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Master's Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Estimating Treatment Effect Heterogeneity In A Comprehensive Microenterprise Intervention, Mary Gathungu May 2020

Estimating Treatment Effect Heterogeneity In A Comprehensive Microenterprise Intervention, Mary Gathungu

Master's Theses

Do cash transfer programs have heterogeneous treatment effects within the treatment group? Why do some households in these interventions seem to benefit more than others? What is the overall treatment effect of the Microenterprise Intervention? I address these questions through the study of a comprehensive microenterprise intervention program carried out in Kenya, Africa by a non-profit organization called the Village Enterprise Organization and I obtain economic outcome data from a randomized control trial that gives out conditional cash transfer that is conditional on business formation. The Microenterprise Intervention combines cash grants and mentorship and training to achieve long term economic ...


Green Gold: Avocado Price Shocks And Violence In Mexico, Katie Roett May 2020

Green Gold: Avocado Price Shocks And Violence In Mexico, Katie Roett

Master's Theses

The role of economic incentives in political armed conflict is well documented, but there is very little evidence on a growing and increasingly globalized form of violence: organized crime. Most existing research focuses on the impact of price shocks on wages and how this affects an individual’s opportunity cost to join an armed group or political movement. However, unlike other violent groups, organized criminal groups do not compete for political power, but profits in illegal markets. In Mexico, these groups have more than doubled in the past two decades, leading to an explosion of violence and record high 35 ...


The Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Ntca Immigrants’ Accessibility To Mexico’S Health Care System, Ken Nishikata May 2020

The Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Ntca Immigrants’ Accessibility To Mexico’S Health Care System, Ken Nishikata

Master's Theses

Mexico’s geographical location has made the country play a centric role in trans-national migration from the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) comprising Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. As a result, immigration has increasingly become a political issue for Mexico over the past decades[1]. Before the eruption of the Central American crisis in the 1980s, Mexico’s southern border with Guatemala was recognized for its openness. However, such a tolerating status-quo changed as the number of NTCA immigrants entering Mexico increased upon the exacerbation of the crisis that placed thousands of individuals in exile. Indeed, the turmoil during ...


The Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Ntca Immigrants' Accessibility To Mexico's Health Care System, Ken Nishikata May 2020

The Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Ntca Immigrants' Accessibility To Mexico's Health Care System, Ken Nishikata

Master's Theses

Mexico’s geographical location has made the country play a centric role in trans-national migration from the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) comprising Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. As a result, immigration has increasingly become a political issue for Mexico over the past decades[1]. Before the eruption of the Central American crisis in the 1980s, Mexico’s southern border with Guatemala was recognized for its openness. However, such a tolerating status-quo changed as the number of NTCA immigrants entering Mexico increased upon the exacerbation of the crisis that placed thousands of individuals in exile. Indeed, the turmoil during ...


Innovation Dynamics Of Cultural Production: Evidence In Rap Lyrics, James M. Zumel Dumlao, Junjie Lei, Emeka Nwosu, Li Yu Oon, Tsai Ling Jeffrey Wong, James Rising, Jesse Anttila-Hughes May 2020

Innovation Dynamics Of Cultural Production: Evidence In Rap Lyrics, James M. Zumel Dumlao, Junjie Lei, Emeka Nwosu, Li Yu Oon, Tsai Ling Jeffrey Wong, James Rising, Jesse Anttila-Hughes

Master's Theses

Culture is a driving force in organizing the structure of societies, and is conjoined with economic development. However, quantifying the impact of culture is difficult. Culture manifests itself in cultural production, through art, performance, music, etc. Innovation and influence in cultural production industries partially determines product quality. Using techniques from the “digitized humanities”, we agnostically identify informational distance to describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of innovation and influence in Rap music lyrics. Rap emphasizes lyricism and hometown pride more than other genres of popular music, and is interesting as a globally impactful manifestation of the racially segregated labor market in the ...


Cruise Ship Ports And Human Capital Development: The Case Of Mexico, Jorge Herrera May 2020

Cruise Ship Ports And Human Capital Development: The Case Of Mexico, Jorge Herrera

Master's Theses

The cruise ship industry, the fastest-growing segment in the leisure travel market, has contributed significantly to the economic transformation of developing countries, particularly in the Caribbean Basin. This paper applies a difference-in-differences methodology to examine the causal impact of the introduction of cruise ship ports on human capital development in Mexico, as reflected by educational attainment. Using variations in school enrollment, segregated by gender and age across states and municipalities, I find that the economic consequences derived from this form of tourism do not translate into incremental, permanent improvements in all quality of life indicators considered, most saliently in schooling ...


The Effect Of Sex Of Firstborn Children On Fertility Preferences, Lauren Lamson May 2020

The Effect Of Sex Of Firstborn Children On Fertility Preferences, Lauren Lamson

Master's Theses

Fertility rates around the world are falling at the same time that male-skewed sex ratios at birth are on the rise. The individual fertility choices people make contribute to this inverse relationship, exacerbating the problem of “missing women” as well as a number of other adverse social and economic effects. The decision to have a child is extremely complex. Distilling the interaction between fertility and sex compositional preferences, fertility levels, and gender norms is an important step toward understanding both the reproductive choices people make as well as the formation of fertility preferences. I use individual-level data from the Demographic ...


Online And Offline Identity Gaps: Cross-Contextual Predictors And Psychological Outcome, Ningyang Wang Apr 2020

Online And Offline Identity Gaps: Cross-Contextual Predictors And Psychological Outcome, Ningyang Wang

Master's Theses

Using Communication Theory of Identity as a framework, this study compared an individual’s online and offline personal-enacted identity gap and examined the effect of each personal-enacted identity gap on individuals’ psychological well-being, as well as tested four cross-contextual predictors for online and offline personal-enacted identity gaps.

Survey data were collected from 214 participants on Amazon M-Turk. A sequence of hypotheses was tested. A questionnaire used for measuring individuals’ online personal-enacted identity gap was generated.

The result suggested individuals experience larger personal-enacted identity gap offline, which significantly negative predict individuals’ psychological well-being, whereas online personal-enacted identity gap positively predicts psychological ...


“Making The World A Better Place To Live In”: Hattiesburg Women’S Literary Organizations And The Formation Of A Progressive Southern City, 1884-1945, Daniella Kawa Apr 2020

“Making The World A Better Place To Live In”: Hattiesburg Women’S Literary Organizations And The Formation Of A Progressive Southern City, 1884-1945, Daniella Kawa

Master's Theses

This study examines the activity and impact of white women’s literary clubs in Hattiesburg, Mississippi between 1884 and the end of World War II in 1945. This project examines to what extent women adhered to or broke away from societal norms of the time by involving themselves in intellectually stimulating groups with other women, especially in response to rapidly changing standards of femininity and womanhood during the Progressive era. Women’s literary clubs reveal patterns of women moving out of the home and into a public role, in addition to signifying the new ways in which women fit themselves ...


Malaria Risk On Ancient Roman Roads: A Study And Application To Assessing Travel Decisions In Asia Minor By The Apostle Paul, Daniel C. Browning Jr Apr 2020

Malaria Risk On Ancient Roman Roads: A Study And Application To Assessing Travel Decisions In Asia Minor By The Apostle Paul, Daniel C. Browning Jr

Master's Theses

This study models malaria risks for travelers on ancient Roman roads with the goal of providing a tool for historical assessment of travel accounts from antiquity. The project includes: identification of malaria risk factors and associated spatial datasets, malaria risk model construction, verification and validation against available pre-eradication data, overlay of ancient Roman road data, and an initial case-study application to the journeys of the Apostle Paul, as narrated in the New Testament book, Acts of the Apostles (Acts). The project is intentionally cross-disciplinary in bringing the technical capabilities of GIS to the task of evaluating nuanced textual sources for ...


Barriers To Health: Understanding The Barriers Faced By Community Intervention Projects, Vera Landrum Apr 2020

Barriers To Health: Understanding The Barriers Faced By Community Intervention Projects, Vera Landrum

Master's Theses

Health disparities affect significant portions of the population and are most often experienced by marginalized communities (Wilkin, 2013). Health disparities are also impacted by geographical location, and hunger often affects rural areas (Dutta, Anaele, & Jones, 2013; Rural Health Information Hub, 2017). This study aims to understand how nonprofit organizations focused on addressing food insecurity disseminate information to members of the local community and how the input of community members impacted the overall food insecurity campaign. This study was conducted by interviewing five nonprofit directors and conducting three focus groups with clients of the. aforementioned organizations. The author found that while organizations attempted ...


Willingness To Seek Professional Help For Suicidal Thoughts: The Role Of Masculine Norms And Self-Stigma In Service Members, Samantha E. Daruwala Apr 2020

Willingness To Seek Professional Help For Suicidal Thoughts: The Role Of Masculine Norms And Self-Stigma In Service Members, Samantha E. Daruwala

Master's Theses

Given the high rate of suicide, it is important to understand what barriers are preventing service members from seeking professional help for suicidal thoughts. Self-stigma and conformity to masculine norms, which are evident in the military culture, have been demonstrated as barriers to care in civilians. This study sought to better understand how these two factors are related to willingness to seek professional help for suicidal thoughts and a personal-emotional problem among service members. Specifically, we (1) identified service members’ willingness to seek help from a variety of sources for suicidal thoughts and a personal-emotional problem, (2) examined how conformity ...


The Development And Exploration Of A Twelve-Factor Model Of Motivations For Using Substances, Taylor Altenberger Apr 2020

The Development And Exploration Of A Twelve-Factor Model Of Motivations For Using Substances, Taylor Altenberger

Master's Theses

The existing literature suggests inconsistent and limited application of various salient motives to use substances across substance classes and has been further limited by only measuring substance use motives by the frequency at which one uses for a given reason. The purpose of this study was the development and initial validation of the Motivations for Substance Use Questionnaire (MUSQ). The MUSQ was intended to be a more comprehensive measure identifying motives to use that have been selectively included in some measures and expanding the breadth of substances addressed. We also aimed to index and test cognitive aspects of the motives ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair Apr 2020

An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair

Master's Theses

Methods in biological anthropology have made tremendous leaps in recent years and with the increasing rise in technology there is no reason to suspect that this trend will be decreasing. Particularly methods in 3D digitization have not only increased but have also become more accessible in bioarchaeology. One method, photogrammetry, offers bioarcheologists a unique opportunity to easily collect and process cranial metric and non-metric data that can be used to quantify biological relatedness. While these advances are expected to continue, it is ignorant to assume that they represent a fail proof solution. A critical examination is necessary to quantify the ...


The Effects Of Optimism On Anti-Natalism, Faith L. Brown Apr 2020

The Effects Of Optimism On Anti-Natalism, Faith L. Brown

Master's Theses

People sometimes hold opinions on others’ choices, particularly their reproductive decisions, as these choices are important decisions that impact the lives of multiple people. People can believe that everyone should have children (pro-natalism) or that everyone should refrain from having children (anti-natalism) or they can hold no position on the reproduction of others. The main justification for anti-natalism is that life contains more suffering than pleasure and that it would be better if new people were not born to experience this suffering. This is why some theorists argue that people reject anti-natalism irrespective of how bad life is because of ...


Sustainable Wastewater Treatment In The American South, Caroline Miles Apr 2020

Sustainable Wastewater Treatment In The American South, Caroline Miles

Master's Theses

Aging infrastructure and changing social and environmental conditions are two factors that are currently pushing wastewater treatment towards more sustainable methods. This thesis investigates what sustainable treatment technologies are being used in the American South through a focused sample of six cities across the region: Austin, Texas; Fayetteville, Arkansas; Hattiesburg, Mississippi; Memphis, Tennessee; Ocean Springs, Mississippi; and Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The study assesses the types of sustainable treatment technology utilized at each facility, the perspectives of wastewater professionals about the technology, and the economic and environmental sustainability of each facility. Data was collected through direct observations on tours of the facilities ...


Counter Stories In Counterpublics: Exploring Documentary As A Form Of Activist Media To Counter Reinforced Stereotypes About The Criminalization Of Black Men, Tirrea S. Billings Apr 2020

Counter Stories In Counterpublics: Exploring Documentary As A Form Of Activist Media To Counter Reinforced Stereotypes About The Criminalization Of Black Men, Tirrea S. Billings

Master's Theses

A story told can change the world. Storytelling has been around since the inception of human communication and has been used as a tool to educate, preserve cultural values, and make meaning of our existence. More recently, storytelling has been used in activist and social change movements. One approach to social justice storytelling is through filmmaking: creating films as a tool to disrupt, interrupt, amplify, organize, shift power and create lasting, transformative change in communities. Specifically, social justice-oriented documentary film and media can be used as a vehicle for those who are in counterpublic spaces to argue against mainstream discourses ...


Testing A New Photovoice Model: A Meta-Analysis On Participatory Action Research Methodologies In Geographical Research, Nolan Bergstrom Apr 2020

Testing A New Photovoice Model: A Meta-Analysis On Participatory Action Research Methodologies In Geographical Research, Nolan Bergstrom

Master's Theses

Photovoice was developed in the early 1990s for use in public health studies evolving from participatory action research (PAR) and photographic methods. It attempts to mitigate the power dynamics between researcher and researched by allowing participants to be the primary knowledge producers. The Photovoice methodology has left open methodological avenues to implement Photovoice as a research tool in many fields. This research aimed to modify the Photovoice methodology to include mobile technology, social media to create a new model of Photovoice.

This research was conducted in K.I. Sawyer, MI, a small town in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan over ...


“College Is Mandatory In Our Family”: A Study Of Homeschooler Anticipatory Memorable Messages About College, Gina S. Reynolds Apr 2020

“College Is Mandatory In Our Family”: A Study Of Homeschooler Anticipatory Memorable Messages About College, Gina S. Reynolds

Master's Theses

Homeschooling in the United States provides many children with a unique educational background that may present different perspectives when considering college attendance. This thesis examines the memorable messages homeschool students received regarding college, where these messages came from, and the perceived impact they have on the student. Memorable messages are easily recalled words that participants receive from others, which they believe has an impact on their attitudes and decisions (Cranmer & Myers, 2017). This study also looks at the messages homeschool students received from the media and the effect these have on their college choices. A qualitative study gathered reports of ...


Understanding The Resiliency Of The Kalamazoo Mall, Emily Szymanski Apr 2020

Understanding The Resiliency Of The Kalamazoo Mall, Emily Szymanski

Master's Theses

The Kalamazoo Mall is the first pedestrian mall in the United States. Since then the Mall has gone through many changes. The Mall was first created to be a completely pedestrian-friendly space closed off to cars and to help revitalize the downtown after suburban mall competition. However, the Mall did not keep people downtown as expected, resulting in the reintroduction of automobile traffic in two of the four blocks of the Mall. In spite of these changes Although there have been several changes, the Mall still exists today while many pedestrian Malls have closed. This thesis seeks to understand the ...


Creating A Distribution Model Of Invasive Rusty Crayfish (Faxonius Rusticus) In Michigan Streams Using Publically Accessible Data, Robert C. Homan Apr 2020

Creating A Distribution Model Of Invasive Rusty Crayfish (Faxonius Rusticus) In Michigan Streams Using Publically Accessible Data, Robert C. Homan

Master's Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to create a predictive model of habitat suitability for the invasive rusty crayfish (Faxonius rusticus) throughout the state of Michigan. F. rusticus often outcompete and extirpate native crayfish species, so understanding their habitats of success is instrumental in monitoring vulnerable ecosystems. Michigan State University and the Michigan DNR conducted extensive field surveys across 461 streams sites from 2014-2016. This project compares this field data set to data from publicly available national datasets with the purpose of revealing the ecosystems most vulnerable to the introduction of F. rusticus. The pattern of F. rusticus habitat at ...


Social And Demographic Drivers Impacting Family Planning And Family Size In Buraydah City, Saudi Arabia, Sami Abdulkarim Alwulayi Apr 2020

Social And Demographic Drivers Impacting Family Planning And Family Size In Buraydah City, Saudi Arabia, Sami Abdulkarim Alwulayi

Master's Theses

The goal of this research is to identify factors impacting changes in family size for medium-size cities in Saudi Arabia. Since the initial comprehensive development plans were adopted in the 1970s, Saudi society has changed rapidly in many different ways, and demographic change is one of the most noticeable. This mixed methods research is based on an online survey conducted in the summer of 2019 of 560 married couples and their families living within the 29 neighborhoods of Buraydah City, Saudi Arabia. Specifically, this research examines socioeconomic and demographic conditions related to family planning, as well as collecting perspectives on ...


Examination Of The Impact Of Contingent Praise And Monetary Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation And Creative Performance, Merrilyn Akpapuna Apr 2020

Examination Of The Impact Of Contingent Praise And Monetary Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation And Creative Performance, Merrilyn Akpapuna

Master's Theses

Despite many decades of debate, the question of whether or not extrinsic motivation is detrimental to intrinsic motivation and creativity continues to spark discussion among professionals (Cameron & Pierce, 1994). This is an important issue for business owners who do not want to stifle creativity and intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase productivity. Even though many authors have labelled extrinsic motivation as archaic and harmful (Deci, 1971; Kohn, 1993; Pink, 2009), the available empirical evidence does not match such levels of condemnation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of several interventions (performance-contingent money, performance-contingent praise, and performance-contingent money plus praise) in increasing creativity. Two within-subject multiple reversal designs were used to examine the impact that these interventions had on 27 college students. A hybrid within subject and between group analysis was carried out. The within ...


Use Of Gis Spatial Analysis, Remote Sensing, And Unmanned Aerial Systems In Determining The Susceptibility To Wildfires In Barber County, Kansas, Kara Sill Jan 2020

Use Of Gis Spatial Analysis, Remote Sensing, And Unmanned Aerial Systems In Determining The Susceptibility To Wildfires In Barber County, Kansas, Kara Sill

Master's Theses

Wildfires are becoming more frequent each year not only in the United States, but throughout the world. Barber County, Kansas experienced a devastating wildfire in March 2016, and continues to be at risk of wildfires during the fire season months. This study involved creating a functional GIS Database with layers corresponding to communication, transportation, and infrastructure throughout the county. This will allow responders and officials to have one unified reference space, which will facilitate communication and navigation. Within the ArcGIS environment, route maps can be created to show potential routes and quickest drive time to the scene of the emergency ...


A Karst Feature Predictability Model Within Barber County, Kansas, Gary M. Kelner Jan 2020

A Karst Feature Predictability Model Within Barber County, Kansas, Gary M. Kelner

Master's Theses

This research consisted of two topics: 1) geographic predictive models of karst features and 2), a petrographic study examining the lithology of the study area. The study area is a privately owned ranch in the Gypsum Hills of Barber County, Kansas and is known to have karst features. Two predictive models for karst features were utilized. Previously identified features, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery aided in the creation of these predictive models. These predictability models also used the ESRI ArcMap software platform. The data for these models consists of slope ...


Uncovering The Depression Treatment Gap: The Role Of Motivation To Change, God Image, And Religious Affiliation, Cyrus Chiasson Jan 2020

Uncovering The Depression Treatment Gap: The Role Of Motivation To Change, God Image, And Religious Affiliation, Cyrus Chiasson

Master's Theses

Research analyzing factors that are indicative of treatment seeking for depression is warranted. In the United States, approximately 70% of individuals with depression do not receive treatment. The aim of the current study is to evaluate motivation to change, God image, and religious affiliation as predictors of current treatment engagement for depression. Motivation to change has previously been evaluated as a predictor of treatment outcome for depression but not as a predictor of current treatment engagement. Additionally, previous research indicates religious involvement is associated with less depressive symptomology but is in turn related to negative views towards mental health treatment ...


Dear Mama, These Cops Don’T Understand Me: The Influence Of Mental Health Stigma On Youth Incarceration, Ashley Lockwood Jan 2020

Dear Mama, These Cops Don’T Understand Me: The Influence Of Mental Health Stigma On Youth Incarceration, Ashley Lockwood

Master's Theses

Youth within the juvenile justice system have a higher prevalence of mental illness when compared to the general population, with some literature revealing up to 80% of incarcerated youth possess a diagnosable disorder (Shufelt & Cocozza, 2006; Underwood & Washington, 2016). Today, mental health stigma is widely prevalent and results in prejudice, discrimination, lowered self-esteem, and other negative outcomes for individuals struggling with mental health related issues (Corrigan & Watson, 2002; Dalgin & Gilbride 2003). With this in mind, the role mental health stigma plays in the lives of youth in the juvenile justice system should not be overlooked. Although stigma towards adult mental health is a well-studied area, stigma of child and adolescent mental health is an area that remains largely under-conceptualized and underresearched (Heflinger & Hinshaw, 2010). Thus, the current study seeks to examine the perceptions of youth within the juvenile justice system regarding their own experience with mental illness stigma. Participants were sampled from the Kansas Juvenile Correctional Facility (KJCC). Youth were asked to complete several questionnaires to assess their views toward mental illness as a whole, personal experiences with stigma, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), feelings toward available mental health resources at the facility, and the role of mental illness stigma in their incarceration. First, researchers hypothesized youth with greater self-stigma would indicate stigma played a greater role in their incarceration than those youth who indicate less self-stigma. Next, researchers hypothesized youth with a high number of adverse childhood experiences would indicate stigma had a greater influence on their incarceration. Finally, researchers hypothesized perceived self-stigma would be positively correlated with perceived stigma of mental illness overall. i The hypotheses of the current study were found to be non-significant. Thus, exploratory analyses were conducted. When assessing only those youth indicating an experience with internalized stigma of a mental illness, ACEs were able to predict the influence mental health stigma had on incarceration. The more a youth indicated feeling the presence of internalized stigma, the more they felt treatment surrounding their mental illness influenced their incarceration. Despite lacking support for original hypotheses, the current study begins to shine light into mental health, trauma, and treatment experiences of juvenile justice-involved youth. While youth perceptions of mental illness were overall positive in the current study, stigma of mental illness continues to plague society as a whole (see Corrigan & Watson, 2002; Muralidharan et al., 2017). Future studies in this area should continue to examine how these experiences and others guide youth into the system.


State Park Selection As Determined By User Health, Connor Phelan Jan 2020

State Park Selection As Determined By User Health, Connor Phelan

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether state park difficulty affected location of travel. This study was conducted at three state park locations within the United States. Surveys and on-site examinations were made at the following locations; Wilson State Park, Kansas, Petit Jean State Park, Arkansas, and Kiholo State Park, Hawaii. Park locations were chosen by varying levels of terrain difficulty, as well as a rating from the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum. Participants were asked to report data via iPads on exercise habits, mobility limiting impairments, and frequency of exercise so a ranking of the healthiest participants could be ...


The Impact Of Socio-Economic Status, Life History, And Biological Sex On Affective Empathy In Adults, Shadow Love, Shadow R. Love Jan 2020

The Impact Of Socio-Economic Status, Life History, And Biological Sex On Affective Empathy In Adults, Shadow Love, Shadow R. Love

Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

A discussion of affective (or emotional) empathy as it is impacted by socioeconomic status (SES), life history, and biological sex is presented. The current study examined a gap in prior research by examining the interaction between these three variables and affective empathy. Participants were 504 adults between the ages of 18-68, with average age of 37 and primarily biological sex male (64%). Ethnicity varied with the majority as White/Caucasian (68.8%) followed in descending response rate by Hispanic or Latino/a, Black or African American, Asian, Native American or American Indian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander and ...


The Impact Of Berrien Springs Water Types On Multiethnic Hair Textures, Ralna M. Simmonds Jan 2020

The Impact Of Berrien Springs Water Types On Multiethnic Hair Textures, Ralna M. Simmonds

Master's Theses

This thesis documents an explorative study into the effect of water from various Berrien Springs water sources on the multiethnic hair texture of Andrews University students/faculty. Participants were living in the area for at least five months, whether originally from the United States or other countries of the world. The theory informing this study is the Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) by Burgoon (1976). EVT is a communication theory that examines the reaction to behaviors within nonverbal communication that are expected or unexpected in a positive or negative light. In this context EVT has not been used to examine nonverbal ...