older adults’ health information needs. Face-to-face in-depth interviews revealed that older adults experience a variety of health information needs; the emergence of those needs is attributed to varying circumstances. While the older adults in this study often use one or more information channels to satisfy ...


Fully Informed Jury Association V. County Of San Diego: A Practical Approach To Jury Nullification, Alyson Hope Dodd Kennedy May 2006

Fully Informed Jury Association V. County Of San Diego: A Practical Approach To Jury Nullification, Alyson Hope Dodd Kennedy

Masters Theses

A jury in a criminal trial typically must make a decision about the guilt of a given defendant. Occasionally, the jury moves one step beyond this basic task and chooses to exercise its nullification power. That is, the jury decides that, according to the evidence, a given defendant is guilty of the crime with which he or she is charged, but that applying the law to that defendant would, essentially, not be doing justice.

While much is known about the process by which juries make decisions, the specific factors that encourage juries to engage in nullification and the circumstances under ...


Triple Threat: My Journey As A Black Lesbian Athlete In Search Of Additional Black Lesbian Student-Athletes, Jillian Robin Ross May 2006

Triple Threat: My Journey As A Black Lesbian Athlete In Search Of Additional Black Lesbian Student-Athletes, Jillian Robin Ross

Masters Theses

Black lesbian women experience a triple threat based on three components of their identity – race, gender, and sexual orientation – places them on the lower ranks of the totem pole of U.S. social hierarchy. With this in mind, the purpose of this study was to explore how Black lesbian student-athletes negotiate three components of their identity – race, sexual orientation, and being a female NCAA Division I student-athlete – through semi-structured interviews in order to provide these student-athletes with a mechanism to have a voice and express their individual experiences. Since I experienced difficulty in obtaining participants that met the criteria, I ...